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JOHN S. TAYLOE, 17 Ann-Street. 

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1853, by 
In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the United States, 
for the Southern District of New- York. 


16 : Spruce-street. 

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In seeKing out Materials for a work of this kind, embracing 
a period of nearly two centuries, it must be obvious to the 
reader, that it has been attended with much difficulty, as 
valuable Eecords have been lost, which would have greatly 
aided and facilitated the publication. 

Tradition has been the source, from whence much infor- 
mation has been derived, of a highly interesting and amusing 
character, and which could not, possibly, have been obtained 
from authentic records. 

We have, however, under every discouragement, labored to 
present a variety of subjects of the deepest interest, from 
the Settlement of the Island, to the breaking out of the 
American Eevolution ; at which period we have shewn, that 
Newport had attained to a high degree of celebrity, and stood 
unrivalled by any City or Town in the Colonies. 

We have, also, brought down events until within a few 
years, in order to give the reader the opportunity of enjoying 
all the advantage which was to be gathered from the reminis- 
censes of the past. 

To the Antiquarian, this work will be highly interesting, as 
it will be found to contain much valuable information ; and 
prove extremely amusing to every class of readers, from the 
variety of subjects which it contains. 

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This work being published by subscription, we have added 
a list of those subscribing, whose names were transmitted to us 
prior to its going to press, since which numerous others have' 
been handed to the Agents, but not as yet transmitted to us, 
which precludes their appearing with the rest. 

As we have among our Subscribers many celebrated names, 
either in connection with Ehode Island, or from other causes, 
we have, in order to ^dd to th^l interest] of the work, given a 
fac-simile of their respective signatures. 

The Author's acknowledgments are due to the many friends 
who have aided him in the progress of the work, and more 
particularly to David Melville, Esq., iand B. B. Howl and, 
Esq. ; also for information gleaned from the Notes of the late 
Henry Bull, E^q., and Boss's "Historical Discourse".; also to 
many other gentlemen, who have taken a lively interest in this 

Newport, E. L, 1853. 

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"f [iKiir 

Pescription of Aquedneck, now Rhode Island. 17 

Settlement of the Island 18 

Names of the First Proprietors « .....„..,.„ 20 

Mr. Ooddington elected Governor 21 

Intolerant Proceedings regarding Religion 23 

Charter of Incorporation 24 

Oath. of Incorporation . . . , , ib 

The Purchase of the Island , , . ^ . . 25 

Fac-simile of Miantunomu's Mark for Signature. .......* ,..o», . ib 

Fac-simile of Cannonicus's Mark for Signature , o ...»,- . ib 

Fac-simile of Wonimenatony's Mark for Signature. ........ ., 26 

Death of Governor Nicholas Easton . , , 28 

Laying put the town of Newport » o. 29 

Public School Instituted. 30 

Appointment of Solicitor and Attorney-General. . . , . , ib 

Mr. William Dyre appointed Attorney- General 31 

Mr. Hugh Burt appointed Solicitor-General ib 

The Island Independent- 5. , • • - - • ■• - • - ^2 

Encouragement of. Settlers.,. . .... ...................... 34 

A Seal appointed for the State = 35 

First Arrival of Quakers on the Island. 36 

Massachusetts Intolerance and Cruel tjr ..... . ......... 37 

First Quarterly Meeting of Friends in New England- ............ 39 

Middletown Asyluni ^ ....... . . ib 

The Last of the Sect of Gortonians . . » fe[ 

First Insolvency on the Island ............. 41 

County Jail Erected - - . . . 42 

Death of Cannonicus, the Indian Sachem ib 

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Aquedneck Indians 43 

Philip of Mount Haup, an Indian Sachem 44 

Death of Miantunomu, Chief Sachem of the Narragansett Indians. 45 

Death of Oanonchet, Son of Miantunomu 47 

First Charter of Incorporation from the British Crown 48 

Character of Roger Williams. 49 

Longevity of the First Settlers of the Island 53 

Shortness of Supply and Dearness of Provisions 54 

Mr. William Brenton, President of the Colony 55 

Death of Mr. Brenton 56 

A Bellman Chosen 57 

A Seal Procured for the Town, with the Device of a Sheep 58 

The Town of Newport Surveyed, in 1782 ib 

The Cod Fishery in Newport ib 

Easton's Point 59 

Peter Pylatt, a negro, executed for a Rape 60 

Colony House Built - - 61 

First Market-house Erected ib 

Circus, for Equestrian Performances, Opened 62 

The Crewless Vessel - - 63 

Execution of Pirates - - 64 

Names of Pirates Executed . « » . ^ . . » .. 65 

First Discovery of Block Island ib 

Death of William Jeffray, supposed to have been one of King 

Charles the First's Judges 66 

Distressing Accident - — 67 

Mr. John Clarke, and the Charter of 1663 68 

The Reception of the Charter by the People of Newport 72 

Seal of the Colony 73 

The Chair of State , 74 

A Tale of Times Past, — an Ode on the Chair of State. ib 

Laws passed by the General Assembly in 1663-4 76 

Arrest of Mr. John Clarke 77 

Mr. Holmes Suffered Flogging for Conscience-sake 78 

Death of Mr. John Clarke ib 

Bequest of Mr. John Clarke 79 

Judge Samuel Clarke . ..,, 80 

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The Commercial Relations of Newport .., 81 

The West India Trade 83 

Custom-House Records 84 


Oustom-House Instructions 85 

Amount of Molasses Imported S6 

"Warrant for Sale of Goods . » 87 

Power of Attorney 88 

Flight of Mr. Rome for Protection, on the Stamp Act Excitement, 

to a British Man of War 89 

Henry Collins, Esq. 90 

Market-house Erected in Newport 91 

Charles Dudley, Esq., Collector of Customs, flies for Refuge on 

board a Man-of-war. . — , 92 

Loss of the Brig " Dolphin,'' 93 

Loss of the Privateer "Tay,"' 94 

Events in the War with France 95 

Capture of Louisburgh, and the Surrender of the Island of Cape 

Breton by the British ib 

War Declared by England against France 96 

Samuel Cranston, Esq o 97 

Horrid Butchery by Pirates ib 

Return of S. Cranston, Esq., from Piratical Slavery 97 

Death of Governor Cranston 99 

The Marine Society Instituted. 100 

Masonic Fraternity in Newport - 101 

Origin of the Decatur Family 102 

Slave Trade in Newport 103 

Slaver of G. and F. Malborn ib 

Annual Election of a Governor by the Slaves 104 

Treatment of Slaves in Newport ib 

Remarks on Slavery 106 

Rejoicings on the Repeal of the Stamp Act , 110 

Linen Manufacture Carried on in Newport Ill 

Extracts from Funeral Sermon on Mrs, Wanton 112 

Genealogy of the Malborn and Brinley Families 115 

Church Erected in Brooklyn, Connecticut 116 

Attack of Minute-Men on Conmi'ssory George Brinley - 118 

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Kecord of Edward Brinley's Recovery, after beifig'shot through 

the Body with a Ramrod w 120 

Extract from the Will of Mrs. Sarah Reape 122 

Literary and Philosophical Institution Established 123 

Redwood Library Erected 125 

Presentation of Books to Redwood Library, by the English King 125 

Dr. E.. W, Ohanning, on Redwood Library 126 

Bishop Atterbury's Character of Bishop Berkley 126 

Interesting . Letter , of Bishop Berkley 127 

Poem, by Bishop. Berkley, *' On the Prospect of Planting Arts and 

Learning in. America? 128 

Bishop Berkley^s Description of the Hanging Rocks, situated near 

Sachusett Bay 129 

Death of Bishop Berkley. 130 

Elegant Country and Town Residences. : 132 

Description of the Splendid Mansion of Col. Godfrey Malborn. . . ib 

Col. Malborn's Residence Destroyed by Fire, in 1766 133 

Ancient Mode of Cooking Dunfish. 134 

First Fire Engine in Newport 135 

Samuel Elam, Esq., of Vaucluse . . . ... . ... , 136 

On the Aristocratic Feelings of the Inhabitants of Newport 137 

Sale, and Destruction of the '^ Endeavor," the Ship in which Oapt. 

Cooke circumnavigated the Globe. 138 

Cundall's Mills. ib 

Mr. Cundall Perishes in a Severe Snow Storm 139 

Lawton's Valley 140 

Count Seguin's Views on Seeing Newport. ib 

Count Seguin's Description of Miss Polly Leighton 141 

Ball given to the Ladies of Newport, by the French OflScers 142 

Memoirs of the Ward Family 143 

Richard Ward Elected Governor 144 

Commencement of the Political Strife, between Samuel Ward and 

Stephen Hopkins ib 

Propositions for Peace, made by Mr. Hopkins 145 

Monument to Richard Ward, Esq 147 

A Packet-ship Captured by a Refugee-boat 148 

Recapture of Packet-ship, by Capt. Nicholas Webster ib 

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One Young .Man, and Six Young Women, Accidentally Drowned, 149 

Franklin's Printing Press,. ..-.....- »......-.. ib 

Death of Governor Caleb. Carr . . . . . . i . . . . . i . . . ^ . ^ „ - . „ . . 150 

!Ehe Artists of Newport. .... .. ..........;. . . . . 151 

Ife Newport Bar. .,.-. ». 154 

Messrs, Johnson, .Martin Howard, jun., and Dr. MojSTat, (Stamp- 
Masters,). Hung and. Burnt in lE^Mgy. 156 

Gift of "Liberty-Tree. Lot^'.to the Town, by Mr. William Reed, . 157 

Mr- William .Ohanning, Attorney^General ..... 158 

J^udge Lightfoot, in .Newport. 159 

!Ehe: Medical Eaculty. 160 

Charter .Granted .to the Artillery Company *.........,. 163 

linportation of fish. :. . .w... 163 

Attractions of Newport for Fishing. 164 

Fishing Places, .and Anecdotes connected therewith, ....... . 165 

Account of a Remarkable Darkness which occurred, hence called 

the ^* Dark Day,^'. ,. „ 166 

€rreat Snow Storm and Intense Cold. ...,..,...,........, 167 

fheStone Mill... 168 

The Northuaen, descended from the Scandinavians, supposed to 

have Erected the Stone Mill, prior to the time of Columbus, ib 
Extract from the Will of Mr. Edward Pelham^ respecting the 

Stone. Mill. 170 

Analysis of the Cement or Mortar, used in the Stone Mill , 171 

Purgatory, near Newport, said to have no bottom, proved a fallacy 172 

David Melville, Esq., on the Stone Mill. ..,.,. ..,..., ib 

Letter from C, C. Rafn, Esq., R.S.N. A., at Copenhagen, relative to 

the Stone Mill. 173 

Tradition current among the Indians, of a Visit from White Men 

in Remoljo Ages » ,.. » ..,« 178 

The Descendants of Abraham 179 

Mr. Aaron Lopes Drowned in Scott's Pond ib 

Mr. Touro's Munificent Gift to Repair Redwood Library. ....... 180 

Honorable Conduct of Abraham Rod. Riviera, a Jewish Merchant ib 

Death of Mr. Moses Lopez, the Last Resident Jew in Newport. . 181 

Re-opening of the J-ewish Synagogue ,,,...., 182 

Anecdote of a Lady and her Lover^ at Hog Hole. ,„.„..„»<. o p = , . ib 

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First Equestrian Performances on Rhode Island .o -«„.„„, „ 183 

The Rev. Marmaduke Brown, Elected to Trinity Church ib 

Memoir of the Hon. Arthur Brown, LL.B. . . . „ 184 

Memoir of Baron Kinsale, of Ireland, (a native of Newport) 185 

Memoir of the Rev. William Rogers, D.D 186 

Memoir of the Auchmuty Family 187 

Memoir of the Minturn Family „.... „.... 189 

Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Wager 192 

Sir Charles Wager runs down a Privateer Schooner „ . . . . 193 

Anecdote of Capt. Hull and Admiral Wager. 194 

Events in the Revolution 195 

The Passing of the Infamous Stamp Act 196 

Dr. Franklin's Prediction respecting the Stamp Act, , . . . 197 

Associations formed in Newport, to use no goods imported from 

England 198 

Seizure of two Vessels and a Sloop, belonging to Connecticut, . . 199 
Destruction of the British Sloop '* Liberty," by the Populace of 

Newport , ». 200 

Boston Port Bill, Passed by the British Parliament.. 201 

Resolutions at a Town Meeting in Newport - 202 

Newport Harbor, a Rendezvous for the British Navy. 203 

Surrender of Ticonderoga, on Lake Champlain^ to the Continental 

Troops 204 

A Regiment Raised in Newport. ib 

Three hundred Minute-men Arrived, and Prevented the Seizure 

of Cattle = . 205 

Treaty between Admiral Wallace and the Town of Newport. ... ib 
Mr. Martin wantonly Shot by the British, whilst standing at his 

own door - — . . . . 206 

Mr. Edward Wanton Converted to Quakerism » 207 

BIr. John Wanton Elected Governor , „ . . . „ ib 

Letter from Hon. Stephen Hopkins, to the- Northern Part of the 

Colony 208 

Arrest of Tories, by General Lee * 209 

Commencement of the Siege of Quebec. 210 

Attack on the British Fleet in Newport Harbor, by Col. Richmond 211 
Prize Sloop Taken by Capt. Grimes, and sent to Providence. . „ . , , 212 

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Eetreat of the American Army from the Island 213 

British Troops Quartered upon the Inhabitants 214 

Anecdote of Mr. Anthony 215 

Tyrannical Conduct of General Prescott. ib 

Seizure of General Prescbtt, by Colonel Barton , 216 

Quako Honyman, a negro, guide to Colonel Barton ib 

Seizure of Major Barrington 217 

Gen. Prescott Cow-hided by a Pomfret Landlord ib 

Imprisonment and Liberation of Colonel Barton 218 

Secret Expedition of General Spencer against Rhode Island 219 

Surrender of General Burgoyne ib 

Secret Correspondence at Little Compton 220 

Arrival of the French Fleet, under Count D'Estaign 221 

Atrocity of William Crosson, a Refugee 223 

Murder of Judge Taggart's Son 223 

The '' LanguedoCj" French Ship, Dismasted 224 

Great Snow Storm, called the " Hessian Storm," 225 

The Treaty of 1778 226 

Severe Action at Butt's Hill 228 

Retreat of the Americans, under General Sullivan 229 

Rhode Island taken Possession of by the British 230 

Burning of the Barracks at Fort Adams 231 

The Records of the Town of Newport, returned to the Authorities 

by Gen. Carlton.... 231 

Houses Destroyed by the British 232 

Disaffected Persons Banished 233 

Arrival of the Oneida Indians at Newport 234 

Arrival of General Washington at Newport 235 

Address of the Citizens to Gen. Washington 236 

Gen. Washington's Answer to the Address »- 237 

Execution of a French Artilleryman 238 

Death of the Chevalier de Fayelle 239 

The Supremacy and Independence of the United States, acknow- 
ledged by England 239 

Memoir of Francis Melborn, Sen - . 240 

Anecdote of John Murphy 241 

Anecdote of Capt. Hood, of Newport. 242 

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Escape of Capt. Reed from a Prison Ship. ..;,..,..., = »,....„„. 24S 

Death of Crandall, the Tory. .,, . . ............. 244 

Capture of the British Privateer '' Tartar," . . , ^ . « . : ib 

Capture of the British Store-ship " Elephant," «. . „ ... .-...„, ib 

Brutal Murder by the British „ . .. ...... ... ........ 246 

Estimate of the Population in 1774. . ...... ...:. . .^ ..,-«..-.,.. ^ . ib 

Application of Refugees to Settle. . ...-,.,.,..... . , , » . . . . .„ . w 247 

Remarks on Past Events ..... . . . . . ..:...,.,,.• .; .... . .; 248 

Election of Corporate Officers ;. . ,. . , .. . .- .... ... .>« . w- -. - -- 249 

Votes on the Constitution ^ . . . . . ..,...« . . . . . . 4 . ; 250 

Introduction of Paper Money . ....-,.. - . , . . 251 

Paper Money made a Legal Tender ^ ....... .. . „ 252 

Money Difficulties. .......;. ....... 253 

Provision made for Transfer of United States' Stock. ............ 254 

Slavery of Colored. People Abolished . 255 

Washington's Prophetic Warning! ...„,...,,....„. 256 

Fallacy of Abolitionism. . . . . . . .-,. ;.-.-....-., • - - -- 257 

Foreign Trade of Newport, ...... ....... ...-.-.-...... . ........ 258 

Packet Accommodation, .,.,.,.,.,.,....-..... ib 

Uncle Tom Townsend's Coffee-house „ .... 259 

Loss of the Spanish Brig " Minerva/' „ . , . 260 

War Declared with Britain. » --» 261 

Arrival of the British Frigate '' Macedonia,'' as a Prize... ,.,. 262 

Battle of Lake Erie, . . ... . ... . ... ..... .-."...- - - - - .-• - 263 

Address of Commodore Perry to his Seamen. . . 264 

Defeat of the British Fleet ,....,..., ........... ... 265 

Anecdote of a Newport Boy. ...^-.-.. 266 

Capture of a Fort at New Providence ,.,'...,,...„»-.„.>,.,„ 267 

Embargo placed on the Shipping ..*..,«.. . . . . . , .»--:-.-. 268 

Fort Green Taken Possession of by the American Army, . . . .... 269 

Reminiscenses of Dartmoor Prison, England ^ --.... ^ .. „ 270 

High Price of Provisions. . .... , . . ^ ^ » . . . . ,,. . , . - . .^ .;.,. ib 

Success of the War :, .. . . ,-...,.. 271 

Death, of Commodore Perry, . . .......... . ................ ..... 272 

Dreadful Gale. - . .,. . . 278 

Remarkable Deposit of Salt . . ... ......,,-.- ..... - . .. .... - 274 

Charitable Institutions ...... i .......*...... . » . ..... ,.,. ,» 275 

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Savings' Bank E&tablished. *....»... ........... 276 

Asylum for the Poor Voted for ............... ^ ..... ^ ... ^ ^ „ . 277 

Coaster's Harbor Island Selected for the Site of the Asylum. . ... 278 

Erection of Public Schoolj No. 1, ................... . . ..... . . 280 

School Fund -Instituted . . . . ........... . . . ................. . . . 281 

Reading of the Declaration of Independence. ........ . . ... ^ ... , 282 

Remarks on Independence Day . . . ... ..^ ........*........... ^ . 283 

Memoir of General C. T. James.. ,. ....... .............. 284 

The Asiatic Cholera. .... . . .... ...... ................. ,. ... 285 

Population Statistics, in 1850. 286 

Portsmouth Asylum Erected 287 

Discovery of Coal in Newport . . . . . . . . . ..... . ........... 288 

Heart Fire Club Established................... ......... 289 

Fires, from 1749 to 1848. .... .... .... . . 290 

Remarks on the Narragansett Indians 293 

Civil and Religious Liberty in Rhode Island \^^ 

Assent to the Constitution 297 

Dr. Mather's Views of the People of Newport 298 

Sovereignty of the People. 299 

Distribution of Public Lands. , 300 

Dr. Waterhouse on the Salubrity of the Climate of Rhode Island, 301 

List of Presidents and Governors of the Colony 303 

Appendix : — Trinity Church, Newport 307 

Queen Anne Presents a Bell to Trinity Church 308 

Arrival of Bishop Berkley at Newport 310 

Bishop Berkley's Bequest to Yale College 311 

Mr. Kay's Bequest for a School 312 

Death of the Rev. Mr. Honyman 313 

Rhode Island Taken Possession of by the British. ... 314 

Dissentions in the Church 315 

The First and Second Congregational Church. „ 318 

The Rite of Baptism Refused by the Rev. Mr. Clap. . . , ib 

Extracts from Funeral Sermon on the Rev. Mr. Clap 320 

On Rev. Mr. Clap's Dissentions with his Congregation 321 

New Church Organized 322 

First Baptist Church in Newport, and in America 330 

Dr. Mofifatt's Epitaph on the Rev. John Callendar 337 

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Second Baptist Church „ 339 

Society of Friends, or Quakers 342 

Sabbatarian, or Seventh-Day Baptist Church , 343 

The Moravians, or United Brethren o . , 346 

The Fourth Baptist Church 34T 

The Methodist Society 348 

The Colored Union Church 349 

The Catholic Church of St. Joseph ib 

Second Episcopal Parish. - - 350 

The Unitarian Congregational Church 352 

Churches of the Christian Denomination 353 

The Friends' Meeting-House 354 

The Central Baptist Church, Newport - ib 

List of Subscribers » ^57 

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'' My lovely island home, 
I love thy sea-girt shore, 
Thy rocks and sunny hills, 
And foaming billows' roar. 

The harvest proudly waves, 

And gently fan each breeze, 
The sweet birds hover round the spot, 

And warble in the trees. 

To thee my memory turns, 

In sorrow and in care : 
My native island home, 

I love to linger there. 

My home o'er the dark-blue sea, 

Thy charms shall near depart 5 
But. linger round my memory, 

And twine about my heart," 

The Island of Aquedneck, now Ehode Island, from whence 
the State derives its name, was so called from the celebrated 
Isle of Ehodes, in the Mediterranean Sea. It is fifteen miles in 
length, and about three miles and a half in width. Its bay, or 
harbor, is universally acknowledged to be one of the finest in 
the world J being easy of access at all seasons of the year. A 
number of small islands lie near, covered with the richest ver- 
dure ; viz. : — Goat Island, directly opposite the town, which 
was formerly garrisoned, but is at present in a dismantled and 

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dilapidated state. The^ first fort erected on this island, was 
built by the proceeds of the tenth, or King's part of the priva- 
teers captured by him. Eose Island, once fortified, but now in 
ruins. Cannonicut, lying west, on which is Fort Dumphng, 
erected under the administration of the elder Adams, but never 
occupied as a fortress ; with Prudence and Gould Island, at 
the north, present a pleasing and highly picturesque scenery. 

On the southern extremity, it is bounded by the broad At- 
lantic, whose heaving billows, so grand and imposing, are every 
way suited to convey a just impression of the power and majesty 
of that Divine Being, who " directs the whirlwind and the 

At its northern extremity stands out, in bold relief, Hog 
Island, with Mount Haup in the distance, once the residence 
of Philip, the King of the Wanpanouages. 

On the north-east, a stone bridge, one-quarter of a mile long, . 
connects the island with the main. At this point also, the 
scenery is pleasing and attractive. The climate is salubrious, 
and its soil rich and fertile ; producing every variety to be found 
in northern latitudes. The island was once covered with" a 
heavy growth of timber, at the period when the Indian was its 
lawful proprietor, and the sound of the war-whoop rung 
from out the forest, and reverberated through the vallies, and 
his bow and arrows supplied him with deer and fowl, which 
w^ere then abundant. Such is a faint sketch of this island, of 
which Mr. Neal justly observes, p. 595, that it is deservedly 
esteemed the Paradise of New England. 

Dear Isle of my birth, sweetest gem of the sea, 

Now summer revisits thy shore ; 
My heart's best affection, turns fondly to thee, 

Oh, when shall I greet thee once more 1" 


"We are now approaching a subject of deep and vital interest 
to the inhabitants of the island. When our forefathers fled the 
father- land, for the sake of enjoying liberty of conscience, and 
to worship G-od in more scriptural simplicity, — this was the 
motive which prompted them to forego the pleasures of kindred 

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and home, and cross the AtlantiCj and here, in this western 
world, erect temples to the worship of Almighty God. And, 
to the honor of the first settlers of this island, be it said, that 
they possessed, in a much higher degree, the principles of civil 
and rehgious liberty, than were to be found in any other portion 
of New England. They had felt the strong arm of oppression 
in their native land, and had no wish or desire to see it per- 
petuated in their new home, which, alas, was too painfully 
witnessed in many portions of the colonies. There was a 
consistency in their beUef and practice, and to this day there is 
to be found on the island more of a truly Eepublican spirit 
than exists in other sections of New England. It is to be attri* 
buted to the impress left by the original settlers of the island, 
that this mark of distinction still exists. We shall have occa- 
sion, as we advance in our work, to draw a contrast between 
Clarke and Coddington with the settlers of other sections ; shew- 
ing their great superiority, and the extent of their knowledge 
in framing laws for the regulation of the settlement. "We shall 
labor to avoid falling into a deep-rooted prejudice, and present 
the truth in all its bearings, so far as the materials furnished 
for a history will permit. It cannot, however, be disguised, 
that full justice has never been awarded to these noble patriots, 
whose devotion in the sacred cause of civil and rehgious free- 
dom, has never been surpassed. 

The decline of commerce on the island, owing in a great 
measure to the calamities growing out of the American revolu- 
tion, has thrown the ancient metropohs quite into the shade. 
None has had the moral courage, and the patient industry, to 
present her claims to the world as they justly deserve ; and 
her history has consequently been almost lost. "We could 
have wished that the task had devolved on some one better 
qualified, and whose pecuniary means would have placed them 
in a situation, to have done ample justice to the subject. But, 
as no one has stepped forth, to rescue the events of the past 
from oblivion, we have been constrained, from the strong attach- 
ment which we hold to the place of our birth, to furnish the 
world with such evidence of the past history of Newport, as is 
to be obtained from records, and from tradition, which, we 
flatter ourselves, will be both pleasing and acceptable to our 

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We find on the 711i day of March, 1637, the names of 
eighteen men, who had taken up their residence oh Aquedneck, 
now Hhode Island, viz. : 

Wilham Ooddington, Thomas Savage, 

John Clarke, WilHam .Dyre, 

William Hutchinson, William Preeborne, 

John Coggeshall, Phihp Shearman, 

William Aspinwall, John Walker, 

Samuel Wilbour, Eichard Carder, 

John Porter, WiUiam Baulston, 

John Sanford, Edward Hutchinson, 

Edward Hutchinson, jun. Henry Bull, 

E and all Houldon. 
This last person, Eandall Houldon, we presume, soon left, as 
we find his name not mentioned in the records, as being one of 
the first proprietors of the island. These names were, however, 
taken from a fac-simile in the author's possession. 

The first settlement on the island, was commenced at its 
northern extremity, where a town was regularly laid out, and 
first named Pocasset, subsequently Portsmouth. It is that 
part of the island known as New-Town. Hut so rapid was the 
increase of the Colony, during the following summer, that it 
was deemed advisable for their mutual prosperity, to commence 
a settlement on some other part of the island. Accordingly, in 
the following spring, Mr. Clarke, with several others, removed 
to the south part of the island, and commenced a settlement in 
or about what is now called Tanner-street, formerly jSTew-Town, 
to which they gave the name of Newport. The island itself, 
subsequently, by order of the G-eneral Court, was called the 
Isle of Ehodes, or Ehode Island, in memory, as before remarked, 
of that celebrated isle of the Mediterranean Sea. Both towns 
wore united under the same simple patriarchal form of govern- 
ment, of whichMr. Wilham Coddington was chosen magistrate, 
or judge. A few months subsequently they chose Mr. John 
Coggeshall, Nicholas Easton, and Wilham Brenton, to act as 
his assistants. Mr. Coggeshall was descended from an ancient 
and respectable family in England. He came to this country 
with Mr. Coddington, in 1630, and was admitted a freeman of 
the town of Boston in 1632. He was a member of the first 
Board of Selectmen, of Boston, and represented the town in 

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General Court in 1634-5-6, and the spring session of 1637, but 
was disfranchised for conscience toward God, that same year. 
His disfranchisement, with others, created great discontent 
among his friends, which led to their removal, and finally to the 
settlement of the -island. Mr. Ooggeshall enjoyed the confi- 
dence of the colony of Ehode Island, and at the time of his 
death, which occurred in 1647, he was President of the Colony. 
He lies in the Coggeshall burial place, a little south of Newport. 
The following is the inscription on his tombstone : 

Here lieth the Body of 


Who died, the First President of the Colony, the 27th of Novemher, 1647, 

Aged about 56 years; 

His descendants are still numerous on the island ; and many 
of them are among our most respectable citizens. He was a 
man of a large estate, known as Coggeshall Neck. 

Mr. Coddington came to this country with Governor Hutch- 
inson, having been appointed in 1629, by the British govern- 
ment, one of the Assistants of the Massachusetts colony. He 
engaged in mercantile business in Boston, and built the first 
hrick house in that town. But, notwithstanding all the facilities 
he there enjoyed of promoting his own temporal prosperity, 
yet he chose to relinquish all of them, for the sake of rehgious 
freedom. Accordingly, in 1638, with the beloved Clarke^ and 
sixteen others, he left the colony of Massachusetts, and com- 
menced the settlement of Ehode Island ; and was, by his com- 
panions in tribulation, unanimously elected chief magistrate, or 
Judge of the colony, which office he held until the island was 
incorporated with Prudence and Warwick. In 1651, he was 
appointed by the supreme authority of England, Governor of 
the island, pursuant to a power reserved in the patent, by which 
the island became again separated from the Providence Planta- 
tion, which we shall have occasion to speak of more fully. But 
the people, jealous of their rights, and fearful that their freedom 
might be endangered, dispatched Mr. "WiUiams and Mr. Clarke 
to England, to have it revoked. On receiving due notice from 
England, Mr. Coddington surrendered up his commission, and 
retired into private life, when the island again became united 
with the Plantation. Mr. Coddington was again elected 

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G-overnor of the colony in 1674-75, and 1678, in which year he 
died, aged 78 years. He is said to have been a man of pro- 
found learning, and assisted in framing the body of laws, which 
has been the basis of our Constitution and government ever 

Governor Coddington was interred in the family burial place, 
which, at his death, he gave the Society of Priends in Farewell- 
street, just south of the North Baptist meeting-house. The 
freemen of Newport, in town meeting, August 30th, 1836, ap- 
pointed a committee to repair the monument at the head of the 
grave of this distinguished friend and advocate of civil and 
religious freedom. His likeness, which is still in good preser- 
vation, shews him to have been a most elegant and accomphshed 

It may be instructive to read the laws passed by our ances- 
tors, on the subject of religion. But every good man and lover 
of his country, blushes at the superstition, bigotry, and intoler- 
ance, with which they were too often tainted. Need we refer 
to history ? Let us look for a moment to the pilgrim fathers, 
to the colony at Plymouth. Speaking of them, a judicious 
writer observes : 

" Much as we respect that noble spirit which enabled them 
to part with their native soil — by some held dearer than friends, 
relatives, or children, and by every generous bosom preferred 
even to hfe itself, — we must condemn the proceedings which 
ensued. In the first moment when they began to taste of 
Christian liberty themselves, they forgot that others had a right 
to the same enjoyment. Some of the colonists, who had not 
emigrated through motives of religion, retaining a high venera- 
tion for the. ritual of the English church, refused to join the 
colonial state establishment, and assembled separately to wor- 
ship. But their objections were not suffered to pass unnoticed, 
nor unpunished. Endicott called before him the two principal 
offenders, and though they were men of respectability, and 
amongst the number of original patentees, he expelled them 
from the colony, and sent them home in the first ship returning 
to England. Had this inquisitorial usurpation been no further 
exercised, some apology, or at least palUation, might be framed. 
More interesting and painful consequences, however, not long 
afterwards, resulted. The very men who had countenanced 

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this violation of Christian duties, lived to see their descendants 
excluded from church communion ; to behold their grand- 
children, the smiling infants at the breast, denied the sacred 
right of baptism !" * * * 

Coddington, an eminent merchant of Boston, was banished, 
for holding what they conceived to be erroneous sentiments, 
and for favoring the views of Mrs. Hutchinson. 

<' The first general court was held at Gharlestown, on board 
the Bh.\Y> Arabella. A law was passed, declaring that none 
should be admitted as freemen, or be entitled to any share in 
the government, or even to serve as jurymen, except those who 
had been received as members of the church ; by which mea- 
sure^ every person whose mind was not of a particular structure^ 
or accidentally impressed ivith peculiar ideaSj %das at once cast 
out of society^ and stripped of his civic rights. 

'' In 1656, a number of Quakers, having arrived from England 
and Barbadoes, and given offence to the clergy of the estab- 
lished church, by the novelty of their rehgion, at that time, 
certainly, a little extravagant, were imprisoned, and by the first 
opportunity sent away. A law was then made, which prohib- 
ited masters of vessels from bringing any Quakers into Massa- 
chusetts, and themselves from coming there, under a penalty, 
in case of a return from banishment, as high as death. In con- 
sequence of this several were hanged. Toleration was preached 
against, as a sin in rulers, that would bring down the judgment 
of heaven upon the land. Mr. Dudley died with a copy of 
verses in his pocket, of which the two following lines make a 
part : 

' Let men of God, in court and cliurclies watcli, 
O'er such as do a toleration hatch.' 

The Anabaptists w^ere the next object of persecution. Many 
were disfranchised, and some banished." 

American Quarterly Review^ June, 1835. 

The principles which governed the early settlers of the island 
of Ehode Island, embraced all of every sect, whether Jew or 

The last of the original purchasers and proprietors of this 
island, was Henry Bull, Esq., who died in 1693, aged 84 years. 
He held various public offices in the colony, from its first settle- 
ment, until a few years before his death. He was Governor of 

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the colony in 1685, after which, being at a very advanced age, 
he rehnquished pubhc employment, to end his days in domestic 
peace ; but after the revolution in England, the colony charter 
having been vacated, and Ehode Island put under the grant of 
Sir Edmund Andros, who held it until the spring of 1689 ; he 
was induced again to come forward into public life, thereby 
shewing a moral courage which was wanting in others. 

The house erected by Governor Bull, in Newport, is of stone, 
and still standing on the east side of Spring-street, near the 
junction of Broad-street. It was, in 1642, used as a place of 
defense against the attacks of the Indians. 

Governor Bull lies buried in the Ooddington burial place, 
where a plain and unostentatious slab, points the passing 
stranger to the spot where sleep the mouldering ashes of this 
bold and fearless patriot. His descendants are now in posses- 
sion of the patrimonial estate of their ancestor. 

The character of the men who have already been brought 
into view, proves them to have been actuated by the best mo- 
tives, in their attempts to found this colony. They recognized 
a superintending Providence, as will appear in the original 
charter of the American Isle of Ehodes : 

" We, whose names are underwritten, do swear, solemnly, in 
the presence of the Great Jehovah, to incorporate ourselves into 
a body politic ; and He shall help us, — will submit our persons, 
lives, and estates, unto the Lord Jesus Christ, the King of 
kings, and Lord of lords ; and to all those perfect laws of 
bis, given us in his most holy word of truth, to be guided and 
judged thereby. 
(" Signed,) 

Wilham Ooddington, Eichard Carder, 
John Clarke, William Baulston, 

William Dyre, Edward Hutchinson, 

William Freeborn, Wilham Hutchinson, 

Phihp Shearman, Henry Bull, 

John Walker, John Coggeshall." 

Samuel Wilbour, 
And six others, whose names have already been mentioned. 

Such were the principles, and such the sentiments, which dis- 
tinguished the men, ivho first 'planted civil and rehgious liberty 
ill this -western world. We shall have occasion to dwell more 

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at length on the dignity of their character, as we progress in 
the history of the island. The subject opens a wide field for 
reflection. It proves what men are capable of doing, under the 
influence of moral and christian principles. 

Their object in coming to this continent was not merely to 
acquire gain^ as is too apt to be the case with all adventurers, 
lut rather to establish a refuge from persecution, where each 
siioald have the liberty of enjoying his opinion without fear ; 
and even at this day, after a period of more than two centuries, 
there is possessed by the inhabitants of the island, more liberty 
than is enjoyed by any other portion of the State. The cause 
we saall attempt to show by and by, which will convince the 
mind of the impartial reader^ that the position here assumed is 


Without adverting to this subject, it would look as though 
the early settlers took possession of it by conquest, without 
affording the native Indians any remuneration for their lands. 
But so far from this, they actually purchased the island, as will 
appear by the r-eceipt given by the two Sacems •: 

''^ 22nd November, 1639. 
'' Eeceived by me, Miantunomu, of Mr. William Goddington, 
and his friends united, twenty and three coats, and thirteen 
hoes, to be distributed to the Indians that do inhabit the island 
of Aquedneck, in full of all promises, debts, and demands, for 
the said island, as also two-torkepes. 

^^ In the conveyance on 
my book. 


Wampaminaqaitt. '^ 


" Mian 




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" A true copy of the originalj entered, and recorded by me^ 

" John Sanford, Kecordery 
[Colony Eecords.] 

" The 11th of May, 1639^ Eeceived by me^ Miantunomu^ (as 
a gratuity,) of Mr. Coddington, and his friends united, for my 
pains and travel, in removing the natives off the island of Aqued- 
neck, ten fathoms of wampum peage, and one broad-clo^.h 

^^ Mian I tunomu.'^ 

" A true copy of the originalj entered^ and recorded by 

" John Sanforb^ Recorder J"^ 

" June 20th, 1639, Eeceived of Mr.Wilham Coddington, and 
of his friends united, in full satisfaction of ground broken up^ 
or any other title or claim whatsoever, formerly had of the 
island of Aquedneck^ the full sum of five fathoms of wampum 

" WoNiMENATONy, ^ his mark.'^ 
" Witness, \ 

Wm. Cowling, > 
Eichard 8 a well." 5 

" A true copy of the original, entered, and recorded by me^ 

" John Banford, Recoi^der,'^'' 

The other seventeen joint purchasers of Aquedneck, whose 
names are mentioned, expressed their dissatisfaction that the 
Indian title to the island of Ehode Island, stood in the name of 
Wilham Coddington, and to pacify them, he executed an 
instrument, giving them an equal share with himself Mr. 
Coddington had no selfish wish to gratify : 

" I, the said "William Coddington, Esq., have no more in the 
purchase of right, than either of the purchasers or freemen 
received, or shall be received in by them^ but only for my own 

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"In witness hereof, I have pnt to my hand, this 14th of 
April, 1652. 

'^ William 'Coddington " 
" Signed in the presence of, 

Eobert Knight, 
George Muning.' 

of, •\ 

light, V 
unin^." 5 

" A true copy of the original, entered, and recorded the 7th 
of April, 1673. 

^' John Sanford, Recorder. ^^ 
[Colony Eecords.] 

We think that great injustice has been done the aborigines of 
this country : whether our fathers view^ed them as inferiors, 
and undeserving of their respect and kindness, it is self evident 
that their conduct has been unbecoming, and every way calcu- 
lated to foster revenge in the breast of the red men of the forest. 
They are a noble race, and their conduct would often put to 
the blush civihzed man, who stoops to acts of meanness which 
would, not be tolerated for a moment in savage life. Their 
sufferings have been great; driven from the homes of their 
fathers, and compelled to take up their abode in a strange land, 
so affected them with the deepest anguish, as to prove that 
their sympathies are as great, and their susceptibihties of right 
as keen as those of ours. 

To the praise of the settlers of the island, they were never 
hostile to the Indians, as were some of the colonists, w^hich we 
shall have occasion to notice. It should be remembered that 
they were the rightful owners of the soil, while we have usurped 
it. Never do we look on the countenance of the Indian, with- 
out reverence and respect, for they are nature's noblemen ; but 
it has ever been with the '' pale faces," agreeably with the 
seutiments of the poet Wordsworth : 

" The good old plan, — 
That they should get who have the power, 
And they should keep who can." 

Of the original settlers of the island, we find that William 
Hutchinson died on the island. The other Hutchinson, Aspin- 
wall, and Savage, went back and got reconciled to the Massa- 

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chusetis colony. In March, 1641, Carder, Houlden, and Porter 
were disfranchised. E, Houlder settled in "Warwick ; from him 
have descended the numerous family of Houldens in this 

Nicholas Easton arrived in Kew England, with his two sons. 
May 14th, 1634. He first settled at Ipswich, and was a deputy 
to the General Court. The next year he removed to New- 
burg, and afterwards to Hampton, where he built the first 
house. In 1638, in consequence of the religious intolerance, 
he removed to Ehode Island, and settled in Portsmouth. The 
next year he removed to Newport, where he built the first 
house. It stood where the house now stands belonging to the 
heirs of the late Jonathan Southwick, in Farewell-street. As 
late as 1641, the Indians burnt the house of Nicholas Easton, 
on Lord's day, by kindling a fire on his lands. It alarmed the 
people, and, among other measures, they fitted out an armed 
hoat^ to ply round the island, to prevent the Indians from land' 
ing. They likewise appointed garrison houses, to which the 
people were to repair on an alarm. But the rupture lasted 
not long, before peace was restored. 

Nicholas Easton and his two sons, Peter and John, on their 
way to the south part of the island, in a boat, landed on a small 
island, which they called Coaster's Harbor. 

Mr. Easton and Mr. Clarke were appointed to write to Mr. 
Yane, and direct him about the obtaining of a patent of the 
island from his Majesty. The neck of land by Mr. Easton's 
house, was ordered to be sufficiently fenced, and to remain as a 
common field belonging to the town. Governor Easton died 
in 1675. 

John Easton was the son of Governor Nicholas Easton, who 
came to Ehode Island with his father and brother, soon after 
the settlement, as before remarked. He was, for fifteen years, 
Attorney- General of the Colony. In 1674 and 1675, he was 
elected Deputy- Governor. He died on the 12th December, 
1705, aged 88 years, and was buried in the Coddington burial- 
place. The family have been highly respectable, and, until 
within a few years, quite numerous. Governor Easton was an 
extensive landholder, and some of the original property is now 
in the possession of his descendants. 

We have already observed, that the settlement of Newport 

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began in what is now called Tanner-street, and extended 
through to Marlborough-street. Here stood G-overnor Cod- 
dington's house, one of the oldest, and which remained until 
within a few years, when it was unfortunately pulled down, 
much to the regret of many of the present inhabitants. It 
should have been preserved, as a memento of the past. 

There was a degree of generosity displayed, in laying out 
the town, as we learn from the records : 

" At a General meeting it was ordered, that the home allot- 
ments shall be four acres apiece, laid out conveniently where 
the ground affords, and that Mr. Coddington shall have six 
acres for an orchard." 

The original estate of Governor Coddington, in Newport, 
embraced all the land between Malborough, Farewell, North 
Baptist, and Thames streets. His mansion stood in Mal- 
borough, fronting Duke-street. 

■' It was ordered that the town shall be laid out, and built 
on both sides of the Spring, and by the sea-side southward," 
(now Thames street.)^ This spring runs through Tanner-street, 
a little below the jail, and empties into the harbor. The source 
of this river is Vaughn's Pond, a little north-west of Broad- 
street. At one period it flowed so rapid as to propel a water 
mill, which was erected within eight years of the formation of 
the settlement, in what is now known as Malborough-street. 
One of the mill-stones lays in front of the steps to the house of 
the late Benjamin Pierce, Esq. This portion of the town was 
originally a swamp, and the flow of water, within the memory 
of some of the older inhabitants, was much more abundant than 
at the present time. 

As the town increased in population, improvements continued 
to be made, in the way of filhng up and making land. The 
flow of the ocean at the first settlement, extended north of Elm- 
street on the Point. Bridge-street is made land, as is also 
"Washington to Bridge. Before the extension of the long- 
wharf, and the south part of Washington-street was made, it 
was an open passage to the Gove. G-ravelly Point was then 
surrounded by water. 

Vessels of ninety, and even one hundred tons were formerly 
built in the Cove. Subsequently, the ingress and egress to 

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and from tlae Cove, was through a drawbridge, tw^enty-six feet 
wide. It is now only navigable for small boats. 

It was the intention, originally, to have made Thames-street? 
equal in width to the houses which stand back from the street, 
viz. : the Atkinson, Cotton, &c. ; why they encroached on the 
street to its present narrow limits, no good and sufficient 
reason can be offered. 

" 1640, — ^Eev. Eobert Lenthel, was, by a vote, called to keep 
a public school for the learning of youth, and for his encourage- 
ment, there was granted him and his heirs, one hundred acres 
of land, and four more for a house lot, in Newport. It was 
also voted, that one hundred acres should be laid forth, and 
appropriated for a school, for encouragement of the poorer sort 
to train up their youth in learning ; and Mr. Lenthel, while he 
continues to teach school, is to have the benefit thereof" 

Thus, at an early period, the reader will perceive, that the 
attention of the first settlers was directed to the subject of 
education. Children were not permitted to grow up '' like the 
wild ass's colt," without moral culture, and to pay no deference 
and respect to their superiors in age, and in knowledge. With 
all the means and facilities of education, now enjoyed, there is 
evidently a want of attention to the moral qualities of the mind, 
which alone make the good man and the good citizen. 

In May, 1650, the Legislature, by the following act, first 
created the offices of Attorney and Solicitor-Greneral of the 
Colony, viz : — 

"It is ordered that this Court appoint one Attorney- General 
for the Colony, as also a Solicitor. That the Attorney- General 
shall have full power to implead any transgression of the State, 
in any court in the State, but especially to bring all such mat- 
ters of penal laws, to the trial of the General Court of trials, as 
also for the trial of the officers of the State, at the General 
Assemblies ; and to implead, in full power and authority of the 
free people of this State, their prerogatives and liberties ; and 
because envy, the cut-throat of all prosperity, will not fail to gal- 
Zo/:>with its full career, let the'said Attorney be faithfully engaged, 
and authorized, and encouraged, engaged for the people, by, or in 
the people's name, and with their full authority assisted, authorized 
that upon information of transgressions and transgressors of the 

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lawSj prerogatives, and liberties of the people, and these penal 
laws, he shall underhand and seal, take forth summons from the 
President or Gleneral Assistant, to command any dehnquent, 
or vehemently suspected of delinquency, in what kind soever, 
according to the premises, to appear at the General Court, if 
it be thereunto belonging, or to the General Assembly in those 
matters proper thereunto ; and if any refuse to appear at that 
mandamus, in the State of England's name, and the people of 
this State, he shall be judged guilty, and so proceeded against 
by fine and penalty. 

" It is ordered, that in case of prohibitions, (any concerning 
guns, powder^ lead, &c,, it being proved that such and such, or 
any one, had a gun, &c.,) or the Solicitor, honajide^ in his own 
knowledge, do know or can swear, &c,, that such a one was pos- 
sessed of a gun, &c., as his own proper goods, and upon demand 
of the Solicitor, cannot produce or cannot give a good account 
of what has become of it, before one or two persons, or the 
Attorney, he shall be judged guilty of the breach of the law, and 
,to be accordingly dealt withal ; and that the law^ shall extend to 
inquiry, especially to guns and other prohibitions, as powder, 
shot, lead, wine, or liquors, that hath been merchandized or con- 
veyed away to the Indians, since the law made on that subject.'^ 
And the people, by general ticket, elected in May, 1650, 
William Dyre, Attorney- General, and Hugh Burt, Solicitor- 

Mr. Dyre was one of the original settlers, and owned the 
farm north of Easton's Point, at present owned by Charles 
Hunter, Esq., of the TJ, S. N. Mr, Dyre was highly re- 
spected for his talents, which is clearly shown by his appoint- 
ment to so important an office as that of Attorney- General of the 
Colony. He also held a commission from the English Govern- 
ment, as Surveyor and Searcher- General. His commission ex- 
tended to ISTew-York, 

Mr. Dyre, in the active part which he took with Wm. Cod- 
dington, in advocating and justifying the separation of the 
Islands from the Plantation, incurred the hatred and the dis- 
pleasure of the people in that section. But there was no just 
and valid cause, why he should be charged with a ^' want of 
public spirit, and being ruined by party purposes," in his adhe- 
ranee to Mr. Ooddington, He no doubt acted conscientiouslyy 

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as did Mr. Ooddington, believing in the then present conditions 
of affairs, that it would prove for the interest of the Islands to 
maintain a separate and distinct form of government. 

The jealousy of the Plantations^ was, however, awakened, 
and it called forth the indignation of some of the leaders^ 2.^ 
appears by Staple's " History of Providence," who looked on 
the measure as a gross insult offered to the people of the North. 
Mr. Dyre felt called upon to uphold a government with such 
an aSZe leader as OoddingtoDy a man of unblemished reputation, 
and whose reasons for his course of conduct, were founded on 
the immutable principle of right. 

And whatever invidious reflections may be cast on the meas- 
ures of these men, it will only recoil on the heads of those who 
made them. The charge preferred against Mr, Dyre being 
actuated by sinister motives, had no doubt its rise in that feel- 
ing of jealousy before mentioned, which existed between the 
Plantations and the Islands, which were independent, and which 
owed no allegiance, only to the Prince. 

There is but one male descendant of Mr. Byre, now living m, 
Newport. It will be seen that the manner of spelhng the name 
is different from those in other parts of the State, which shows 
that there was no connection between them. 

Mr. Byre's grave is to be found on the Byre farm, for by 
that name it has always been known, as the inhabitants of New- 
port respect and venerate antiquity. 

It was ordered that '^ Persicus, the Indian Sachem, shall have 
liberty to get as many chesnut bush, upon the commons of the 
Island, as may cover him a wigwam." How humiliating the 
thought, that the once rightful owners of the island, must now 
supplicate for permission from the " new-comers," for materials 
to cover them from the pelting storm ! But these vicissitudes are 
of every day occurrence, and teach a salutary lesson of the un- 
certainty of all terrestrial things. 

In 1651, the inhabitants, on the main, refused submission to 
Ooddmgton's goTernment. 


Before we proceed to notice this event, we will go back a lit- 
tle, and show the reader the position which the Island occu- 
pied from the settlement in 1638, to 1644 

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^'The towns of Portsmouth and Newport, erected their own 
separate governments, independent of that of the Plantations, 
and there was no pohtical connection between them from the 
settlement in 1638 to 1644, and during these six years they were 
independent governments, free from every other power but the 
mother country. During this period, they enacted many laws, 
which were the foundation of the future statues and bill of 
rights, which distinguished the earl}^ laws and character of the 
State and people of Rhode Island, from the other English 
Colonies in America. Por when the government of the Island 
was united with the Providence Plantations, by the Charter of 
1643, and in G-eneral Assembly they enacted, laws for the Colony 
of Ehode Island and Providence Plantations, the town of Pro- 
vidence instructed their commissioners to hold correspondence 
with the whole Colony, ' in the model that hath been lately shown 
unto us by our worthy friends of the Island.' And it appears 
that the plan of the government was formed by the people of 
the Island, and shown to those of Providence, who agreed to 
adopt them ; and thus from the legislation of the people of the 
Island, the free institutions emanated." 

This being an estabhshed fact, " that the plan of government 
formed by the people of the Island," and subsequently adopted 
by the Plantations, was a virtual admission of the profound wis- 
dom, which dwelt in the minds of the Islanders ; and proves in 
a word, any or every attempt made to engraft new principles, 
conflicting with those which they held as most sacred and bind- 
ing, should be resisted at every hazard by the people of the 
Island, as they valued their peace, liberty and happiness. 

The legislative acts, many of which seem to approximate to 
the former hlue laws of Connecticut, and which is in direct con- 
flict with the letter and spirit of the laws which originated from 
the Island, and which were made the basis of the government of 
the State, has led us to doubt the propriety of ever having 
formed an alliance with the Plantations after the Island had 
once become independent. For however ^tolerant the Island 
may be in the execution of laws, associated and confederated 
as they are with the Plantations, involves them in the disgrace 
and obloquy of sanctioning such arbitrary measures as are in 
force in the Plantations. 

To obviate the difficulty as far as possible, the Islanders 

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should instruct their representatives in General Assembly, to 
oppose every law introduced into that body, which has the least 
appearance of despotism, and as aiming to subvert and to over- 
throw the rights and liberties of the people ; and in case of their 
not doing it, and making it imperative on their legislators to act 
in accordance with the principles of their fathers, they in fact 
become a party concerned in upholding such tyrannical and un- 
just measures, which are at war with every principle of moral 


The proprietors, to encourage the settlement of the Island, 
sold out at a small price, and on easy terms, to such as were in- 
clined to build and to whom they saw fit to admit to ownership 
of the soil. Those whom they considered turbulent aud unruly, 
they would not admit to " ownership, or to exercise the privi- 
leges of freemen." Avery proper precaution, and calculated to 
avoid much evil. The spirit which animated the minds of the 
early settlers of the Island, was enlarged and liberal, and 
prompted them to render aid and assistance to all worthy per- 
sons who desired to take up their abode with them. 

In March, 1641, in General Assembly, it was determined 
unanimously, that this government was a Democracy, saving 
only the right of the king. And it was ordered that none be ac- 
counted a delinquent for doctrines, provided it be not repugnant 
to government estabhshed, which was again confirmed at the 
next General Court, as follows : 

'' It is ordered that the law of the last Court, made concern- 
ing conscience, in point of doctrine, be perpetuated." 

Mr. Bull says : " This appears to be the first act allowing 
every man free to act and advocate what religious opinions he 
chooses, and which has highly distinguished the State of Ilhode 

The principles adf)pted by Clark and Coddington operated 
like leaven in diffusing itself through the minds of the masses, 
and was the neucleus^ out of which ultimately sprang the Declar- 
ation of American Independence, and the freedom of the Colonies 
British misrule and oppression. 

It has been already remarked that the Island had a separate 

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form of government for six years. It then become "anited with 
the Plantations, but in 1657, WilHam Coddington went to Eng- 
land and procured a commission constituting him Governor, for 
life, of Ehode Island, of Oann anient, and Prudence, and these 
islands again became separated from the towns on the main 
land. This continued for three years, when they again became 


A Seal was ordered to be provided for the State, viz., the 
goyernment of the islands, with the device of a sheaf of arrows 
bound up with a motto : " Amorvincit omnia.''^ Love conquers 
every thing, 

"In General Court, held at Newport, Sept. 17th, 1641, it 
was ordered that if any person or persons on the Island, whether 
freeman or inhabitant, shall by any means, open or covert, en- 
deavor to bring any other power than what is here estabhshed, 
except it be from our prince, by lawful commission, shall be 
accounted a dehnquent under the head of perjury." 

The inhabitants living on islands, and consequently being iso- 
lated, and generally danish in their views and feehngs, and more 
opposed to innovations of every form, than those who live on 
the main, practices which originated with the early settlers have 
been transmitted down to the present generation. The inhabi- 
tants of Newport have felt a reverence for their ancestors which 
rendered them remarkably sensitive in relation to changes of 
evey kind, and it is evidence of stability of character which we 
hope to see perpetuated. "We are aware that in this age o^ pro- 
gress^ it 'is thought sensible to disdain conventional rules, and 
long established usages of antiquity, and to substitute a licen- 
tious course of pohcy, baptized by the sacred name of Liberty, 
and thus open wide the floodgates of anarchy and misrule, which 
will ultimately overwhelm us in an avalanche of desolation. To 
dissent from the popular opinions of the day, would be to place 
ourselves in battle array with the march of improvement, and 
consequently subject us to the anathemas and reproaches of the 
new lights of the age, whose vanity has become so much inflated 
as to render it almost presumptuous to differ from them. 

A certain class of men and mind make the '' nineteenth cen- 

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tury,'' a frequent topic of eulogistical declamation, not only com- 
mon^ place, but even disgusting to our feelings. " Surfeiting is 
one of the effects of profusion," 

The spirit which animated our fathers, show that they valued 
their rights, and the rights of the Colonies, and were disposed 
to come forward in the hour of exigency, and bare their bosom 
to the storm, while others with far greater resources, held back 
through a servile fear, ^' 'For when the Colonies of New-Ply- 
mouth, and New Haven, shrunk from the war, unless Massachu- 
setts would ■ support them, which she refused to do, the httle 
island of Ehode Island, threw herself into the breach, and took 
upon herself the responsibihty of authorizing in her name, the 
defence of Long Island against the Dutch and Indians.'' 

Such was the spirit which tired the heart and nerved the arm 
of our ancestors, and which God grant may be revived in their 
descendants, and not forever extinguished. 

Newport, though settled last of the three, had arrived, in the 
space of eight years, to a degree of wealth and strength as 
to be equal with the other two. Many houses had been built 
at that time, and some wharves, and commercial pursuits on a 
small scale had been entered into. 

^' The trade and business of the town, at first, was very httle 
and inconsiderable, consisting of a little corn, pork, and tobacco, 
sent to Boston, for a few European and other goods, they could 
not subsist without, and all at the mercy of the traders 
thereto. At present there are above one hundred sail of vessels 
belonging to the town, God grant, that as we increase in num- 
bers and riches, we may not increase in sin and wickedness : 
but that we may rather be led by the divine goodness to 
reform whatever may have been amiss, or wanting among us." 

Callender'^s Historical Discourse. 
1654. — ^This year there was a schismi in the Baptist Church, 
in Newport, — some of the brethren embracing the opinion that 
laying on of hands was necessary for all baptized persons. 

1656. — This year, some of the people called Quakers came to 
this colony, being persecuted and abused in the other colonies, 
and many of the principal inhabitants embraced their doctrines, 
among whom were "William Coddington, Nicholas Easton, and 
his two sons ; Phihp Shearman, Adam Matt, and many 

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In 1657, tlie island of Oonnanicutj or Quaonoquet, was pur- 
chased of the Indians. Koskotep, one of the Narragansett 
Sachems, sells to Thomas Gould, of Newport, Aguspemokick, 
or Gould Island. 

1696.— This year, Coaster's Harhor and Goat Island was 
conveyed to the town of Newport, for the sum of ten pounds, 
by Benedict. Arnold; he having purchased them some years 
before of the Indians. 

Conskuet, or Eose Island, (the latter name derived from the 
abundance of wild roses, which once grew on the island,) was 
purchased of Mausup, an Indian Sachem, by Peleg Sanford, of 
Newport. It afterwards became the property of the Giddards, 
on the Point, and was finally sold by Thomas Giddard, Esq., 
to the general government, for the sum of $1500. 

In 1658, at a General Court of Commissioners, an act was 
passed, declaring the prison building, in Newport, should be 
the prison for the whole colony. 

On the 18th of May, an act was passed, to receive peage^ 
(Indian money,) eight for a penny, in payment of all cost of 


In 1660, IVIary Dyre, of Ehode Island, one of the people 
called Quakers, having returned to Boston, contrary to the 
tyrants^ orders, was pubhcly executed on the 1st of June, 
agreeably to her former sentence. Mary Dyre was the wife of 
William Dyre, one of the eighteen associates who first came to 
Ehode Island. Before their removal from Massachusetts, she 
was a milliner in Boston, and one of the principal followers of 
the famous Mrs. Hutchinson. 

The year previous, (the 20th of October,) Wilham Eobinson, 
and Marjiiaduke Stephenson, received sentence of death, which 
was executed upon them the 27th of June. At that time, Mary 
Dyre was brought with them to the gallows ; but at the inter- 
cession of her son, of Newport, and others, she was reprieved, 
and sent away. Feehng it to be her duty to visit her friends, 
she returned again the next spring, and, as the reader has 

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been already informed, she was executed under the sanction of 
men who dare call themselves Christians. She died, however^ 
in the triumph of faith, feeling conscious that she had done 
nothing " worthy to warrant such a course of procedure 
towards her,'' 

If there is one spot more than another, where the principles 
of liberty of conscience should be cherished, it is Newport. 
Eor, when we reflect on the baseness of Massachusetts, in thus 
putting to death their own citizens, merely for conscience' sake, 
it is calculated to arouse into action every power of the human 
mind, to put down intolerance for opinion's sake. Much has 
been said and written in favor of puritanical measures. The 
Roundheads of Cromwell's time have been eulogized, and the 
Cavaliers condemned. Bat the spirit which could influence 
such barbarity, must be nearly alHed to the inhabitants of the 
'^'^^^." These men left the mother-country for conscience'' sake, 
and came to America, where they could enjoy civil and religious 
liberty. But what kind of conscience did they possess ? The 
india-rubber kind, which can contract, as easily as expand ; for, 
if they had been sincere in their professions of love to the 
cause of righteousness, free toleration would have been allowed 
to all who came w^ithin their jurisdiction. But^ assuming them- 
selves to be right, they stood ready to inflict punishment on all 
w^ho were unprepared to sanction and approve of their bigoted 
views. The religion established was Congregational, which, in 
theory, w^as Democratic, but^ in practice, Aristocratical, and 
opposed to the principle of civil and rehgious freedom. And 
too much of the same ungodly spirit exists at the present day, 
though not permitted to. be carried out to its full measure» 
Mary Byre, and those associated with her^ had been guilty of 
no crime ; they had never opposed wholesome laws, but in 
matters of conscience touching God, they felt that they had a 
perfect right to w^orship Him, agreeably to their views of 
Christian duty ; and in this they were correct. It will ever be 
a stigma of reproach on Massachusetts, for suffering such 
high-handed wickedness against the subjects of another colony. 
Let Newport rejoice in the names of her former legislators, 
who held to no restrictions in matters of religion, but left to 
each individual the liberty of forming his own views of rehgious 
truth and duty. Tyranny can never vegetate on the soil, which 

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has been consecrated bj the prayers of a Clarke and a Ood- 

The period of the transfer of what is now Providence, bears 
the same date, 1638, with the deed of this island, and the 
ownership of the land commenced at the same time. But 
government and laws were established by those of the island, 
seven months and one day sooner than at Providence. Ports- 
mouth had admitted, or added to, the eighteen who first incor- 
porated themselves, thirty other heads of families as settlers, 
whose names appear on the records, making forty-eight, and 
before the last of December following, twenty-nine more were' 

The first quarterly meeting of Friends in New England, and 
probably in America, was held at the house of Grovernor Ood- 
dington, before their meeting-house w^as erected. In 1700, the 
yearly meeting was then established at Newport, where it has 
ever since continued ; and no situation is better adapted for it 
than Newport. 

There was at the first settlement but two towns on the 
island, Portsmouth and Newport; but in 1743, Middletown 
was set off from Newport. This is a fine farming town, and 
produces a large amount for the Newport market. This town 
has an asylum, with " one acre of ground for the poor. It is 
occupied and improved by a family, who contract to board 
such of the poor as the overseers may think proper. A part 
of them receive pensions, and live with their friends or relatives. 
The town council are the overseers of the poor. 

'' The town receives an annuity of $40, given by the late 
Andrew Preebody, for the relief of the poor. About $400 
was paid for the support of the poor the past year." 

In 1640, Samuel Gorton, who came to Ehode Island, in June 
1638, was, on some contention, banished from the island. 

Samuel Gorton came to this country from London. In one 
of his printed works, he adds to his name the appellation of 
^' Gentleman." In one conveyance he styles himself '' Citizen of 
London, clothier," and in another, ^^ Professor of the mysteries 
of Christ." He landed in Boston in 1636, and from that place 
removed in a short time to Plymouth. Here it seems his hetero- 
doxy in religion was first discovered, and he was complained of 
and required to find sureties, and fined. Prom Plymouth, Gor- 

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ton removed to Bhode Island, and shortly after settled' in "War- 
wick. In 1642 lie was seized by Massachusetts' forces, and was 
confined in prison. After his release, he returned to Ehode 
Island, and then went to England and preferred a memorial re- 
specting his treatment, against Massachusetts. In 1646, he 
came back to Ehode Island and settled in Warwick. 

His rehgious opinions were peculiar. It is impossible, per- 
haps, for anyone at this day, fully to comprehend them. During 
his hfe they w^ere the subject of much speculation. That he was 
an enthusiast in his rehgious opinions, there can be no doubt. 
*' A real come-outer, in its true sense." Of the private history 
of Gorton, very little can be gleaned even from tradition. The 
following is from the manuscript itinerary of the late Dr. Stiles : 
^' I visited a Mr. Angel, aged eighty, born October 18th, 1691, a 
plain, blunt spoken man, of right old Enghsh frankness. He is not 
a Quaker, nor Baptist, nor Presbyterian, but a Gortonist, and the 
only one I have seen. G-orton lives only in him, his only disciple 
left. He says he knew of no other, and that he is alone. He 
gave me an account of Gorton's disciples, first and last, and 
showed me some of Gorton's printed books, and some of his 

" He said Gorton had beat down all outward ordinances of 
baptism and the Lord's Supper, with unanswerable demonstra- 
tion. That Gorton preached in London, in Ohver's time, and 
had a church and living of £500 a year offered him, but he be- 
lieved no sum would have tempted him to take a farthing for 
preaching. He was at the head of a sect called Gortonians, now 
extinct— it did not, as the reader will perceive long survive him." 
— Extract from Sta2ole's Gorton. 

Though it has been said that he was not " intolerant towards 
those who differed from him," yet we should rather infer that 
there must have been something very peculiar, to have led our 
fathers to have banished him from their jurisdiction. They 
w^ere eminently tolerant, and favored the largest hberty, where 
it did not conflict with the rights of others. A man of Gorton's 
temperament, and strongly biased in favor of his own peculiar 
notions of rehgion, would naturally lead him to obtrude, his dog- 
mas on the minds of others, however unpleasant it might be ; 
and as our fathers studied peace, and wished no malcontents to 
remain among them, is the propable cause of his banishment. 

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It is highly probable that he possessed the spirit which now ani- 
mates the ultras of the present day, who prefer to rule in h-1, 
than serve in heaven. On no other ground can we reconcile his 
banishment from the island. 

In 1638, Wilham Baulston was authorized to set up a house 
of entertainment for strangers, and also to brew beer, and sell 
wine and s^ron^ waters. Our fathers would be condemned, in 
this day of light and knowledge, by a class of fanatics, as being 
destitute of moral principle, in thus favoring the sale of an article 
which goes to destroy the bodies and the souls of men. 

But it ^proves them to have been men of common sense, in 
regulating the sale of an article which they well knew would be 
used. And to the credit of Newport, there has been far less 
fanaticism and intolerance on this, as well as on other moral 
questions, than is to be found in any portion of New-England. 

Newport has continued, dovv^n to the present day, the sale of 
spiritous liquors, and without flattery, we challenge the country 
to produce a more sober and moral community, with a popu- 
lation of nearly ten thousand, than is to be found in the ancient 
metropohs. Jefferson's motto was, that ''that government is 
best which governs least." But this motto was designed to 
apply to the attempts of legislators to cure the moral and intel- 
lectual evils of society. So far as these attempts are concerned, 
the less legislation the better. 


John Luther, a carpenter, having absconded from the island, 
and being found indebted to several persons, it was ordered 
that " Mr. Brenton and Mr. Coggeshall, shall take possession of 
his effects, and shall satisfy his creditors as far as it shall go." 
They generally, at the present time, take their effects with them, 
or the proceeds, and thus leave their creditors minus. The age, 
however, is one of improvement. 

" It was ordered that all the sea-banks is free for fishing to 
the town of Newport." This right was acknowledged to the 
people under the charter of king Charles II., and preserved in 
the constitution which is now the fundamental law of the State. 

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And no proprietor of land has the legal right to prohibit the 
inhabitants from the enjoyment of the privilege. It is a great 
pubhc blessing. 

June. — It was ordered at a general meeting, that a house for 
a prison, twelve feet in length and ten in breadth, should be 
built. Would to God that its hmited dimensions could have 
continued. But as population increased, selfishness became pre- 
dominant, and as a natural consequence, immorality and crime 
succeeded, until it was found expedient to enlarge the prisons. 
In 1772, the present county jail in Newport, was built. It is 
a substantial brick edifice. The building committee was Oliver 
Eing "Warner. It is pleasantly located in Malborough street. 
The inmates who are so unfortunate as to be found within its 
walls, as a general thing, have been treated kindly by the keeper. 
It is, however, to be lamented that the spirit of the Gospel has 
not more generally influenced the minds of men, which would 
have had a salutary tendency in preventing the increase of much 
evil in the world. As soon as the great law of doing to others 
as we would others should do to aSj begins to be exemplified, 
the reign of wrong, and injury, and suffering, (leading as it often 
does to crime,) will rapidly come to an end. Instead of one 
Howard, one Mrs. Fry, and one Miss Dix, in a century, we 
should have thousands upon thousands in every department of 
charity. When we look at what these three individuals 
have accomplished, what might we not expect, from milhons 
laboring with united strength and intellect, in the great work 
of human welfare ! It will be a glorious period when the 
^' fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man," shall be re- 
cognized by all classes. Then will the reign of evil cease, and 
not before. 

Every town was authorized to choose a council of six persons, 
to manage their town affairs, and to have the trial of small 

June 4, 1647. — Oannonicus, the chief Indian Sachem, died this 
year in a good old age, honored by his tribe, and respected and 
beloved bv the whites who had settled in his territories. 

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The battle which decided the fate of the Aquedneck Indians, 
is beheved to have been fought in a place about three miles and 
a quarter from the State House, in Newport, in the town of 
Mi^d diet own, in a swamp, or low ground, near the west road 
leading to Bristol ferry. The tradition is substantiated by the 
fact, that very many arrow heads, hatchets, &c., made of a hard 
stone, have frequently been dug up on the spot, designated in 
the tradition as the battle field. This was before the purchase 
of the island. They were subject to the Narragansetts. The 
seat of Miantunomu was at " Tomony Hill," near Newport. 
There was formerly a " block-house," built of brick, on this 
hill. The land ■ fronting on the harbor, where Thames-street 
now is, was then an impenetrable swamp. 

It is well to dwell on the reminiscences of the past, as they 
carry the mind back to the period when none but the natives 
were the inhabitants of the island. The sufferings of the abo- 
rigines of this country are painful to contemplate, and while 
many pretend to have their sympathies strongly enlisted on the 
side of negro slavery, let them reflect, how much greater have 
been the sufferings of the poor Indian, arising, as it does, from 
his superior understanding. 

Let me inquire of the reader, whether there was ever a nobler 
character than Philip, the King of the Wampanouages, and one 
whose sad fate has often been the theme of the poet ? Accord- 
ing to the prediction of the Panacos, that he should never fall 
by the hand of the white man was reahzed in his death. A 
renegade Indian shot him in a swamp, at the foot of Mount 

Philip's war lasted more than a year, and was the most dis- 
tressing period that New England had ever seen, and threatened 
the total extirpation of her colonies. About six hundred men, 
the flower of her strength, fell in battle, or were butchered by 
the savages. In Massachusetts, Plymouth, and Ehode Island, 
twelve or thirteen towns were utterly destroyed. About six 
hundred dwelling-houses were burnt, a heavy debt contracted, 
and a vast amount of property destroyed. There were few 

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families who did not lose some beloved relative in tliis calami- 
tous war ; and a general gloom spread through the country. 

The Indians acted on the defensive ; they felt jealous of their 
rightSj and did not admit the justice and equity of the claim set 
up by the pale faces^ to the soil which they had received as a 
grant from the Great Spirit, — and it is no way surprising that 
Philip and his tribe displayed a hostile attitude towards the 
enemy of their peace, when they perceived that their domain 
was passing into other hands, and that they would soon melt 
away before a superior force. This is a sufficient apology for 
the course which they pursued towards the colonists ; and 
instead of our exulting and triumphing over their weakness, it 
should rather be a matter of grief and sorrow, that the posses- 
sion of this continent was purchased at the expense of the 
destruction of the Indians. 


(by miss CASS.) 

Philip's head was sent to Plymouth, where it was exposed on 
a gibbet twenty years, and one of his hands to Boston, where 
it was exhibited in savage triumph, and his mangled body was 
denied the right of sepulture, it having been quartered, and 
hung upon four trees, where it was left, a monument of shock- 
ing barbarity. 

'^ To say the least of Phihp's humanity, it was as great 
towards captives, so far as we have any knowledge, as that of 
the Enghsh towards the captive Indians," — Drake's Biograioliy 
of Indians. 

■' Ye write the white man brave, 
When on his native sod, 
He lifts his sword to guard and save 
His heritage of God, 
And earth rings loud, with the deep startling cry — 
Of patriots, warring for their liberty. 

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Ye bid the marble rise, 

To shrine his sacred fame ; 
And loud winds bear along the skies. 
His high and holy name. 
And ever your children'8 hearts beat full and strong, 
All freedom shout, and glorious triumph sing. 

The outrag'd Indian rears 

His madden' d battle brand ; 
And tracks with flame, and blood, and tears, 
The oppressors of his land. 
And he is savage ! and ye give his name 
To wear his curse, and be a word for shame. 

And even his soulless clay, 

!Finds not a quiet bed ; 
The storms may waste itj birds of prey 
Teast on the helpless dead— 
As if the poor insensate dust could be 
A thing for hate, and iBendish mockery. 

The gentle Quaker came, 

With justice in his hand; 
And the whoop lay hush'd, the war-knife's flam© 
Gleam' d not within the land. 
But spread the Calumefs soft incense wide, 
And rose the olive of the wigwam's side, 

Wo ! fcr the red man's wail, 

Sweeps o'er New England's hills ; 
It rides her haughty ocean gale, 
And tunes her forest rills. 
One jarring echo in the grand old strain. 
That ne'er can die along her hallow' d plain." 


As we "have noticed the death of Cannonicus, we will also 
allude to the sad fate of Miantunomu, as they were the two 
Sachems who conveyed the island of Aquedneck to Mr. God- 
dingtoD and his friends. Miantunomu was uncle to CannonieuSj 
and they exercised an important part in the government of th© 
great nation of the Narragansetts. 

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In 1642, Connecticut became suspicious of Miantunomu, and 
urged Massacliusetts to join them in a war witliUncaSj Sachern 
of the Mohegans. The broil had long existed ; but the open 
rupture was brought onbyUncas making war upon Sequesson, 
one of the Sachems under Miantunomu. The English accounts 
say, (and we have no other,) that about 900 warriors were 
raised by Miantunomu, and about 500 or 600 Mohegans. The 
Sachem of the former, Miantunomu, intending to chastise 
TJncas for his adherence to the Enghsh, secretly advanced into 
his country with an army ; but Uncas was aware of his ap- 
proach, and met him on this plain, where both parties halted. 
TJncas resorted to a stratagem ; he stepped forward alone, and 
challenged Miantunomu to decide the quarrel single-handed. 
This, as he expected, was refused, and, while his enemies were 
unprepared, he gave a signal by falling down, when his men 
instantly set up a yell, discharged their arrows, and rushed 

The Narragansetts fled, and many of them were killed. 
TJncas captured Miantunomu himself, but the haughty Indian 
would not ask for quarter nor speak a word. He was taken 
to Hartford, and, after a trial, was dehvered to Uncas for 
execution. He was brought back to this place, and while 
marching across the fields was tomahawked, on a spot a little 
east of the road, where a heap of stones for many years marked 
the place of his burial. 

"The place where the battle was fought, was in the eastern 
part of the town of Norwich, and the place to this day is called 
the Sach&ni's Flain?'' — Note^ from Wintkrop^s Journal. 

The sorrowful part of this tale is yet to be told. The Com 
missioners of the United Colonies having convened at Boston, 
^' who, taking into serious consideration what ^was safest and 
best to be done, were all of the opinion, that it would not be 
safe to set him at liberty ; neither had we sufficient ground for 
us to put him to death." 

The awful design of putting to death their friend, they had 
not yet fixed upon, but calling to their aid in council — whom ? 
— and must it be told ? — it has been told before — '' five of the 
most judicious elders;" such as we read of in the apochrypha, 
who condemned Susannah to death ; " they all agreed that he 
ought to be put to death." This was the final decision, and to 

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complete the deed of darkness, secrecy was enjoined upon all, 
and their determination was to be made known to TJ'ncas pri- 
vately, with directions that he should execute him within his 
own jurisdiction, and without torture. 

Dr. Trumbull says that "Uncas cut out a large piece of his 
shoulder and ate it in savage triumph, saying it was the sweet- 
est morsel he ever ate, it made his heart strong-" Thus closed 
a tragedy, which, for infamy, has never been exceeded. And 
by whom was it effected ? Picritans — men calling themselves 
the friends and the advocates of Him who prayed to his Father 
to "forgive his enemies, for they know not what they do." He 
was one who had been their friend, according to their own show- 
ing, and yet delivered up to the miserable paltroon, TJncas, who 
by treachery had overcome his enemy. But the conduct of the 
savage is purity itself, when compared to the vile and disgrace- 
ful conduct of those, who having no bowels of compassion, could 
thus sacrifice a fellow-being on the altar of hatred, malice, and 
all un charitableness. But what could we expect better of such 
men, whose views of Grod's character, led th*em to believe that 
he delighted in misery ! For an example, examine Dr. Increase 
Mather's (Magnoha,) " Prevalence of Prayer," ibid 7. In 
speaking of the efficacy of prayer in bringing about the destruc- 
tion of the Indians, he says, " Nor could they cease crying to 
the Lord against Phihp, until they had. prayed the bullet into 
his heart." And in speaking of the slaughter of Philip's people 
at Narragansett, he says : " "We have heard of the two and 
twenty Indians slain, all of them, and brought down to hell in 
one day." This is Christianity with a vengeance. 

On the death of Miantunomu, Oanonchet, his son, became by 
inheritance. Chief Sachem of the tribe. In "the great swamp, 
fight," as it was famiharly known, he was intercepted and 
secured by the whites, delivered over to the Mohegan Sachem, 
Oneco, the son of his father's murderer, and by him put to 
death by order of the English captors. He was the last who 
exercised the supremacy over the Narragansett tribe, and now 
all that is left to call to remembrance these noble warriors is 
their names, emblazoned on the wheel-house of the steamboats 
which navigate the Narragansett Bay. 

"We bless Cod that we had our birth and education in the 
State of Phode Island, where intolerance, bigotry, and cruelt^r, 

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never flourishecl ; and fhough our characters have been assailed 
by " Sunon pures," of Massachusetts, as being destitute of true 
religion, which merely means orthodoxy in the head and not in 
the heart, we yet have cause to rejoice that charges such as we 
have enumerated, have never been laid at our door. 

Eichard Borden, one of the first settlers of Portsmouth, died 
25th of third month, 1670, aged seventy years. He was father 
of Matthew Borden, who was the first white child born on 
Bhode Island. 


^' In 1643, Mr. WiUiams, an agent of the Colonies of Narragan- 
sett Bay, obtained a Charter of Incorporation, from the British 
crown, granting their permission to make laws for themselves, 
so far as the nature and constitution of the place would admit, 
subject to the laws of England.'' 

This charter is for civil government only. There is not one 
word in it about religion or liberty of conscience. Backey, Yol. 
1, page 91. This he says he copied from the original manuscript . 
in Mr. Williams' own handwriting, dated Providence 25th, sixth 
month, 1658. 

" That forasmuch as Mr. Eoger Williams has taken great pains, 
and expended much time in obtaining a charter for this pro- 
vince, we do freely give and grant unto the saidBoger Wilhams, 
£100, to be levied out of the towns, viz., £50 out of Newport, 
£30 out of Portsmouth, and £20 out of Providence, which rate 
is to be levied and paid in by the last of November." 

Mr. Wilhams returned with the charter, September 17, 1644. 
We have no wish or desire to take from Mr. Williams the praise 
which justly belongs to him— '^ honor to whom honor is due" — but 
we do feel conscious that far more has been said of his merits than 
they well deserve. He has been held up as the oracle of liberty 
of conscience, and many have been misled into the belief that 
Ehode Island is indebted to him more than to any other man, 
for its civil and rehgious liberties. But we shall have occasion 
to convince them to the contrary, when we bring forward a man 
whose character has been neglected, and whose memory nearly 

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forgotten. And this has arisen from the relative position which 
Providence and Newport occupies. While the former has had 
a rapid growth, owing to the crowd of adventurers who have 
resorted, there for the purpose of gain, w^hich has, however, sen- 
sibly changed its moral character, the latter has declined in com- 
mercial prosperity, which has produced a state of supineness, 
and an entire indifference to her lawful claims, and permitted 
matters of a highly important nature to be entirely overlooked, 
Providence has aimed to exalt Eoger Wilhams, at the ex 
pense of his superior, until his name has become as common as 
household words. We see it emblazoned on banks, insurance 
companies, and even steamboats which ply in the Narragansett 
Bay. His name has been canonized as the ne plus ultra^ and 
to call in question his character and merits, would be viewed as 

Every author who has attempted to write his biography, has 
been very careful to keep out of sight his defects, and to publish 
his virtues to the world, as the originator of civil and rehgious 
liberty, until the public have been made to believe that to Eoger 
Wilhams, and to no one else, Ehode Island is indebted for her 

Now, every writer who has treated on his character, has 
stood in fear lest an influence should be brought to bear against 
him, hence they follow in the same track, and continue to eulo- 
gize his name. Mr. Wilhams was not perfect, and a more 
eccentric man never lived. He had not a well-balanced mind, 
which his rehgious career fully proved. 

The Eev. Mr. Adlum, in a pamphlet, which he has recently 
pubhshed, showing the origin of the first Baptist church in 
Newport, and the first in Providence, says of Mr. Wilhams, 
that " he was a Baptist only four months. After he left the 
Baptists, he lived forty-three years, and yet from the records 
you would not suspect but he was a Baptist to the day of his 
death. Here was a man, who in the space of four months, had 
fully made up his mind that there was neither a true ministry, 
nor true church upon earth ; a conviction so strong that he 
never wavered in it for the forty-three years of his after life. He 
had been brerl in the belief that a regular succession from the 
apostles downwards, was necessary to a true church and a true 

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The manner of his baptism by a layman, we should have 
thought would have led him to doubt of its validity, and equally 
so his ordination, which was wholly unauthorized by ecclesiasti- 
cal usages. 

There is evidence that Mr. Williams was not as Catholic as 
were some of the first settlers ; though he had fled from Mas- 
sachusetts, owing to persecution, yet he is charged with in- 
tolerance towards the Quakers, which illustrates and sets 
forth poor human nature, as it really is. We should not have 
animadverted on the character of Mr. Williams, had there not 
been such an effort made by writers, to exalt him above his 
equals and even superiors. 

The united colonies were not content with using compulsion 
themselves, towards the Quakers, but wished to draw Rhode 
Island into their measure — and it is on record that Roger Wil- 
liams favored the measure — ^but the people of Portsmouth, on 
Rhode Island, disowned all connection in such arbitrary doings to- 
wards their brethren. Portsmouth has ever been an asylum for 
Quakers from the earliest period of their coming to this country. 

A Quaker, Richard Scott, who had been a neighbor of Mr. 
Williams for thirty-eight years, says of him, that " he was un- 
settled in his opinions, that which took most with him was, to 
get honor amongst men. After his society and he, in a church 
w^ay, were parted, he went to England and got a charter, and 
coming from Boston to Providence, at Seekonk, the neighbors 
of Providence met him with fourteen canoes, and carried him to 
the town. And the man being hemmed in the middle of the 
canoes, was so elevated and transported out of himself, that I 
was condemned in myself, that amongst the rest, I had been an 
instrument to set him up in his pride and folly. Though he pro- 
fessed hberty of conscience, and was so zealous for it at the first 
coming home of the charter, that nothing in government must 
be acted till that was granted, yet he could be the forwardest 
to persecute against those that could not join with him in it.'' 

About the beginning of 1677, came out Mr. Williams' account 
of his dispute with the Quakers, upon which Mr. Ooddington 
wrote over to his friend Pox, and said : '^ Here is a lying, scan- 
dalous book of Roger Williams', of Providence, printed at Cam- 
bridge, New-England. I have known him about fifty years, a 
mere weather-cock^ constant only in inconstancy ; poor man, that 

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doth not know what should become of his soul, if this night it 
should be taken from him. He was for the priests, and took 
up their principles to fight against the truth, and to gratify them 
and bad magistrates, that licked up his vomit, and wrote the 
said scurrilous book, and so has transgressed for a piece of 
bread. One while he is a Separatist, at New-Plymouth, joining 
with them till they are weary of him ; (as appears from Morton's 
Memorial,) another time you may have him a teacher or a mem- 
ber of the church at Salem. ! then a great deal of devotion 
is pleaded in women's wearing of veils in their assemblies, as if 
the power of godhness was in it ; and to have the cross out of 
the color ; and then be against the king's patent and authority, 
and writetb a large book in quarto against it. And another 
time he is hired for money, and gels a patent from Long Par- 
iiament, so that it is not long but he is off and on it again. One 
time for water Baptism — ^men and women must be plunged into 
water— and then throws it all down again ; one time for men's 
wearing caps, and not hats, for covering their faces — and again 
hats and caps ; so that Cotton said of him, that ^ he was a hob- 
her dasher of small questions against the power.'" 

Mr. Williams, on the 1st of February, 1657-8, issued a war- 
rant against Mr. William Harris, for the alleged crime of op- 
posing the Protector's government The warrant ordered his 
arrest and imprisonment, for the purpose of sending him to Eng- 
land, in accordance, probably, with the act of June, 1665, How 
far this strong measure was deserved by the conduct of Mr. Har- 
ris, we cannot now determine. It has been inferred that it was 
not sustained by pubhc opinion, because at the next election Mr. 
WilHams was superseded as President, by Mr, Benedict Arnold. 
It is not improbable that he was urged too far, by a zeal to ^up- 
hold the charter, and the Protector's authority, and perhaps by 
personal hostility towards Mr. Harris, between whom and him- 
self, there was for many years a very acrimonius feud. 

'' It appears that Mr. Wilhams so dishked Mr. Harris, that he 
would not write his name at length, but abbreviated it thus, ^W. 
Har.' This mode of writing is seen in the fac simile prefixed 
to this volume."-— jSTwo'^/es' Memoirs of Williams. 

'^ Mr. Harris soon after went to England to endeavor to settle 
the dispute between himself and Eoger Williams, but the vessel 
was captured by an Algerine corsair, and he was sold for a 

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slave. His familyj in Ehode Island, redeemed him by the sale 
of a part of his property. He arrived in England, but died 
there. He was an able man, and we may hope a good man, 
notwithstanding some infinnities. His quarrels with Eoger 
"Williams were discreditable to them both — on which side the 
most blame lay, we cannot now decideJ^-— Backus^ volume L, 
page 421. 

"We should rather be inclined to think that Williams was the 
most in fault, from the fact of his pronenessto get into difficulty. 
The family of Harris are highly respectable in Ehode Island ; 
some of the original land of William Harris, is still in possession 
of the family. 

Eoger Williams was the pioneer in the settlement of Provi- 
dence, and had he possessed the amiable traits of character 
which distinguished John Clarke, of Newport, he would un- 
doubtedly have been a public blessing to the Colony. But un- 
fortunately, his disposition was irritable, which often led him 
into trouble. He had the bump of combattiveness largely deve- 
loped, and was ever ready to enter into disputation; (this 
seemed to be his forte,) In 1672, George Eox, the founder of 
the sect called Eriends, or Quakers, arrived in Ehode Island, 
and commenced preaching at Newport. Eoger Williams visited 
Newport,, and held public disputations with George Eox and 
others. He had a zeal, not always tempered with knowledge, 
or otherwise he would have left to each sect, the right to enjoy 
their own sentiments undisturbed, and never have been guilty 
of persecution in the least degree. But it shows that he was 
fallible, like all other men, and had not attained to Christian 

And yet it seems passing strange, that one who had felt the 
power of oppression, and who had been compelled to flee from 
Massachusetts' tyranny, did not extend the hand of fellowship 
to all, of whatever name or sect, who desired to settle within 
his jurisdiction. But few, however, are properly qualified to 
exercise power aright — the passions of the human mind, when 
not restrained, are apt to break forth in a manner which conflicts 
with the "higher law," of which so much is said at the present 
day. Some allowance must, however, be made for the period 
in which he lived. Undoubtedly, there were difficulties to be 
ei^pQunteredy and trials to be borne^ which required a large 

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share of philosophy to overcome, and if his temperament was 
ardent and impetuous, he is to, be pitied and not severely con- 

We have been strongly inclined to the belief, that the impress 
left by Mr. Williams on the Plantations, has had an influence 
in forming the character of its inhabitants, for liberty of opinion 
has been far less enjoyed there, than in Newport and the south 
counties. In secular matters, there has been a disposition to 
coerce and to bring the people under the ban of the law in mat- 
ters, too, which were unconstitutional in their nature, which it 
behoves every patriot and friend to human rights, to condemn. 

It must be conceded that the inhabitants of the Island of 
Ehode Island, were the most active in procuring the inestimable 
privileges of civil and religious liberty. Here, true Eepublican- 
ism existed, without aristocratic domination, and it should be 
the duty of every citizen, to guard against every encroachment 
attempted to be made against their dearest rights, and heaven- 
born privileges. Let them glory in the names of Clarke and 
Ooddington, for to them belongs the honor of rearing the stand- 
ai'd of Liberty and Independence. 


Mr. Nicholas Easton, ¥/ho came, in 1638, from Hampton to 
Newport, hved to 1675, when he died a very ancient man. His 
eon, Mr. John Easton, who as his father was divers tim^s Gnov- 
ernor of the Colony, died in 1705, in the eighty-fifth year of 
his age. Mr. H. Bull, one of the eighteen that incorporated 
themselves at the first, was G-overnor of the Colony, and lived 
to an advanced age. Mr. Edward Thurston, who was assistant 
in 1675, and many times deputy for Newport, died 1786-7^ 
aged ninety years. 

Many such instances might be given, and many of the second 
generation, such I mean as were born within the first twenty or 
twenty-five years, reached to fourscore and some ninety years. 
If we eonsiOer the longevity of many of the first-comers, notwith- 
standing the hardships and distresses they underwent, and the 
<shange of climate, diet, fec^ and to this add the great age of 

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many of their cliildren, we cannot call the country unhealthy j^ 
or the inhabitants short-lived ; and to this day, perhaps, there is 
no spot that can be compared to the island for the duration of 
human life. 


January 22d, 1639, it was found that there were but one 
hundred and eight bushels of corn, to supply ninety-six per- 
sons, which, at the proportion of one bushel and half a-peck to 
each, was not then sufficient to supply them for six weeks ; and 
yet it was then more than so many months to harvest. But 
there was plenty offish, fowl, and venisofty and soon after, even 
to this day, the necessaries of life have beeij plentiful. 

Some of the principal persons who came at first to the island^ 
removed again in a Httle time, some to Long Island for larger 
accommodations, and some to Massachusetts again, where 
three of those families have made a considerable figure ever 
since, to this day, viz. : Hutchinson, Dunmow, and Savage. 

Mrs. Ann Hutchinson, of whom mention has been made^ 
after being banished from Massachusetts, came to Ehode 
Island. From thence she went with her family to East Chester, 
in New -York, where they were all killed lyj the Indians, except 
one daughter, who, after remaining some time among the In- 
dians, was redeemed, and married to Mr. Cole,, and lived to 
old age. A similar account is given in a history of the Indian 
wars, written by Mr. Niles. 

Edward Hutchinson, Jun., was mortally wounded in Phihp's 
war. Wilham Hutchinson came over from England in 1634, and 
died in Newport in 1642. His wife, Anne, was killed by the 
Indians in 1643. In the records of the old or first church in 
Boston, we find Edward Hutchinson, senior, admitted a mem- 
ber in 1663, and Edward Hutchinson, junior, and William 
Hutchinson, merchant, in 1634. Several of the Hutchinson 
family came to Newport, in consequence of the religious perse- 
cutions in Massachusetts. They owned land both in Newport 
and Narragansett, and their names are frequently found on the 

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William Hutchinson, jun. (second,) Edward Hutchinson, sen., 
and Edward Hutchinson, jun., were among the first purchasers 
of Newport, about 1636, to which allusion has been already 
made. We also find land allotted there to Samuel Hutchinson, 
in 1638. Some of the family, as before remarked, returned to 
Boston. See " Bull's Extracts from the State Eecords." 

Oapt. Edward Hutchinson, by his will, proved in Boston, 
1675, gave all his Narragansett lands to his daughters, Ehza- 
beth Winslow, Ann Byre, and Susanna Hutchinson. Susanna 
afterwards married Nathaniel Coddington, of Newport. Ann 
afterwards married Baniel Yerner, the ancestor of the present 
family of Vernon, of Newport. See '' Deeds in Secretary's 
office, book 1, 442; Records at Wickford, book 2, 121,123, 
"Updike's History." There is none of the name now to be 
found in Newport, although numerous in many of the New 
England States. 

Thomas Clifton was one of the earhest settlers. Erom him 
the Clifton burial place takes its name. It is situated at the 
head of Golden-street ; it is an ancient ground. 

Wilham Brenton was a native of England, and previous to 
his removal, was a respectable merchant of Boston. He came 
to Ehode Island soon after the first settlement. He was 
Deputy- Governor from 1640 to 1646 ; President of the Colony 
from 1660 to 1662, and Governor from 1665 to 1669. He was 
one of the largest proprietors of land on Ehode Island, and 
owned the whole of the land called Brenton's Neck. He died 
in 1674, at an advanced age, leaving three sons and four 

Jaheel Brenton, was the eldest son of Governor William 
Brenton, and inherited most of the estate. He was the first 
Collector of Boston appointed by the king. In 1699, in conse- 
quence of some personal difficulty with Sir William Phipps, 
the Governor of Massachusetts, he went to England, when he 
and others preferred charges against the Governor, who, in con- 
sequence, was summoned to Whitehall, to answer for his con- 
duct. Governor Phipps died of fever soon after he had arrived 
in England, and before the trial could take place. 

Mr. Brenton was soon after appointed Agent for the Colony 
of Ehode Island, and as such remained in England several 
years. He returned from England with a commission from the 

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King, appointing him Surveyor- General of the Customs of the 
American Colonies. 

He owned all the land in Newport, which is now known as 
Brenton's Neck, where he had his residence ; he also owned a 
large tract of land in Narragansett, being one of the original 
Pettaquamsett purchasers. 

He died in Newport, on the 8th of November, 1732, aged 77 
years, without issue. He w^as buried on his own land, in that 
part which is now the site of Fort Adams. By his w^ill, he 
gave all his lands in the Neck, known as the Hammersmith and 
Rocky Parms, to his nephew, the second Jaheel Brenton. In 
1720, he built the house in Thames-street, now in the possession 
of Simmons S. Coe. Among his descendants, was the gallant 
Jaheel Brenton, Admiral of the British navy, and the Hon. 
Brenton HaUiburton, of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia, 
both natives of Newport. 

In 1681, Peter Easton, and the Executor of John Clarke, 
were ordered to lay out the common burial ground in Newport, 
— from which it would appear that John Clarke gave the land 
for that express purpose. This burial ground had been suf- 
fered to lie neglected for years, until \i was painful to witness 
it, when the'^ suggestion was made, that the subject of renova- 
ting and improving the ground should be brought up in town 
meeting, which was accordingly done, when an appropriation 
of 200 dollars was m^ade, and subsequently $500 ; and laborers 
were employed to right and paint the stones, and to lay out 
new walks, where no graves were visible. The work was com- 
menced in 1848, and the committee, under whose supervision 
the praiseworthy undertaking was commenced and completed, 
were the Hon. Edward W. Lauton, and Wm. C. Clarke, Esq. 
Mr. Clarke took a lively interest in the matter, and it reflects 
great credit on the town. 

Benedict Arnold, was born in England in 1615 ; he came to 
this country with his father, WilKam Arnold. They were 
among the first settlers of Providence, but afterwards formed a 
settlement at Pawtuxet. In 1653, Benedict Arnold removed to 
Newport, and was admitted a purchaser there ia May, the 
same year; in, 1654, he was appointed a Commissioner for 
Newport; and, in 1657, was chosen President of the Colony, 
which he held until 1659. He was an Assistant in 1660 and 

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1661, and again President in 1662 and 1663. In the Charter of 
1663, he was named as the first Glovernor, and was re-elected 
by the people, with brief intervals, until 1678, He died on the 
9th of June, 1678, aged 63 years, leaving four sons and three 
daughters. He was a large proprietor of land in Newport, Oon- 
nanicut, and Narragansett. His house stood where the banking 
house of the Union Bank, now stands. He was buried in the 
lot which he directed to be set apart for that purpose, which is 
now an old burying-ground in the rear of the Unitarian church. 
The ground which was set apart, was three rods square, with 
the right of way to it. The entrance is from Pelham street, 
through the grounds of Captain Littlefield. 

As the name of Governor Benedict Arnold, and Benedict 
Arnold, the traitor, are hable to be blended together, we would 
state the fact, for the benefit of the reader, that there is not the 
remotest connection existing between them. Governor Arnold 
was distinguished for his virtue and integrity ; his repeated elec- 
tions to the first place in the Colony, shows his popularity, and 
the confidence which was reposed in him by his constituents. 

"We would suggest the propriety of renovating the ground 
where repose the mouldering ashes of this devoted patriot. "We 
know not whether any collateral branches of the family exist at 
present on the island ; it is certain, however, that there are none 
in the male line. The extinction of once numerous and highly 
respectable families, on the island, shows the uncertainty of 
worldly glory, and the vanity of relying upon any thing earthly. 


1681. A bell-man was chosen to walk up the streets, one 
whole year, as the town shall agree, and Eichard Barnes was 
chosen. He came out with Mr. John Clarke, the first settler on 
the island. He was to ring if any thing be brought into the 
town, as fruit, or fish, &c., ^' he shall not need to stop at each 
place, but going along giving notice thereof by a loud noise. ^"^ 
This practice is still kept up in the ancient town, and does not 
disturb the nerves of the inhabitants. 

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1691. Lawrence Clarke bad liberty to dig clay and make 
brick, on the common near Samuel Cranston's land, he doing no 
damage ; and even before this period, permission was granted 
to make brick, as early as 1681. Why it was discontinued w^e 
have no account. 

1693. Arnold Collins petitioned for half an acre of land on the 
common, to set up a fulling mill, which was granted. John 
Easton, jr., had one quarter of an acre of land to set up a malt- 
ing-house, to have it as long as he made malt. John Hicks 
had an acre of land on Goat Island, for a ship-yard, for him and 
his heirs and assigns, who follow ship-building, paying such rent 
as they and the committee of the town shall agree. 

In 1696, a Seal for the town was procured, with the device 
of a sheep. 

1699. Benjamin Bears, and John Hervey, had hberty to 
erect a building on the north end of Goat Island, to cure fish. 
A law w^as made to prevent oyster sliells from being burnt 
in the streets, except by the liberty of the town or lime kilns. 
It appears that shell lime w^as much used at that day^ and 
many of the ancient buildings now standing, confirm the fact. 

Oct., 1710. The petition of Mr. Gallaway, for liberty of teach- 
ing a Latin school, in the little rooms in the school-house, was 
granted. New^port has paid a strict regard to education, from 
the earliest period of the settlement of the island. 

''In 1782, John Mumford, surveyor, w^as authorized to survey 
the streets of the town ; and the Town Council directed to name 
the streets, as the town had grown to the admiration of all, and 
was the metropolitan." — Toivn Records. 

It is much to be regretted that the codfishery had not been 
prosecuted in Newport, as the spot is so admirably adapted to 
the business. It has been made profitable where it has been 
carried on, giving employment to seamen, as w^ell as enriching 
the community, and no good and sufficient reason can be offered 
why it should not be revived in Newport. It is a safe invest- 
ment, and requiring far less capital than is needed in many other 
commercial transactions. The bounty paid by the general gov^ 
ernment, aids very much in the Hquidation of the expenses of 
the voj^age. It would seem from the records, that in the early 
settlement of Newport, the inhabitants turned their attention to 
every kind of trade, and the rapid and unexampled grow^th of 

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easton's point. 59 

the place was an evidence of the enterprise which characterized 
the inhabitants. 

To what an extent brick was made, and how long the busi- 
ness was conducted, we have no means of knowing at this late 
period. We should rather^ be inclined to the beUef that the 
material was not of the best kind, or otherwise the work would 
not have been abandoned. 

About twenty -five years ago, a discovery was made of yellow 
ochre, on the Taylor farm, now owned by the Hon. Wm. Bo 
Lawrence. Some gentleman from abroad experimented upon it, 
hoping to be able to make a yellow paint of it, but after a fair 
trial it was given up. This gave to Taylor's Point, the modern 
name of Ochre Point, though we much prefer the former one 
for its antiquity, the property having been in possession of the 
Taylor family from a very early period of the settlement of the 


This Point was originally the property of Governor Nicholas 
Easton, who, on his marriage with Ann Clayton, gave it by 
deed to her, and confirmed it in his will to her as his wife. 

In 1694, a certain "William Edwards, amember of the Society 
of Eriends, gave by will to his executors, who were Daniel 
Gould, Edward Thurston, William James, John Lurkett, the 
residue of his estate, for the benefit of that society. In the year 
1698, they purchased of Ann Bull, widow of Governor Henry 
Bull, and previously widow of Nicholas Easton, the Point farm, 
consisting of about sixty- five acres, part of which, in 1714, they 
laid out in house lots, and made a second division, in 1725, 
which they rented out at very low rates. The Society has the 
original plot and regular minutes of the proprietors ever since. 
The most of the land has since been disposed of, and but a few- 
acres now belong to the Society. 

In early times, the Society of Eriends was very large. In 
1700, about one-half the population of Newport were of that 
persuasion, and in that year they built the present meeting-house 
in which they now worship. There have been many ministers, 

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and other conspicuous members of that Society, who Hved in 
Newport and its vicinity. A large proportion of its Governors 
and other officers, were of that denomination, amongst whom 
may be enumerated "Wm. Coddington, Nicholas Easton, John 
Easton, Walter Clarke, Henry Bull, John Wanton, Gideon 
Wanton, and Governor Hopkins, all members of the Society. 
Mr. Bull says that there was a Friends' meeting-house in New- 
port, before this was built, probably soon after they came to this 
country. It stood opposite Coddington burial-ground, which 
was taken down and some of the materials worked into that 
which is now^ the rear of the present meeting-house, which ex- 
tends thirty feet north of the main building. The denomination 
from having been very numerous on the island, are at present 
greatly diminished. 

In 1704, the General Assembly passed an act for fixing the 
soldiers' wages, whether volunteers or impressed, for the service 
of Goat Island, at £12 per year. 

In 1696, a negro named Peter Pylatt, was executed at New- 
port, for the crime of rape, after which his body was hung in 
chains on Tommony Hill. 

It was voted to offer one penny for a blackbird's head, and 
two pennies for a crow. 

About 1660, and many years afterward, provision pay was 
one hundred per cent beneath sterling money. 

1739. This year the freemen of the town of Newport, granted 
a new company the right of extending the Long Wharf from 
Thames street, westward, across the Cove or Flats, to Sandy 
Point, called Easton's Point, across the said Point, eight hun- 
dred feet westward, to Goat Island, from low- water mark, and 
the fee and privilege to be vested in the company, together 
with the privileges of all right which the town had in the water, 
on the north and south sides of the premises, 45 feet in length, &c. 
The income arising from the Long Wharf, was for many years 
devoted to the support of a school kept in Washington street, 
on the Point. The building which belonged to the company, 
and occupied for a school, was subsequently sold ; it continued 
however, until the free school system went into operation in 
Newport. The wharf is in the hands of trustees, and what dis- 
position is made of the income, after keeping the wharf in re- 
pair, we have no means of knowing. It would certainly look, 

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after reading the grant made by the town to the company, that 
they had the exclusive right to manage it as they please. Pre^ 
sent length 2183 feet. 

At the North side of Long Wharf was situated Barney's 
Ferry to Oonnanicut — at that date there were three ferries to 
Connanicut- — two on the Point, Barney's, Ellery's, and Oarr's, 
the present one from Ferry Wharf — all these ferries were con- 
stantly employed in bringing large numbers of cattle, horses and 
mules, from Connecticut, as well as from all parts of this State; 
and an endless number of hogs were annually brought from 
Connecticut to this market, and slaughtered for shipping. 

Edward Thurston was a native of England, and came to 
Ehode Island soon after the first settlement. He held many 
important offices. He .died in 1706, aged ninety years, and was 
buried in the Coddington burial-place. He left six sons and 
several daughters, from whom are descended all the Thurstons 
of this State. 

In 1710, Anthony Young had liberty to take limestone from 
the rocks in the harbor, to make lime with. We presume 
that the business was not long pursued, or otherwise the rock 
would soon have disappeared. We are not able to decide on 
the quality of lime made from the rock, never having seen it 

A committee was appointed to grant lots for wharfs round 
the Cove, and so to Gravelly Point. The first town club in 
Newport was formed this year, 1726. 

In 1733, the first market-house, on the Ferry Wharf in New 
port was built. This year the Assembly granted £50 towards 
re-building the Point Bridge in Newport. 


1733. The General Assembly this year voted to erect a new 
Colony-House, in Newport, on the site where the old one stood. 
The building to be of brick, eighty feet by forty. Peter Bours, 
Esbon Sanford, George Goulding, and George Wanton, were 
appointed to superintend the building. Eichard Munday was 

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the architect who drew a plan of the building. In 1743, the 
Court House was not finished. 

The old Colony House was sold and removed to a lot in Pri- 
son Lane, where it was converted into a dwelUng-hoiise, and is 
still standing. The Colony House, or the present State House, 
is a beautiful specimen of architecture. Fronting the Parade, 
with the Mall on the left, gives to it an imposing appearance. 

In 1783, the clock in the State House was put up by Benja- 
min Dudley, an ingenious clock and watch-maker of Newport 
The expense was defrayed by private subscription. 

In 1774, Christopher Gardner, a native of Newport, opened 
a Circus, in which he performed surprising feats of horseman- 
ship. He was the son of Henry G-ardner, who was the keeper 
of a tavern, at the head of Tanner street, in Newport. 

« NEWPORT, June 15, 1774. 




Nearly all tlie parts which were exhibited here by the celebrated 
In several of which parts, it is allowed by good judges, he fully equals, or rather 
excels, any thing of the kind e^er performed in this country. 
Gratis, for the Entertainment of all who 
please to attend, 
If the weather be good, if not, the next day, he will Ride at the north- 
east part of Newport ; 
and there will be performed 


The doors will be opened at Three o'clock in the Afternoon ; and he will mount 

precisely at Four. The seats are suitable for la.dies and gentlemen. 

Tickets, at a Quarter-of-a-doUar each, to be had of Messrs. lohabod Potter, Robert 

Lillibridge, jun., William Davis, and at the Printing-office, by those who chuse 

to pay. 

' Tis hoped no persons will bring any dogs with them. 

Mr. Gardner expects to give entire satisfaction, and will gratefully acknowledge 

all the favours of those ladies and gentlemen who will oblige him with their 


[From the original printed Handbill.] 

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i I^ 

mi iiifti Is) r^ !^^>K^ %i;. ^ 

. i B^d ,^ 

Sl>| lis 

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In 1770. On Wednesday, died at Portsmouth, on the island, 
Mrs. Mary Thomas, and Mrs. Abigail Burrington, widows, 
both in the 81st year of their age : they were both born in one 
year, died in one day, and were both buried the same day. 

^^ Some persons from Connecticut, came to town a few days 
since, with a large sum of money, in order to purchase goods; 
but failing of a supply here, they proceeded immediately to 
Newport." — From the Providence Paper ^ 1770. 


1750. This year a remarkable circumstance occurred at 
Newport. A vessel was discovered one morning, apparently 
coming from the eastward, close in to Easton's Beach, with all 
sails standing ; she seemed suddenly to alter her course, avoid- 
ing the rocks, and directly came on shore, at the north-west 
corner of the beach. No one having been seen on board, she 
was boarded by some fishermen, who ^vere spectators of the 
scene, and to their great surprise and astonishment, no person 
was found on board, but they found the table set for breakfast, 
the kettle boiling, a dog and cat in the cabin, and every thing 
undisturbed, except the long-boat, which was missing, as if the 
crew had that moment left her. 

The vessel proved to be a brig, belonging to Mr. Isaac 
Steele, a merchant of Newport, which had been hourly expected 
from the Bay of Honduras. She had been spoken a day or 
two before, by a vessel which had arrived in port. The brig 
was commanded by Capt. Huxham. No tidings were ever 
heard of him or his crew,. and what became of them will 
probably remain forever a mystery. 

" It is a fearful mysteryj 

That lies unfathom'd yet ; 
There never came a word or sign, 
From those we still regret. 

I dare not muse upon their fate, 

Its horror, its despair ; 
But all among the gazers knew, 

No mortal hand was there !" 

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The vessel was afterwards got off, and William Lee, the 
grandfather of Eobert P. Lee, Esq., cashier of the Ehode Island 
Union Bank, assisted in getting her off. She was brought 
round to Godfrey Melbone's wharf, and sold to Henry Collins, 
then an eminent merchant of Newport, who changed her name 
to the Beach Bird^ by which name she made many voyages. 
This vessel is said to have been in existence, as late as when 
the British forces took possession of this island ; they found 
her dismantled at one of the wharves, cut her down, and con- 
verted her into an armed galley. The most probable conjec- 
ture which can be formed of this singular event is, that the 
crew, becoming terrified on hearing the sound of the breakers, 
and considering their danger to be imminent, had recourse to 
the long-boat, and thus perished. 


Two pirate sloops, the Ranger, and the Fortune, which had 
committed various piracies on the high seas, being in company, 
on the 8th of May, 1723, captured the ship Amsterdam Mer- 
chant, John Welland, master ; the day after which capture they 
plundered and sunk the ship. On the 6th day of June, in lat. 
39"^, they took a Virginia sloop, rifled her, and let her go, who 
the next day fell in with His Majesty's ship, the Greyhound, 
Capt. Solgard, of 20 guns, to whom they related the circum- 
stances of their late capture and release. Capt. Solgard imme- 
diately pursued, and on the 10th, came up with the pirate 
sloops, about 14 leagues south of the east end of Long Island, 
who, mistaking him for a merchant ship, immediately gave 
chase, and soon commenced firing on the Greyhound, under a 
black flag, but then hauled down the black flag and hoisted a 
red one. The Greyhound succeeded in capturing one of the 
sloops, after having seven men wounded, but the other pirate 
escaped. The Greyhound came with the prize into the harbor 
of Newport, and the pirates, thirty-six in number, were com- 
mitted for trial ; twenty-six were sentenced to be hanged, 
which execution took place on Gravelly Point, opposite the 
town, on the 19th July, 1723. After execution, their bodies 

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were carried to G-oat Island, and buried on the shore, between 
high and low-water mark. 

The names of the pirates that were executed on Friday, July 
the 19th, 1723, at Newport, on Ehode Island, were — 
Charles Harris Thomas Hugget 

Thomas Linniear Peter Cues 

Daniel Hyde "William Jones 

Stephen Mundon Edward Eaton 

Abraham Lacy John Brown 

Edward Lawson James Sprinkly 

John Tompkins Joseph Sound 

Erancis Laugh ton Charles Church 

John Eitzgerald John Waters 

William Studfield Thomas Powell 

Owen Pice Joseph Libbey 

Wilham Eead Thomas Hazel 

William Blades John Bright. 

Most of these men were foreigners ; but one belonged to 
Rhode Island. They were principally natives of England. 
Perhaps there never was a greater number executed at any 
one period, in the history of this country. 

Block Island, was named after Adrian Block, a Dutch navi- 
gator, who, in the summer of 1644, built on the banks of the 
Hudson, the first decked vessel ever built within the old United 
States. The vessel was called Yatcli^ and made her first voy- 
age through Hell G-ate, into the Sound, as far as Cape Cod, by 
the Vineyard. It was on this voyage that Block Island was 
discovered. The island is about nine miles long, and contains 
a population of 1,262, according to the last census, in 1850. 
They are a hardy race of men, engaged principally in fishing 
and agriculture. It is nine miles to the nearest land. 

The codfish cured by the islanders, commands a higher price 
in the market, than those which are taken and cured elsewhere. 
The soil is rich and fertile, which enables them to export oats, 
stock, poultry, &c. Their boats, which are perfectly unique in 
their construction, will live in a gale, while larger craft have to 
make a harbor. There is on the island, three places of public 
worship. One close communion, and two free-will Baptist 
churches. It lays thirty miles south-west from Newport. 

A number of pirates \\fere executed in November, as appears 

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by an Act of the Assembly, for paying the expense of the con- 
viction and execution. They are said to have been executed in 
the lot, near the Powder-house, at Newport,- which afterwards 
bore the name of the " Gallow's Field." 

"Wilham Jeffray, was a native of England ; at what time he 
came to America is unknown, but we find him in Massachusetts 
as early as 1628. He came to Ehode Island soon after the 
first settlement, and, in 1639, was one of the persons appointed 
to set off the lands of the first settlers of Newport. 

He appears to have been held in great respect by the colon- 
ists, and was consulted on all important occasions, and was sev- 
eral times an assistant or deputy from Newport. He was in 
England about the time of the trial and execution of Charles I., 
which it is probable, was the origin of a tradition which has 
always existed, that he was one of the judges on the trial of that 
unfortunate monarch, and as such his grave is pointed out to 
this day. He owned a farm of about seventy acres on the Neck, 
and the point extending out from the farm, is called Jeffray's 
Point. The extremes of the Neck belonged to Ooggeshall and 
Prentdn, while the centre part embraced Price's Neck. We 
presume Price was an owner, as well as Jeffray's. He died on 
the 2d of June, 1675, at the advanced age of eighty-five years, 
and was buried in the common burial place. 

Here lieth interred, the body of 


In the 85th year of his age. 

Since every tomb an epitaph can have, 

The muses owe their tribute to this grave — 

And to succeeding ages ' recommend 

His worthy name, who lived and died their friend. 


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Sept. 17, 1744, was memorable for a most distressing acci- 
dent, which took place in Newport. A number of gentlemen 
had collected on the wharf of Col. Malbern. to view the fitting 
out of two privateers, when a quantity of powder, which had 
been placed in one of the stores, by some unaccountable means, 
exploded, killing or wounding a number of persons. 

By this accident, the town lost three of its principal citi- 
zens, Wilham Ooddington, Esq., Mr. Glrant, and John Gidley, 
Esq., who were either killed or died of their wounds. Mr Ood- 
dington was a grandson of Governor Ooddington, and had held 
many offices in the colony. Mr, Grant was a native of Scotland, 
and a respectable merchant of Newport ; he was the maternal 
grandfather of the late Christopher G. Ohamplin; and Mr. 
Gidley was an enterprizing merchant, and son of Judge Gidley, 
of the Vice- Admiralty Court. The house owned and occupied 
by Mr. Gidley, passed from his grandson to the late Major 
Bt*eeze, and is now in possession of the heirs of the late Thomas 
Breeze, of the United States Navy. The street north, is named 
Gidley^ in honor of that gentleman. To those who are fond of 
reminiscences, such incidents will prove highly interesting and 
amusing. Newport has been the scene of many wonderful 
events, and it would be impossible to embody, in a w^ork of this 
kind, all of them, but as a record of facts, we have aimed to give 
the reader the benefit of the most striking incidents which have 
occurred on the island. 

Col. "William Ooddington, w^as son of Thomas and Mary Ood- 
dington, and grandson of the elder Gov. William Ooddington, 
who emigrated from England to Boston with Gov. Winthrop, 
in 1630. His first wife was Comfort Arnold, eldest daughter 
of Benedict, son or grandson of Gov. Benedict Arnold. OoL 
Ooddington was born January 1st, 1690, and was a well-edu- 
cated and accomplished gentleman. The Eev. John Callender, 
in his century sermon, delivered in Newport, in 1738, which was 
dedicated to him, says : 

" It is not barely to give you a public testimony of my grati- 
tude for many personal favors, nor yet that esteem and respect 

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which all men bear yon, for your singular equity and bene- 
volence, not only in private life, but in all the various offices in- 
which you have adorned your country,, that I prefix your name 
to these papers — but because an attempt to recover some ac- 
count of this happy island, and to make a rehgious improvement 
of the merciful providence of God towards it, is justly due to 
the lineal representative of that worthy gentleman, who was the 
great instrument of its original settlement. 

" If the following discourse has done any justice to the 
memory and character of the pious people who first settled this 
colony ; or, if it has any tendency to promote the true^ original 
ends of this plantation, I am sure of your patronage. And, as 
to what relates to some articles, different from your Judgment 
and practice in religious matters, the generosity and candor you 
inherit from your great ancestors, will easily bear with me in 
endeavoring to ^dndicate my own opinions on such an occasion."' 

Such an eulogium, from the pen of the gifted Callender, od 
the excellencies oi character whish were possessed by Col. Ood- 
dingtoUy and his ancestor Gov, Coddingtan,. place them in the 
first rank as the advocates of thos-e sound and liberal principles^ 
which operated in a most remarkable manner,, m building up 
this colony. 

It would seem from a perusal of Mr. Oallender's sermon, that 
he was entirely free from sectarianism. While he took the 
liberty to think for himself, and to make his own deductions, he 
left to others the same inherent right, and hence a mutual good- 
feeling existed among the different branches of Christ's Church 
in Newport, and which has continued to a great degree^ audi 
perhaps greater than in any other spot m New-Engl-and. 


Having already alluded to John Clarke,, and the important 
part which he took in the cause of rehgious liberty, we now 
propose to enter more fully on the w^ork^ as this is a point of 
vital interest to the inhabitants of the ancient metropolis. Too 
long have the laurels been plucked from his brow to grace those 
of another, without one voice being raised ia its Gondemnation. 

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Like Americus Yespucius, who stole the glory from Columbus, 
to enrich and ennoble his own character, so has the merit been 
bestowed on Williams, which pre-eminently belongs to Clarke. 
"We have said that owing to the decline of commerce in New- 
port, which was her chief support, and which made her the 
second commercial emporium in the Colonies, has followed in 
its train, a want of self-respect^ in not fearlessly asserting her 
just claims, of being the first in the sacred cause of human 
rights. Adverse providences in communities, as well as indi- 
viduals, are apt to lessen the interest which should ever pre- 
dominate in the human mind, to stand by the principles which 
were purchased at a great sacrifice by our pious forefathers, 
and never permit them to be wrested from us with impunity. 
This has been sadly reahzed in the matter now under consider- 
ation. There has been a spirit at work in this State which has 
operated most sensibly against that true independence of 
character, which ought most especially to distinguish this 
people above others. A few have assumed to have in posses- 
sion all the wisdom, to guide and direct the affairs both of 
Church and State, and to crush the least emotion of patriotism, 
which has occasionally burst forth from the bosom of others. 
It is to this cause alone that we attribute the want of talent so 
obviously witnessed in this State. The question is often asked 
by those of other States, — ^' Are there no minds in Rhode Island 
quahfied to compete with men of other sections, whose abilities 
have assisted them to the highest posts of honor and distinc- 
tion ?" Our reply bas ever been in the affirmative ; and that 
the only cause has arisen from not encouraging and putting 
men forward, but rather laboring to hold them back, for fear 
that their own ignorance would be the more apparent. What 
other valid reason can be offered ? Have we not facilities for 
education ? Is there not an institution called Brown University, 
which professes to rank high in the scale of hterature ? Then 
what prevents the development of mind ? Is the moral soil 
sterile and unproductive ? Is this our unhappy lot ? The 
reason is too plain and obvious to admit of a question— ^it is the 
want of independence to speak out boldly our thoughts ; every 
thing has become stereotyped^ in morals and in pohtics, so that 
the moment a sentiment is advanced, not in agreement with 
previous views, such minds must be sacrificed on the altar of 

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prejudice. "While they prate much of the " land of Eoges* 
Wiihams," as the hallowed spot where hberty of conscience is 
enjoyed, it is, alas, only in theory! while the practical working is 
restriction with a vengeance. Now, this spirit did not formerly 
exist to that degree in the capital of the State, and God grant 
that it never may.. Never let it be said that on the spot w^hich 
contains the ashes of a Clarke and a Ooddington^ the people 
have became so far recreant to the principles espoused by those 
sainted patriots, as to permit the light which emanated from 
them to be extinguished forever. 

Mr. Clarke procured the Charter, against the combined in- 
fluence of Massachusetts, whose appointed agents were Edward 
, "Winslow, and John Winthrop. 

The honor of obtaining the charter of 1663, belongs to John 
Clarke alone ; for^ as Mr. Backus has observed, "There is not 
one ward in the first charter about ^ Eeligion, or Liberty of 
Conscience.' But John Clarke's charter of Charles the 2d, has 
it fully expressed." — -Backus, vol. 1, p. 91. Now when it is 
considered that Mr. Clarke mortgaged his property to go on his 
mission, and was absent tw^elve years from his family ; and at 
the court of Charles 2d5 labored assiduously to procure the 
instrument, and did procure it, — who, we ask, has the right to 
share with him the honor ? It was his concihating mannerSj^ 
which was the means in the accomplishment of the object. It 
was a most remarkable instrument, considering the source from 
whence it emanated. It granted every thing which Mr. Clarke 
wished or desired, and the State would have been far better 
off, had they remained under it to this day. Tor, in throwing 
it off, so far from improving their liberties, the result has been 
a diminution of their political rights.. 

In Allen'' s Biographical Dictionary^ article, " Clarke, John,— 
On the principles afterwards set forth in the ' Declaration of 
American Independence,' as you have justly observed ; and, 
perhaps, Mr. Editor, you may not be aware of the fact, that 
Mr. Jefferson himself stated to a gentleman of this State, now 
deceased, w^ho visited him about twenty years ago, that he 
derived those principles from our ancestors, with whose history 
and writings he seemed to be minutely acquainted, and espe- 
cially of Mr. Clarke, of whom he spoke, highly contrasting him 
with Williams, Locke, &c., and preferring him for his mildj 

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yet firm consistency with which lie maintained the great principles 
which he promulgated contemporaneously with Williams, (while 
Locke was forty years behind them,) and for his persevering, 
self sacrificing, and efficient efforts in estabhshing them in the 
charter he procured of Charles II. To Mr. Clarke, he gave the 
credit of being the author^ as well as procurer of that charter. 
And here I would observe, that great injustice has been done to 
Mr. Clarke, in ascribing to Mr. Williams the authorship of that 
charter ; and why deprive Mr. Clarke, whose ability, dihgence, 
and interest in the hearts of our superiors our fathers praised 
and confided in, of the credit due to his services ? Was he in- 
ferior to Mr. WiUiams in talents, education, weight of charac- 
ter, influence, or efficiency of service ? I believe it to be suscep- 
tible of proof, that he was not, in either. 

Neither was Mr. Wilhams in England at the time,— he went 
in company with Mr. Clarke, in 1651, but returned in 1654, 
while Mr. Clarke continued steadily at his post, to look after the 
interests of the colony, contending with the agents of Massachu- 
setts and Connecticut, until 1663. And the charter which he 
procured of King Charles, contains no principles which Mr. 
Clarke had not maintained before he left Rhode Island. Indeed, 
as early as the 12th of March, 1640, long before the settlements 
were united, the Assembly of the island, solemnly recognized 
the great principles of civil and rehgious liberty, and passed the 
^' first legislative act on record, relating to liberty of conscience." 
— Monday's Gourrier^ in relation to the late " New-England 
Eestival" in New- York, 

Here is an admission which we are very happy to chronicle. 
Thus, the claim of Mr. Williams, resting as it does, on the sup- 
posed influence of Sir Henry Fane, must fall, and the charter 
must stand as the charter of John Clarke, and he be allowed to 
share equally with Mr. Williams, the high honor of estabhshing 
the first government in the wprld, which gave to all, equal civil 
and religious liberty. 

To Mr. Clarke, the colony of Rhode Island was, in our opinion, 
indebted in a greater degree, than to any other of her founders. 
He was the original projector of the settlement of the island, and 
one of its first and oldest civihans. In reducing the government 
to order, Mr. Clarke was much relied on, and held the first rank 
in legislative intelhgence. He was to the rude and boisterous 
materials among which his lot was east, what the pendulum is 

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to the time-piece. "We never find him engaged in angry contro- 
versy with those of different persuasions ; but, on the contrary, 
endeavoring to practice and estabHsh what he professed, tolera- 
tion to all. — Memoirs of Rhode Island. 

After Mr. Clarke's return, he was ^' improved'^'' in various 
public, offices, was elected Deputy Governor, three years suc- 
cessively, in two of which he accepted the office, but all the con> 
cerns of the State did not prevail with him, as it has done with 
many, to neglect the affairs of religion. 

We think that it would be fully as appropriate to call it the 
land of Clarke as of Wilhams, after having read the evidence 
which has been offered, of who was the actual procurer of the 
charter of Charles II., in 1663. 

It behooves the inhabitants of Newport, to speak of his name 
and to venerate his worth. Let it be emblazoned on some 
pubHc building, '' to be known and read of all men,'' that 
our children may learn to esteem a man who has bequeathed to 
them, such inestimable privileges. Many scarcely know that 
such a one ever existed, or fulfilled his part so well. Be it 
our duty to rescue from oblivion, his name and noble deeds, 
which were appreciated by so gifted a mind as Jefferson's. 

The subject is a fruitful one, and might be extended, but we 
are reminded that in a work like this, brevity is required, in 
order to glance at the various events which have occurred in 
our history. 

Let the Plantations exult and triumph in its founder, Eoger 
Wilhams, while the State of Khode Island, of which Newport 
is the capital, should continue to glory in the memory of the 
sainted, patriotic John Clarke, its founder and benefactor, whose 
moral character has never been surpassed, and his piety never 
been questioned. 

1666. Dr. John Clarke was appointed by the Assembly to 
digest the laws. 


This Charter was received with great joy. It was brought 
from Boston by Capt. Gleorge Baxter, and was read pubhcly 
at Newport, Nov. 24, 1663. The records say : 

^' The said letters, with His Majesty's royal stamp, and the 

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broad seal, with much becoming gravity, were held up on high, 
and presented to the pubhe view of the people." 

Thanks were voted to the King, to the Earl of Clarendon, 
and to Mr. Clarke, together with a resolution to pay all his ex- 
penses, and to present him with £100. It was also voted that 
£25 slerhng be paid to Capt. George Baxter from the colony, 
for his services as bearer of the Charter. This was a proud day 
for Newport — she appeared in her true dignity, and felt her 

The first Assembly under the Charter, the fundamental law 
of the State, was held at Newport, March 4th, 1663-4. Mr. 
Benedict Arnold was created by the Charter, the first Governor, 
"Wilham Brenton, Lieut. Governor, and "William Baulston, Wil- 
liam Field, John Greene, John Coggeshall, Joseph Clarke, 
James Barker, Eoger WiUiams, Thomas Olney, John Porter, 
Bandal Houlden, assistants. 

The following are the names of the deputies who were re- 
turned from Newport : John Card, Eichard Tew, John Cran- 
ston, William Byre, John Gould, and Caleb Car, afterwards 
Governor of the State. 

At this session the Seal of the colony was fixed. An anchor, 
with the word Hope, over it, and the words Bhode Island and 
Providence Plantations, as follows : 

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It was votodthat the island called Patience, be added and 
joined to Portsmouth. 

This was the commencement of anew era in the history of the 
State, and the people continued to venerate this charter until 
within a few years, when it was thought that too great inequal- 
ity existed in the representation, and in the elective franchise, 
but the effects which followed the attempt to change the mode 
and form of government, being of so painful and ludicrous a 
character, has rather led us to doubt whether, on the whole, we 
have actually gained or lost, by throwing aside the charter and 
adopting a Constitution, which is now the fundamental law of 
the State. 

An extension m theory and in practise, is quite a different 
thing ; there may be the semblance of liberty, while liberty does 
not in fact, exist. It would have been full as pohtic to have 
retained the charter, and extended suffrage to every native-horn 
citizen, with such other improvements as were necessary, as to 
have abandoned an instrument which embodied so many privi- 
leges, and under which the State so long enjoyed peace, happi- 
ness, and prosperity. But steam power is now in operation, and 
we must get off the track. 


The old chair of state, in which Governor Benedict Arnold 
sat at the reception of the charter in 1663, when it was pro- 
claimed in the presence of all the freemen of the Colony, at 
Newport, is still in being, though somewhat shorn of its pris- 
tine honors. It belongs to our respected fellow-citizen, Isaac 
Gould, Esq., at whose house in Thames-street, it may at any 
time be seen. 


" Old chair, no longer aches the head, 
Of him who sat in stately pride 
On thy oak seat, whilst heralds read 
What moderns now deride — 

The ' Charter !' " 

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" On a bright summer's day, as sweetly shone the sun, 
Th« streets of Newport echoed, to the sound of gun and drum ; 
And bravely shone each officer, with pointed bead and lace, 
And lovely smiVd each maiden, to all of the olden race, 

Arnold a brave war-horse strode, which proudly tramped the way, 
Pursued his course, with tabours bright, look'd decorous and gay ; 
Loud cheers ascended high, from tower, and tent, and shore, 
As troop on troop of soldiers grim, pass'd by with trumpet's roar. 

Banner and pennon, waving wide, on arquebuss and blade, 
Seem'd proudly brave, and shone with joy, on Newport's gay parad©^ 
On a bright canopy, covered o'er, with crimson cloth and gold. 
On which was wrought by skilful hands, heraldic emblems bold* 

Stood this Old Chair of by-gone days, the Charter's oaken seat, 
Whereon emblazon'd, rich and gay, did England's arms complete 
The Chair, — with fitting panoply, high backed, strong, and grand, 
That old oak Chair, look'd gaily there, forever may it stand. 

' Long live King Charles !' the heralds cried, and thousands did reply. 
While Arnold, with a noble grace, sat in the old chair high ; 
Lady high-born, and lovely maid, knight, squire, and page were seeDj 
Disporting on that gala day, in garments rich and sheen. 

The heavens smil'd, the birds sang gay, and music fiU'd the air. 
On that bright day of pageantry, thou olden oaken Chair ; 
But many a year has long gone by, and all those glories fled, 
While he who sat upon that seat, now sleeps among the dead. 

And save his crumbling gra/e-stone dim, with tall grass overgrowDj 
With letters dim, to tell of him, old Chair, thou art alone ; 
That dream has fled, and gay no more, the world glides careless by. 
The Chair of State no more is great, or glitters in the eye." 

Newport being tlie metropolis, as she was the most fiov/rish- 
ing and populous town in the Colony, the freemen of the whole 
Colony assembled there, to vote for general officers for the year 
ensuing, agreeably to " An Act regulating the Elections of 
General Officers." 

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Made and passed by the General Assembly of His Majesty's 
Colony of Ehode Island, and Providence Plantations, begun 
and held at Newport, the first day of March, 1663-1664 : 

" And that each and every person that shall vote by 'proxy ^ 
shall, on the Tov^n Meeting-day next preceding the General 
Election, openly, in said meeting, deliver in his votes to the 
Town- Clerk of the town wherein he dwells, with his name 
written at length on the backside or the bottom thereof, which 
votes so taken shall be immediately sealed np by the Town= 
Clerk, and by him delivered either to an Assistant Justice, 
Warden, or Deputy of said town, who shall be by the said 
Town-meeting appointed for the same ; by him delivered to 
the Governor or Deputy Governor in open Court, before the 
Election proceed at Newport." 

This was the origin of the word " Prox," or " Proxing- 

It will be seen that the privilege granted by the above Act 
of voting by proxy at the General Election at Newport, seems 
first to have become a law at this time. But voting in person, 
at Newport, (if the freeman preferred it,) was not aboHshed 
until August, 1760, nearly one hundred years afterwards. 

This was done for the better accommodation of those who, 
living at a remote distance from Newport, could not make it 
convenient always to attend in person. But such were the 
attractions at the capital, that all that could attend, availed 
themselves of the privilege of being present, and enjoying the 
amusements, which were of the most interesting and pleasing 

Tradition informs us, that a sloop filled with freemen, was 
purposely run on the Bishop Eock, in order to favor one party, 
at the expense of the other. It was a common practice to get 
some of the freemen '^ half-seas" over, and then land them on 
Prudence Island, or some other of the intermediate places, in 
order to prevent their voting. 

The head-quarters in Newport, where they immediately 
repaired on their arrival, was Governor Wanton's, and Governor 

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Whepple'Sy in Thames-street, and others, where sumptuous 
tables were spread, inchiding wines and Hquors of the choicest 
kinds, such as is rarely found at this day, and the effects fol- 
lowing their indulgence, often led to angry discussion, aod 
even to fisti-cuffing between the belligerent parties. 

It must have been a novel sight^ to have witnessed the crowds 
which congregated at Newport, under their respective cham- 
pions, nobly " battling" for their political preferences. The 
largest liberty was then enjoyed, each one felt that they pos- 
sessed the sovereign right to speak out, and act out, their 
undisguised sentiments, without fear or favor. Political hypo- 
crites, were not then so abundant ; and political principle was 
not then, as now, " five loaves and two small fishes," as the 
late Hon. John 0. Calhoun once remarked. 

It should be borne in mind, that there was no " gag law" in 
operation, and no proscription tolerated. Moral courage was 
a virtue, which then animated the breast of man, and which 
would not allow him to pay a blind devotion at the shrine of 
Mammon, and thereby barter away his political rights for a 
" mess of pottage." 

Independence of character was the characteristic of the 
period, agreeably to the principles adopted by the early settlers 
of the islandy and which had been sanctioned and approved by 
the freemen on the main. 

Mr. Callender, in speaking of John Clarke, says, " He was a 
faithful and useful minister, courteous in all the relations of life, 
and an ornament to his profession, and to the several offices 
which he sustained. His memory is deserving of lasting honor^ 
for his efforts towards establishing the first government in the 
world, which gave to all equal civil and religious liberty. To 
no man is Rhode Island more indebted than to him. He' was 
the original projector of the settlement of the island, and one 
of its ablest legislators. No character in Nevf England is of 
purer fame than John Clarke." 

It could scarcely be thought possible that so good a man as- 
Mr. Clarke could have been arrested in the godhj State of Mas- 
sacMtsetts^ and thrust into prison 1 and this on Lord's day^ 
July 20th, 1651 ; and on the 31st of that month, by order of 
fche Court of Assistants, held in Boston, Mr. Clarke and breth- 
ren, received the following sentence, viz. : Mr. Clarke pay £20^ 

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or be severely whipped ; Mr. Holmes, £30, or be whipped ; 
and Mr. Orandall, £5, or be whipped ;•— and this alone for 
conscience toward God, in differing from their brethren in 
Massachusetts, on the subject of " Infant Baptism." None 
suffered whipping but Mr. Holmes, who received thirty stripes, 
administered with the greatest imaginable severity."-— i^oss's 
Historical Discourse, 

It is no wonder that Mr. Clarke labored to procure a charter, 
granting to all civil and religious liberty, after having experi- 
enced such intolerance on the part of the Massachusetts 

Mr. Clarke died on the 20th April, 1676, in the 66th year of 
his age. Mr. Backus says, " he was born October the 8th, 
1609 ; married Elizabeth, the daughter of John Harges, Esq., 
of Bedfordshire, England. In a power of attorney signed by 
them, May 12, 1656, he styles himself, ' John Clarke, physician, 
of London.' It was for the recovery of a legacy of £20 per 
annum, that was given her by her father, out of the Manor of 
Westingworth, Bedfordshire. Where he had his education, I 
know not ; but the following clause in his will, may give some 
idea of his learning, viz. : 'Item,— -unto my loving friend, 
Eichard Bayley, I give and bequeath my Concordance, and 
Lexicon thereto belonging, written by myself, being the fruit 
of several years' study; my Hebrew Bible, Buxtorff's and 
Parson's Lexicon, Cotton's Concordance, and all the rest of my 
books.' His first wife died without issue. His second wife 
was Mrs. Mary Fletcher, who died April 19th, 1672, leaving an 
only daughter, who died at the age of 1 1 years. His third 
wife was the widow, Sarah Davis, who survived him. Mr. 
Clarke, according to his request, was buried between his two 
wives, in the burial ground, on the west side of Tanner-street, 
(which lot he gave the Church.) He left also an estate of con- 
siderable value, in the hands of trustees, empowered to choose 
their successors, for the rehef of the poor and the education of 
children, according to instructions given in his will,— which 
instructions are, ' That in the disposal of that which the Lord 
hath bestowed upon me, and with which I have now entrusted 
you, and your successors, shall have special regard and care ; 
to provide for those that fear the Lord ; and in all things, and 
at all times, so to discharge the trust which I have reposed in 

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you, as may be most to the glory of God, and the good and 
benefit of those for whom it is by me especially intended." 

Mr. Clarke's estate was prized at £1080 12s., by James 
Barker, Thomas Ward, and Philip Edes, who made oath to the 
inventory, May 17, 1696. The farm and neck, they apprized at 
£530, and its late annual income has beeii $220, as Josias Lyn- 
don, Esq., one of the assigns, stated. The two farms in Mid- 
dletown, contain about one hundred and fifty acres, and the rents 
arising from the same, at the present time, amount to $700 per 

It is very evident that Mr. Clarke designed the gift to benefit 
the poor, and to educate the children of the church. Eor no 
language could have been employed, more significant than he 
has employed : '^ You, and your successors, shall have special 
regard and care to provide for those who fear the Lord." They 
were the objects of his regard, and he felt constrained, as a 
Christian, that the sheep and lambs of the flock should be pro- 
vided for, and not permitted to want, which would be a gross 
reflection on the Christian character. This will, we conceive, 
has been perverted from the original intent of the donor, by ap- 
propriating a portion of the income to the support of the minis- 
try, to the neglect of the poor. We are not apprised whether 
any case at present exists, where the poor and indigent have 
occasion to seek shelter in the town Asylum ; we trust, for the 
honor of our native town, that such i^ not the case. Such, how- 
ever, has been the painful fact, and so long as the poor of the 
church are not sought out and made comfortable, not one dollar 
of the Clarke bequest should be appropriated to the support of 
the ministry. The " glory of God," which has been construed 
to favor the diversion of this gift, can in no higher sense be pro- 
moted, than in feeding the hungry, and clothing the naked ; for 
God's glory consists essentially, in his goodness. Gov. Lyndon 
owned the house which he gave the Society for a parsonage, 
but which unfortunately has passed into other hands. 

Mr. Clarke left three brothers — Thomas, Joseph, and Carew. 
The numerous family of Clarkes, of Ehode Island, mostly sprung 
from them. Joseph Clarke settled in Westerly, E. I. We find 
that the Eev. Joseph Clarke, jr., was in the Seventh-Day Bap- 
tist church of Westerly, now Hopkinton, also the Eev. Joseph 
Clarke, sen., stands enrolled as a member of said church. In 

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1692 J he was clerk of said chm-chj and resigned that office May 
21, 1708, and Joseph Clarke, jr., was appointed to fill that place. 
Rev. Joseph Clarke was ordained Aug. 12th, 1712. Eev. Thos. 
Clarke was ordained as elder, Oct. 2, 1750. Eev. Joshua Clarke, 
his son, was ordained as elder, in May, 1768, All the foregoing 
Clarkes, except John, have been pastors of the church of Hop- 
kinton, then Westerly. — From the Church Records, 

Judge Samuel Clarke, of Portsmouth, E. I., is in regular 
descent from this highly distinguished family. He has six broth- 
ers and two sisters, now living at Clarkesville, Brookfield, N. Y. 
The Hon. John H. Clarke, Senator to Congress, from Ehode 
Island, is also of the same family, and has distinguished himself 
in the va;rious important stations which he has been called to 
occupy. Also W, Edward Clarke, Esq., of Providence, who 
has in his possession the Bible, formerly belonging to John 



One of the original purchasers and proprietors of this Island ; and one of the 

founders of the First Baptist Church in Newport, its first 

pastor, and munificent benefactor. 

He died on the 20th of April, 1676, in the 66th year of his age ; 

And is here Interred. 


May the descendants of the Clarke's follow the example of 
their illustrious predecessor. 

Jeremiah Clarke. — "We have not been able to trace any con- 
nection between this family and that of John Clarke, one of the 
first settlers. It is possible that they were remotely connected, 
though we should rather be inclined to donbt' it. Jeremiah 
Clarke was Governor of the colony in 1745, and died in New- 
port, lith month, 1751, and was buried in a tomb which now 
stands by the water side. — Friends^ Records. 

He was father of Grovernor Walter Clarke. Weston Clarke, 
the Eecorder, and Eev. James Clarke, of the Second Baptist 
church of Newport, were grandsons of Jeremiah Clarke. They 
were among the early settlers of Newport. Many of their des- 
cendants have been highly respectable. 

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There is a tradition that this family originated from the Hon. 
Lewis Latham, who was Falconer to His Majesty, King Charles 
L This was an office of distinction. He is also said to havo 
been an illegitimate child of King Charles, the sot, and lived to 
the advanced age of 100 years. This Latham subsequently mar- 
ried, and had two daughters, one of whom married Eandal 
Houlden, of Warwich, one of the original settlers, and the other 
a Clarke, the father of Jeremiah, and the grandfather of Walter 
Clarke, and these are the descendants of said, Lewis Latham. 
The name of Latham is often found as the Christian name of 
families in Newport. We had in our possession, until within 
a few years, a portrait of Lewis Latham, but by some -unac- 
countable neghgence on the part of the person who had it in 
charge, it cannot be found. He was a venerable looking man, 
with a long flowing beard reaching to his bosom : there was also 
a coat of arms appended. We think that, considering all the 
circumstances, Jeremiah Clarke, the father of Walter, could 
not have been related to John. Walter Clarke was, how- 
ever, a distinguished man in the colony.^ He owned the land 
from the corner of the Parade, as far as to the Jonathan Marsh 
estate, afterwards belonging to Wm. I. Tilley, to the water, 
and extending to Clarke-street, named in honor of him. There 
is one singular fact connected with the Clarkes of Rhode Island, 
that the name ends with an ^' e,'' by which they can be distin- 
guished from the other famihes who bear the name. 

We have said much more of this family, especially of John 
Clarke, than we otherwise should have done, had there not been 
a disposition on the part of historians, to treat his name and 
good deeds with indifference, in order to exalt Eoger Williams, 
and Providence, of which he was the founder, at the expense of 
the honor and glory of Newport. 


As late as 1769, Newport outri vailed New- York, in her for- 
eign and domestic commerce. The inhabitants of New- York, 
New-Haven, New-London, &c., depended entirely on Newport 
for a market to supply themselves with foreign goods, and here 
they found a ready market for the produce of their own States. 

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Her merchants were among the most enterprising and wealthy. 
Mr. Aaron Lopez, is said to have employed more than thirty 
sail of vessels, of different descriptions, at one time. Mr. Lopez 
was the first, or among the first, to push the whahng business 
as far as the Falkland Islands. Ool. Godfrey Malborn, was an 
extensive ship-owner, and did much in building up the town, of 
which we shall speak more particularly. Jonathan Nichols 
was an enterprising merchant of Newport, and son of Deputy- 
Governor Nichols ; he Was distinguished for his enterprise, pub- 
lic spirit, hospitality , and charity — rare virtues combined. He was 
extensively engaged in foreign commerce, and owned at the time 
of his death, sixteen sail of vessels. His residence was the estate 
on the Point, now owned by the heirs of the late Hon. "Wilham 
Hunter, which at that time had one of the best wharfs and 
ranges of stores in Newport, all of which he built. The work- 
manship of the interior of this house, is truly elegant and costly ; 
the stair- ways being of English oak, and twisted, with the rich 
carved pannel work, shows the taste of its former owner, and 
the great superiority of the ancient buildings over the modern. 
There is also the Oheesborough estate, at present belonging to 
the heir of the late Hon. C. G. Ohamphn ; the Eedwood House, 
on Bridge-street, now in possession of the w^idow Pierce ; the 
Tillinghast property, now in possession of Gov. W. 0. Gibbs ; the 
Eedwood House in Thames street, with its heavy iron gate, now 
the residence of the widow of 8. P, Gardner, Esq. ; and the Gov. 
"Wanton estate, in Thames street, with others, which clearly 
proves that a sad deterioration has taken place in the mode and 
manner of building, and corresponds well with the minds of the 
present age. Mr. Nichols was for many years a deputy from 
Newport, afterwards an assistant, and at the time of his death 
was Deputy Governor of the Colony. He died on the 8th of 
September, 1756. He was great-grandfather to Edward Hazard, 
Esq., of the Park House, Newport. 

Messrs. E. and P. Malborn, Henry Oolhns, the "Wantons, and 
many other merchants, also did an immense business before the 
revolution. The remains of the foundations of old wharves, 
from Eobinson's Wharf on the Point, to Overing's at the ex- 
treme south, a distance of one mile, which at that interesting 
period were crowded with commerce, will give the reader some 
idea of the prosperity of Newport, 

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The town at this time was in the zenith of her commercial 
prosperity. The population is said to have been 12,000. She 
had about two hundred vessels employed in the foreign trade, 
and between three and four hundred coasting vessels, including 
a regular line of London packets, and employing no less than 
twenty -two hundred seamen. 

Such was the amount of business done at that period, that 
goods were not stored, owing to the want of room, while the 
wharves were literally covered with merchandize, viz. : sugar^ 
rum, molasses, and every kind of foreign and domestic articles. 
The coasters would take on board the merchandize, as before 
remarked, and proceed to New-York and Connecticut, where 
there was a quick demand, which went to build up and enrich 
the town of Newport 

We have been told an anecdote of Capt. Hicks, of Warren, 
who, coming to this port with a load of hoop-poles, found great 
difficulty in finding a place to land, having passed every wharf 
without finding room for his cargo, until he reached Overing's 
wharf at the extreme south of the town. 

Her West India trade was immensec This grew partly out 
of the quantity of rum which was there distilled, there being, in 
full hlast^ about thirty distilleries. This gave constant employ- 
ment to coopers, — their shops were to be found on almost every 
wharf— brass-founders, and to draymen, and others, for all par- 
ticipated in the benefits resulting from this extensive trade. 
There was around the Cove, some ten or twelve distilleries, as 
the remains of the old cisterns plainly show. 

Simon Newton owned two ; the great-grandfather of the firm 
of E. P. Newton, brothers, Samuel Johnson, the Eich- 
ardsons, and William Burroughs, each owned a distillery. In 
this section of the town, the business done was immense. There 
was seven wharves in the Gove, and before the Long Wharf 
were extended, vessels entered the Cove and discha,rged their 
cargoes ; and subsequently, through the drawbridge. 

The town, at the same time, contained seventeen manufac- 
turers of sperm oil and candles,' also three sugar refineries, one 
brewery, and five or more rope walks. 

Tweedy, apothecary, a large importer and exporter of 

drugs ; such was his business, that he supplied Rhode Island, a 
part of Massachusetts, all Connecticut and North Carolina, with 

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drugs, and had an establishment in New- York, where mer- 
chants might ascertain his prices ;. this appeared from his books-, 
when in the hands of the late Dr. Edmund T. Waring. 

Stephen Dellois, Esq., had a large wholesale hardware store^ 
as also Stephen Ayrault, Samuel Ayrault, Thomas Wilkinson, 
These were all importers, and did an extensive business. New- 
port, at this period, was the grand emporium of trade. We 
have heard aged men remark, ' that they have known of the 
arrival of eighteen West Indiamen in one day." It was said, 
at that period, however strange it may sound, " that possibly 
New- York might, in time, equal Newport." A degree of 
activity then prevailed, which would astonish us at this day. 


It IB to be regretted that the books and papers at this period 
are lost, in the regular set, which would have afforded us cor- 
rect statistics of the amount of merchandize imported into 

We have procured, quite incidentally, from Mrs. Dudley^ 
widow of the late Hon. Charles Dudley, Esq.,, former Mayor 
of Albany,, who was the only son of Charles Dudley, Esq. ^ 
Collector under the Crown, some portions of the records of the 
CustomSj which will aid the reader in forming an opinion of the 
extent of commerce at the period of 1768-9. These quarterly 
returns were forwarded from England by the executor of 
Charles Dudley, Esq,, a few years since. What became of the 
regular set of books, and papers, belonging to the Customs, is 
entirely unknown. 

It appears by the books and papers in the author's possession^ 
that in the year 1768-9, the entries and clearances amounted to 
some hundreds of vessels. 

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Who is appointed Oollector of the Customs, at the Port 

of Rhode Island^ in America. 

^^ You being deputed to be Collector of the Customs at the 
Port of Ehode Mandj and you having given bond to His 
Majesty, with sufficient security, in the sum of one thousand 
poimds sterling^ for the due execution of said employment, you 
are to take the following oath, besides the oaths prescribed by 
the Act of 1st C-eo. kt, 13, before you enter upon your 

{form of oath.] 

" I^ ^ , ^ do swear, to he true and faithful in the 

execution^ to the best of my knoivledge and power ^ of the trust 
committed to my charge and inspection^ in the service of His 
Majesty'' s Customs / and that I wiil not take any Reward or 
Gratuity ^ directly or indirectly^ other than my Salary^ and 
tvhat is or shall he allowed me from the Crown^ or the regular 
Fees established by Law^ for any service done^ or to be done^ in 
the execution of my employment in the Customs^ on any account 

" So help me God. 


Lamd Surveyors and S^aarcherSy 
Land Waiters, 
Tide Surveyors, 

Coast Surveyors and Riding Officers, 
Waiters and Searchers, and Preventive Officers, 
Boatmen or Watermen." 
£Erom the original printed Instructions, in a pamphlet form^ 
containing thirty-nine pages.] 

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■ Amount of Molasses imported into Newport, for the Quarter 
ending the 10th of October, 1769,— -3,001) hogsheads. The 
Names of the Vessels which brought the same, with the 
Masters and Owners : 

Ship's Name. 

















Master^s Name, 

Simon Smith 
Jeremiah Cranston 
James Eathbone 
John Peters 
J ohn StantoB 
Phineas Gilbert 
WilHam Ladd 
Joram Place 
Joseph Littleiield 
Sabinus Palmer 
G-eorge Polland 
John Briggs 
James Thomas 
Joshua Bliven 
Griles Stanton 
Henry Weeden 

Wbere from. 


St. Lucia 


St. Lucia 



Merchant's name. 

Jos. & "Wm. WantoB 
Peleg Thurston & Son 
Aaron Lopez 
Silas Cook 
Myer Pollock 
John Colhns 
Myer Pollock 
Henry Bowers 
John PI etcher 
William Eeed 
William Vernon 
E. & P. Malborn 
George Gibbs 
Charles Wickham 

JOHN NICHOLL, Comptroller, 
Port of Ehode Island, 

Quarter ending 10th of October, 1769." 

The amount of duties paid was $4,000. It should be borne 
in mind, however, that it was considored just and equitable ta 
rob the king of the revenue. Hence, but a portion of the 
cargoes was entered at the Custom-house,* while the remainder 
was run. The officers of the Customs under the Crown, were 
not very conscientious \ and it has been said that a guinea, being 
placed over one eye, had considerable effect, while another 
guinea rendered them blind to what was going on. The bulk 
of the cargoes was placed on board of coasters and sent off ; 
this was usually done in the night, as being a more favorable 
time to accomplish their object. Aii aged man, who was 
employed on Col. Malborn's wharf, informed the author, that 
" the scenes enacted there, indicated spirit and activity, rarely 
witnessed in any commercial town, even at this dayJ^ 

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" Dudley, Appellant, — Shaw, Eespondent. 
. V '^ Colony of Ehode Island, &c. ) 

^ ' *' Court of Vice- Admiralty. ) 

^' George the Third, by the Grace of God, 
of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, 
Defender of the Faith, &c. 
" To the Marshal of our Court of Vice- Admiralty, &c., or to 
his lawful Deputy, — Greeting : 
" Whereas, an information was tiled in our Court of Vice- 
Admiralty, by Eobert Keeler, Esq., Commander of His Majes- 
ty's ship, the Mercury, against one hundred and nine casks of 
molasses, and two casks of coffee, for violation of the acts of 
Parliament ; and on the twenty-eighth of November last past, the 
Hon. John Andrews, Esq., decree was promulgat^ed, whereby 
the said one hundred and nine casks of molasses, and two casks 
of coffee, were condemned and forfeited, and did further order 
and decree that said molasses and coffee be sold at a public 
vendue, and the monies arising from the sale thereof, to be dis- 
tributed agreeably to act of Parliament, &c. 

" You are therefore hereby required, pursuant to the afore- 
said decree, to sell the said one hundred and nine casks of 
molasses, and two casks of coffee, this instant, being the fifth 
day of March, A. D., 1773, at ten o'clock in the forenoon, to the 
highest bidder, for sterling money, and you are to make true 
return of said sale, into the Register's office of said Court. 

Witness^ John Andrews, Esq., 
Commissary and Judge of said Court, at Newport, the 5th day 
of March, A. D., 1773, and in the thirteenth year of our reign. 
Thomas Vernon Dep^Uy Register. ^^ 

'' Neivport, March 5, 1773. 
" At ten o'clock in the forenoon, pursuant to the within war- 
rant, I have sold one hundred and seven casks of molasses, con- 
taining 9,813 gallons, to Charles Dudley, Esq., 

at 10(i sterling, per gallon, £408 17 6 

And two casks of coffee, to ditto, weight, 364 

lbs., at Qd per lb., 9 2 

£417 19 6 
The said Charles Dudley, Esq., being the highest bidder. 

William Mumford, Deputy Marshal.'^'* 
(A true copy from the original manuscript.) 

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" I, Charles Dudley, of Newport, in the County of Newport, 
Esq., do hereby make, and appoint, and in my place put James 
Honyman, and Henry Marchant, both of Newport, aforesaid, 
Esqrs., my attornies, and each of them my attorney in a certain 
action of trespass, upon the case commenced and prosecuted by 
Nathaniel Shaw, jun., of New-London, in the County of New- 
London, and Colony of Connecticut, merchant, against me, the 
said Charles Dudley, at the Inferior Court of Common Pleas, 
to be held at Providence, for the County of Providence, upon 
the third Monday of June, A. D., 1773. And do hereby em- 
power the said James Honyman, and Henry Marchant, jointly, 
and each of them separately, and by himself, in my name, and 
to appear in the Inferior Court aforesaid, or in any other Court 
whatsoever, and there to plead, defend, and pursue to final 
judgment and execution, with full power of substitution. 

^' "Witness my hand and seal, the 14th day of June, A. D., 1775, 
and in the thirteenth year of His Majesty's reign, George the 
Third, King, &c, Charles Dudley, (l. s.) 

" Signed, sealed, and delivered, 
in presence of 

John Grelea, jun., 
Ben. Peckhami." 

" Newport, ss. — At Newport, upon the day and year afore- 
said, in his proper person, cometh Charles Dudley, above-named, 
and acknowledged the above power of attorney to be his act 
and deed. Before J. Grelea, jun., Justice of the Feace^ 

A true copy from the original manuscript in the author's pos- 
session. This action grew out of the seizure and sale of the 
molasses and coffee above-named. 

George Rome, Esq., (pronounced Room,) was a native of 
England, and for several years a successful merchant of New* 
port. He owned a valuable house, with a wharf and stores, on 
Easton's Point, on the spot known as Gibbs' ship-yard, where he 
carried on an extensive business. On the commencement of 
hostilities, he returned to England, and his valuable pro- 

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perty in Newport and Narragansett, was confiscated. He 
lived in splendor, and entertained his friends with sumptuous 
hospitality. He had a summer residence in Narragansett, which 
he styled " Bachelor's Hall." He occasionally gave large par- 
ties, at which the ladies and gentlemen of Boston, Newport, and 
Narragansett, would equally mingle. Punch was the fashion- 
able beverage at that period, and the entertainment at " Bache- 
lor's Hall" was extravagant. 

In the Stamp Act excitement, he strongly espoused the cause 
of the Crown. The gross charge of Mr. Rome, of corruption 
and partiahty, against the Legislature, the Courts and Juries of 
the Colony, with the advice to annul the charter, and create a 
government more dependent on the Crown, produced an exas- 
peration too powerful to be withstood, and apprehending dan- 
ger, soon after his release from prison, he fled on board of the 
Eose, man-of-war, then lying in Narragansett Bay. 

Having noticed the extensive business of Mr. Rome, on the 
Point, we would also notice the manufacturers of furniture, 
w^hich at that period was quite extensive on the Point, and 
which was shipped to foreign markets. On Bridge- street was 
Constant Bayley, Thomas Townsend, Job, Edmond, Christo- 
pher, and John ; these all had establishments, and employed a 
great number of hands, manufacturing furniture, for which a 
ready market was found in New- York and the "West Indies. 
John Goddard, and Benjamin Peabody, had also cabinet- 
makers' shops on Washington-street, which carried on a large 
trade with Surinam. 

On the east side of "Washington- street and corner of the Long 
Wharf, stood the store of Joseph Hammond, a shipping mer- 
chant, who built the large house, since known as the Washing- 
ton House. 

Next, north, stood the spermaceti works of Myer Pollock, 
who was extensively engaged in manufacturing oil and candles, 
and stored large quantities of goods for others. 

The stores of David Huntington and Benjamin Barker, w^ere 
also on the Point ; both these men were extensively engaged in 
manufacturing furniture, which they shipped to New-York and 
the West Indies. Besides the above, there were three tanneries 
on the same street, and all in successful operation ; they were 
owned by Robert Taylor, WiUiam Potter, and Bently. 

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Holmes' Wharf, was a great place for business ; on it stood 
Carter's cooper's shop, Monroe's block-maker's shop, Graftin's 
sail-loft, and over that a rigging loft. 

Bowen's ship-yard. 

John Colhn's wharf and store ; he was engaged in successful 
trade until the war, when the British destroyed his property, 
one house excepted. 

During the war, 17 buildings were destroyed on Bridge- 

It will, no doubt, appear quite novel to the reader to be made 
acquainted with these facts, when contrasted with present ap- 
pearances. But in no section of the town, at that day, was 
there want of employment. It was the great commercial mart, 
and merchants resorted there, to trade and traffic, as well as to 
enjoy the hospitahty of the inhabitants, which was then un- 


Henry Colhns, deserves to be recorded with gratitude and 
respect. He was a native of Newport, and born March, 1699. 
He was educated in England, and on his return to his native 
country, adopted the profession of merchant, in which he was 
for a time eminently successful. He was a man of cultivated 
taste, and fond of literature — he animated and encouraged kin- 
dred spirits, and in 1730, with several associates, form.ed a lite- 
rary and philosophical society in Newport, which was the first 
that was ever formed in the colony, and probably was one of 
the earhest in America. This society afterwards comprised 
many of the prominent men in the colony, and some in Massa 
chusetts and Connecticut. He is said to have been the pro- 
jector of the plan for a Library Association, in Newport, for 
which purpose he gave the valuable lot of land on which the 
edifice of the Eedwood Library waserected, and was for many 
years one of the directors of the Institution. 

He was a munificent patron of the arts, and by his patronage 
to Smybert, Alexander, Tocke, &c., we are indebted for many 
valuable paintings of the ancient Patriarchs, which are still to 
be found in Newport. 

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He formed a gallery of paintings, which the venerable Dr» 
Waterhouse remembers to have seen in his youthful days. In 
a letter to the Eev. Eomeo Elton, he thus speaks : '' Henry Col- 
lins was a wealthy merchant and man of taste— the Lorenzi de Me- 
dici, of Rhode Island ; he caused a painting to be made of Parson 
Oallender, as well as some other divines, as Hitchcox, Clap, and 
Dean Berkley, which I have often admired in the Collins' collec- 
tion." The painting of Mr. Clap is now in the possession of the 
Congregational church in Spring-street, and we would suggest 
to the First Baptist church of Newport, and of America, too, 
that they should take immediate measures to obtain the portrait 
of Mr. Callender, which has been taken from Newport and 
placed in the Historical Building in Providence, where it does 
not justly belong. Such things should never be permitted to 
exist, without obtaining redress. 

Mr. Collins was at the head of every public improvement in 
Newport ; as the extension of the Long Wharf, and the building 
of the Brick Market, or Granary, in the year 1763. The architect 
was Peter Harrison ; it was built after the Ionic order. The 
upper story, for many years, was used for a theatre, before it 
was altered into a Town Hall. 

" Whereas, the Proprietors of the Long Wharf, in Newport, 
aforesaid, have made a grant, on the twenty-fourth day of July, 
A. D. 1760, to the said town of Newport, of a lot of land, for 
erecting a Market House, &c., it is therefore voted, that Mar- 
tin Howard and Josias Lydon, Esqrs., be a committee, and they 
are hereby confirmed to make and give a good deed of said lot, 
to the town of Newport, agreeable to said grant. 

" And that the upper part be divided into stores for dry- 
goods, and let out to the best advantage ; and all the rents 
thereof, together with all the profits that shall arise on said 
building, shall be lodged in the Town Treasury of said town 
of Newport, towards a stock for purchasing grain, for supplying 
a Public Granary forever. And that said building be erected 
agreeably to a plan to be agreed on by said Proprietors, to be 
estimated at twenty-four thousand pounds, old tenor, to be 
raised by the lottery now on foot. 

" The lower part thereof for a Market House, and for no other 
use whatsoever, forever ; (unless it shall be found convenient to 
appropriate some part of it for a watch-house.) A handsome 

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brick building, to be thirty-three feet in front, or in width, 
and about sixty-six feet in length." — From the Records of the 
Proprietor of the Long Wharf 

It is understood that there is a fine portrait of Mr. Collins 
still in being, which is said to be now in possession of some one 
of the family of the late Dr. Henry Flagg, of South Oarohna. 
It ought to be placed in the Eedwood Library. He was a mem- 
ber of the Seventh-Day Baptist church, and was one of the com- 
mittee for erecting the house of worship. 

Such were the merchants of Newport in the past. 
1775. On the 15th of November, Charles Dudley, Esq., the 
king's Collector of the Customs for Kh'ode Island, J?e<i for refuge 
on board a ship of war. He married the daughter of Eobert 
Cranston, of Newport. He died in England, and his family 
returned to America. His son was the Hon. Charles Dudley, 
of Albany. Mr. Dudley owned, and occupied the seat, a short 
distance from Newport, called "Dudley Place," at present 
Gwmed by the heirs of the late Governor Charles Collins. 
Edward Vanzant, Esq. is the present proprietor of this charm- 
ing retreat ; a gentleman of fine manners, who takes delight in 
rendering every attention to visitors. Mr. Dudley is said to 
have been a man of polished manners ; his portrait, in the cos- 
tume of a courtier, shews him off to great advantage, — it is in 
the possession of Mrs. Dudley, of Albany. In the weekly 
clubs then held in Newport, which embraced men of distinction, 
Mr. Dudley was usually one of the guests, and both amused 
and edified the company. At this memorable period, Newport 
■was far in advance of the other towns and cities in the colonies, 
in the refined taste and the enlarged hospitality, which charac- 
terized the inhabitants. This arose from the nature of the 
education then enjoyed, for where the mind is suffered to vege- 
tate without moral culture, the fruit borne will resemble the 
grapes of Sodom, or the fabled apples w^hich grew on the mar- 
gin of the lake Asphaltites. The education of far too many at 
the present day, having been so crude and indigested, that the 
lustre, which is shed on the pathway of the intellectual mind, 
is not visible. 

A fine waiter has remarked of Newport, that ^^ there are few 
towns of any magnitude within our broad territory, in which so 
little change has been effected in half a century, as m New^port. 

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Until the vast resources of the interior were developed, the 
beautiful island on which it stands, was. a chosen retreat of the 
affluent planters of the South, from the heats and diseases of 
their burning climate. Here they resorted in crowds, to 
breathe the invigorating breezes of the sea. Subjects of the 
same government, the inhabitants of the Garolinas and of Ja- 
maica met here in amity, to enjoy free interchange of thought 
and feehng. 

At the interesting period of 1769, the island was never more 
inviting and lovely. Its swelhng crests were still crowned 
with the wood of centuries : its little vales were covered with 
the living verdure of the north ; and its unpretending, but 
neat and comfortable villas lay sheltered in groves, and em- 
bedded in flowers. The beauty and fertility of the place 
gained for it a name, which, probably, expressed far more than 
was, at that early day, properly understood. The inhabitants 
of the county styled their possessions the " G-arden of America." 
Neither were their guests from the scorching plains of the 
South, reluctant to concede so imposing a title of distinction. 


As the commerce of Newport whitened every sea, it was to 
be expected that disasters would occasionally occur. But this 
event caused painful anguish to many hearts. This year^ 
1767, was memorable for a melancholy disaster, that took 
place on the night of the 26th of August, off Point Judith, 
The brig Dolphin, Capt. John Malborn, (son of Evan,) from 
Kingston, Jamaica, with a valuable cargo of rum and sugar, 
and a, number of passengers belonging to a theatrical company, 
took fire, and the vessel and cargo were entirely consumed ; 
five female passengers perished in the cabin. The officers and 
crew, w^ith the rest of the passengers, escaped to the shore in 

The brig was a new vessel, of 210 tons, belonging to Messrs, 
E. & E. Malborn, merchants, of New^port. Among the pas- 

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seBgers was Mr. Henry, the father of the American stage, and 
"William B. Simpson, afterwards a lawyer of Newport. 

Mx. Henry's wife and daughter were among those who were 
lost It is stated that the cabin-boy was sent below to draw 
some rum from a choice cask, and carelessly placing the light 
too near, it immediately ignited, and the cask burst ; the report 
was like that of cannon. 

Oapt. John Dennis was a native of England ; he came to 
Ehode island when a boy, having been apprenticed to a ship- 
master in the London trade, belonging to Newport. Being of 
an active disposition, he soon became master of a vessel. He 
greatly distinguished himself by his daring courage, and suc- 
cessful enterprise. In 1741, while cruising in the "West Indies, 
he so greatly annoyed the French islands, by the capture of 
their vessels and privateers, that the authorities of Martinique 
fitted out a vessel of 14 guns, and 130 men, expressly for the 
purpose of ridding themselves of so troublesome an enemy ; but 
in this they were disappointed, for, after an .engagement of 
nearly four hours, in which Oapt. Dennis was shghtly wounded, 
she was taken possession of by Oapt. Dennis, and carried into 
St. Kitt's. Here he received the attention which he had so 
justly merited, from the Governor, and other officers of the 
island, and who, as a testimony of respect for his valuable ser- 
vices, presented him with a golden oar and a purse of fLve 
hundred pistoles. 

In the war of 1756, Oapt Dennis was selected to command 
the privateer ship Tay, of 18 guns, and 180 men, which was 
fitted out by the merchants of Newport, for the purpose of 
annoying the Spanish commerce. This vessel sailed from New- 
port on the 22nd of August, 1756, and was never heard from 
after saihng. 

He left a large family ; among his sons was the late Oapt. 
Thomas Dennis, for many years an enterprising merchant of 
Newport, and the late Oapt. Wilham Dennis, a revolutionary 
patriot, who commanded, during the contest for Independence, 
no less than thirteen privateers. Their descendant's are still 
found in Newport. 

1745. This year two large ships were built, and fitted out 
from Newport, as privateers, and were intended to cruise in 
company on the Spanish Main. They mounted 22 guns each, 

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and were commanded, one by Oapt. Brewer, and the other by 
Oapt. Cranston. They sailed on the 24th of December, at the 
commencement of a north-east snow storm, which increased 
with great violence during the next day. These ships were 
never heard from after sailing, and the only conjecture that 
could be formed was, that they must have come in collision 
with each other during the thick snow storm, and both had 
gone down with all on board. These ships were fitted out, and 
principally owned, by CoL Godfrey Malborn, and the loss was 
considered as one of the greatest calamities that ever befel the 
town ; beside the loss of property, upwards of four hundred 
lives were sacrificed, and nearly two hundred women became 
widows by this disaster. 


The legislature of Massachusetts decided, after much dis- 
cussion, to invite the other Colonies to unite with them, in an 
expedition against Louisburgh, the Gibraltar of the French 
American Provinces. Into the spirit of this enterprise, the 
legislature of Bhode Island entered with patriotic ardor ; and, 
at the May session of that body, passed a resolution to raise a 
regiment of one hundred and fifty men, exclusive of officers ; 
and that the Colony sloop, Tartar, be fitted out, with a compli- 
ment of ninety meUj exclusive of officers. 

The expedition was crowned with success ; and after a siege 
of forty-nine days, the city of Louisburgh, and the island of 
Cape Breton, was surrendered by the French, on June 17th, 
1745, to his Britannic Majesty. 

The capture of Louisburgh, by the Colonies, stung the Court 
of France with mortification and revenge, and they resolved to 
chastise them for their insolence- Accordingly, an expedition 
was fitted out for this purpose, consisting of forty ships of war, 
and fifty-six transports, with three thousand five hundred men, 
and forty thousand stand of arms, for the ¥ren6h. and Indians. 
The Colonies saw and acknowledged their danger, from their 
total inabiUty to defend themselves, in case of an invasion by so 

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numerous and formidable a fleet ; and the inhabitants of the sea- 
port towns were thrown into the greatest consternation. 

No people had more to fear from foreign invasion, in New 
England, than the people of Newport ; from the extent of her 
commercial interests, her local situation, and the facility with 
which the town might be approached with the largest ships of 
war, the inhabitants were thrown into the greatest agitation and 
distress. Nor were these apprehensions allayed, until in Octo- 
ber, it was ascertained that God had interposed for the Colonies, 
and gotten the victory with his own arm. 

So disastrous was this expedition to the French, that among 
all this mighty and formidable fleet, destined to lay in ruins the 
smihng villages of New England, not more than two or three 
ships, and a few transports, ever reached her coast. A violent 
storm at sea either destroyed or damaged many of them. Others 
were compelled to return, on account of a most fearful pesti- 
lence which swept off hundreds of their crews, and made the 
bravest hearts tremble. 

The Admiral, or Commander-in-chief of the whole French 
squadron, on reaching the coast of New England, died of morti- 
fication ; or as some say, of poison. The Yice-Admiral came 
to a similar tragical end, by running himself through the body 
with his own sword. That part of the fleet which arrived on 
the coast, sailed with the intent of making an attack upon An- 
napolis, but a storm scattered them again, and they were forced 
to return without effecting any part of the work of destruction 
originally intended. 

Thus were the Colonies preserved, not by the policy of their 
councils, nor the prowess of their arms — ^but by the providence of 
God. Preliminaries of peace were soon entered into, between 
France and England, and a definitive treaty was signed in Octo- 
ber, 1748. The privateers of Ehode Island distinguished them- 
selves in this war, and during the year 1745, more than twenty 
prizes, some of them of immense value, were sent into Newport. 
In May, 1758, Great Britain, under George II., formally de- 
clared war with France ; which declaration was reciprocated 
by France the following month. The causes which led to this 
war, commonly distinguished by the name of the " French and 
Indian war," were the alleged encroachments of the French on 
the English settlements in America. 

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This war terminated in 1763, by the cession of Nova Scotia, 
Canada, the Isle of Cape Breton, and all other islands of the 
gulph and river of St. Lawrence, to the British Crown. In all 
these splendid achievements of the British arms, during these 
long, protracted, and sanguinary conflicts, no town, perhaps, of 
equal size in New England, contributed more to the glory of the 
British Crown, than Newport. 

In 1723, the town of Newport voted to build an Alms House 
for the poor of the town. 


As the Cranston family figured largely in Newport, previous 
to the Revolution, some account of them will, no doubt, prove 
highly interesting and amusing to the reader, more especially 
the event we now are about to notice. 

Samuel Cranston, Esq., a gentleman of noble descent, and 
who had highly distinguished himself as' a merchant in Newport, 
on the breaking out of the Erench war of 1755, finding business 
completely paralyzed, and being of an active temperament of 
mind, was induced to start on a voyage for Jamaica, not, how- 
ever, anticipating the scenes and events which he was destined 
to endure in the prosecution of the voyage. 

When off the Keys of Elorida, they were attacked by a pira- 
tical vessel ; they defended themselves to the utmost, satisfied as 
they were, that should they fall into their hands, no mercy 
would be shown them ; but all their efforts were in vain, and 
they were compelled to surrender to the enemy. Such was the 
savage cruelty of these buccaneers, that neither prayers nor ex- 
postulations had the least effect on their hard and obdurate 
hearts : the passengers and crew were all inhumanly butchered 
on the spot, with the exception of Mr. Cranston, who was 
spared, in order to labor on board the vessel as a common 

To a mind like his, it must have been deeply humiliating to 
be suddenly thrown from an elevated position in society, and 
compelled to herd with brutes in human form. In this condition 

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he was doomed to labor for seven years. The thoughts of 
home would rush ou the mind, producing pain and disquietude, 
and anxiously looking forward to the moment of deUverance, 
when he should once more participate in the enjoyment of the 
domestic circle. He had watched every moment, from the time 
of his captivity, for an opportunity to effect his escape ; the pro- 
pitious hour seemed now to have arrived, and he availed him- 
self of it. Having secured a boat and secreted some provisions, 
he committed himself to the winds and waves, trusting in Divine 
Providence for protection. After having been tossed about for 
many days, he was so fortunate as to fall in with an English 
ship, bound from Jamaica to Hahfax, who kindly took him on 
board and treated him with marked attention. On his arrival 
at Hahfax, a passage was given him to Boston, and on his arri- 
val there, he was startled at the rumor that his wife was on the 
eve of being married to a Mr. Eussell, of Boston. This was 
an additional stroke, and rendered his mind a prey to the 
most gloomy thoughts. Poor and penniless, he started from 
Boston on foot, for Newport, there to await the issue. On his 
arrival, he entered the back door of his former residence, in the 
character of a mendicant, and craved food from the servants, 
which was readily granted. After appeasing the cravings of 
hunger, he inquired if Mrs. Cranston was the mistress of the 
house ; on being answered in the affirmative, he stated that he 
had a message which he wished to communicate to her. On 
being informed that it would be entirely out of her power to 
comply with his wishes, as she was then making preparations for 
her nuptial celebration, which was to take place that evening, 
the heart of Cranston was seized with the most painful emotion, 
that his lovely and adored wife was about to espouse another. 
He requested the servant to say to her mistress, 'that he had 
seen her husband that day at 12 o'clock, crossing Howland's 

Such intelhgence, so unaccountable, yet , highly interesting, 
brought Mrs. Cranston from her toilette^ to look on the bearer 
of such intelhgence. He briefly rehearsed over the sufferings 
which her husband had endured, which she hstened to with the 
deepest interest. He wished to know of Mrs. Cranston whether 
she had ever seen him before. Dressed in sailor's garb, with a tar- 
pauhn hat partially drawn over his eyes, she rephed in the nega- 

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twQ^ finding himself a stranger and unknown, in his own 
mansion, he at last raised his hat and gave her a significant look, 
^t the same moment pointing to a scar on his forehead, and ex- 
<claiming : " Did • you, Mrs, Cranston, ev^r see that mark 
before ?" She at once flung herself on his bosom, and ex- 
claimed, in transports of joy, " You are my own, own dear, long 
lost husband 1" 

It required, as you may well imagine, some little time for the 
paroxysm to subside, and for Mr. Cranston to dress himself in 
a manner becoming his rank and station, before entering the 
drawing room., where the elegant group had assembled to wit- 
ness the ceremony. 

Mr. Eussell, and the oflaciating <dergyman, were already pre- 
sent, and nothing was wanting but the appearance of the bridco 
Soon, ho¥/ever, she entered, gracefully leaning on the arm of 
Mr. Cranston, whom she introduced as her long absent husband. 
The scene was worthy of the chisel of the artist, and produced 
amotions of delight in the minds of the guests, 

Mr, Eussell with true magnanimity, insisted that the marriage 
-ceremony should be repeated, he giving the bride to her former 
husband, and endowing her with the amount which he intended 
to settle on her as his wife. This is a matter of fact, though 
assuming the .appearance of romance. 

Mr. Cranston was the son of the Hon. Samuel Cranston, 
(rovernor of the Colony, The Hon. Thomas Cranston, the 
grandson of Governor Samuel Cranston, and Abraham Eed- 
wood, married sisters, 

'' Three full-length portraits, of Mr, Cranston, wife, and 
daughter, are hanging up in my house at Kingston. They 
were painted by Copley, before the Eevolution, which, wnth the 
carved frames, gilded, <cost one thousand dollars at that period.'' 
—-History of the Narragansett Chu7'ch. 

Newport was once rich in paintings, but time and change 
have scattered and dispersed them. 

The residence of Grovernor Cranston v\^as in the rear of the 
Hunter estate, in Thames-street, and was called his *' Castle." 
Being built of stone, and cemented with shell lime, gave to it 
an antique appearance. He died, A. D. 1727. 

The following inscription appears on his tomb-stone : 

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" Here Ikth the body of 



Aged 68 Yearn ;. and 

Departed tli^s life, April ye 26, A.D. 1727. 

M& was son of JOHN CRAN8T0N, Esq., who also was? 

GoTernor here^ 1680 ; 

Ho was descended from' the noble Seottisb 


And carried in his viens a streans of the 

Ancient Earls of 


Having had for bis GrandfatheTy 

Chaplain tc King Charles the First.. 

His Great- G^randfather wss 

JOHN CRANSTON, of Pooi,b, Esq;., 

This last was Son of 


Whi©h James was Sori to 


Best happy now, brave patriot, without end,- 

Thy country^'s father, and thy eomntry^s friend." 

On tlie head of the tombstone is emMazoned a rich coat-ol' 
arms, with the motto— 


The late Eer. "Walter Cranston, of the Episcopal Church, ss 
native of Newport, was one of his^ descendants. The name of 
Cranston^ is still found in Newport, and the Hon. Eobert B.y 
and H. Y. Cransto% have both been Eepresentatives in th© 
Congress of th© United StateSj« from Ehode Islando. 


The Marine Society was instituted in the year 1756, by the 
Bame of the Eellowship Club. It was changed to the name of 
the Marine Society, by an Act of the Legislature, in 1785. The 
funds of the Institution have accumulated to about $20,Q00v th© 

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Interest of which is appropriated to the relief of widows of de- 
ceased mariners, and orphan children, and to indigent members 
of the Society, agreeable to 


" 1st. This Society having been instituted for the relief of un- 
fortunate mariners, their widows and orphan children, its funds 
are never, in any instance, to be diverted from that object." 

Tinder its present arrangement, far more liberality is dis- 
played towards the unfortunate, than formerly. This happy 
feature has arisen from the admission of new members, with 
enlarged and liberal views, and disposed to do ample justice 
towards applicants, without respect to self It is a noble insti- 
tution, reflecting honor on the town, and should be fostered and 
encouraged by every mariner of Newport. 

Its first Secretary w^as Mr. Benjamin Sayar, and its first Pre- 
sident, Mr. Oliver Eing Warner, 


^^ In the spring of 1658, Mordecai Campaisnall, Moses Paekoc- 
koe, Levi, and others., in all fifteen families^ arrived at Newport 
from Holland. They brought with them the three first degrees 
of masonry, and worked them in the house of Gampannally and 
continued to do so, they and tkeir successors, to the year 1742.'* 
-—Taken from Documents now in possession of N. BL Goulcl^ 

We have noticed this institution from the fact of its having 
been said to be ^'fee oldest body in the United States.^' It 
is in a flourishing condition, numbering about one hundred and 
fifty members. 

'^ In the year 1768, a lottery w^as granted by the Assembly, to 
pave Thames-street; it was called ^ the Newport Pavement 
liOii^vjJ ''''■—From the Newport Mercury. 

1774. The entries at the Custom House in Mewport, for the 
months of June and July, were : vessels from foreign voyages, 
64; coasters, 134; whalemen, 17; making an aggregate of 215 
in the space of two months. 

The Ehode Isl^j^d GREEMiNG.—It is stated that the fir^t tree 

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of the kind, came up spontaneously, near the wa!l^ by the brook 
which runs through the farm of Joseph I. Baily. Esq., in Mid- 
dletown, the owner at that time being a Mr. Greene ; from him. 
the apple took its nam^e. It is highly celebrated and much 
sought after. 

The Gardner Pear was introduced by Mr. Lucas, a French 
Huguenot, who, on his arrival at Newport, hired an estate of Mr. 
R. Gardner, for his residence. About the time the tree began 
to bear, Mr. Gardner occupied his own estate, and the pear re» 
maining, it obtained the name of the '' Gardner Pear." They 
have nearly run out. 

The TalTman Sweeting Apple, is a native of the Islandj, 
d:eriving its name from the family of Tallmans. 

onmm of the be^atur family. 

Stephen Decatur, who was a Captain in the United States 
JSTavy, and fatber of the late distinguished Commodore Stephen 
Decatur, was born in Newport,. April, 1752. His grandfather 
was a native of Genoa, who came to Rhode Island about 
1746'. He married, in Newport, in 1751, the widow Prisci^lla 
Hill. Her maiden name was George. The family had their 
residence in Broad- street,, where the house is still standing. As- 
the mother's character so sensibly affects that of her children, it 
may not be amiss here to say,, that Mrs. Hill possessed a force 
of mind and energy of character which was a characteristic 
feature of the George family. Stephen Decatur, the elder, was 
born in the house v/hich then ^tood where the spfendid mansion 
of Levi H. Gale, Esq., now stands, directly fronting the Mall. 

Previous to the Revolution, they removed from Newport. In 
the war of the Revolution, Capt. Decatur greatly distinguished 
himself as the commander of a private ship from Philadelphia^ 
called the ^' Pair American," by the capture of several 
British armed vessels. After the peace, he commanded a mer- 
chant vessel. At the establishment of the navy, in 1797, he 
was appointed to the command of the Delaware Sloop of War. 
He continued in her until the frigate Philadelphia was built^ 
when the command was given him, at the request of the m.eF- 
chants who had built her by subscription. 

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He remained in command of the Philadelphia, until the settle- 
ment with France, when he resigned his commission and retired 
to his farm, a few miles from Philadelphia, where he resided 
until his death, which took place in March, 1808, in the 57th 
year of his age. 

He had three sons and several daughters. His sons were, the 
late gallant Commodore Stephen Decatur, Lieut. James Decatur^ 
who was killed in the Tripolitan war, and Col. John P. Decatur. 

Commodore Stephen Decatur was unfortunately killed in a 
duel with the late Commodore Barron. No eulogy from our 
pen is needed, to establish the high reputation which Stephen 
Decatur acquired in his naval career ; we feel a pride of charac- 
ter, however, in being able to connect him with the illustrious 
personages whose origin has been in Newport. 

1761. This year a company of commedians arrived in New- 
port from "Williamsburgh, Virginia. They erected a temporary 
theatre at the upper part of the Point near Dyre's Grove, and 
the performances were well attended. This is said to have been 
the first company that ever performed in America. John 
Whipple, on his return from the theatre, was drowned by fall- 
ing from the Point Bridge. 


Godfrey and John Malborn, had a slaver bound to Ehode 
Island, loaded with slaves : a pirate looking vessel hove in 
sight, and the captain offered to knock off the irons of the 
slaves, if they would coi]sent to defend the vessel from the 
pirates. On their consenting, they were taken up and armed, 
and succeeding in driving off the enemy, they were rewarded, 
and afterwards taken to Pomfret, in Connecticut, on the large 
estate of Godfrey Malborn. Many of their descendants are still 
living in that neighborhood. An old hanger is now in the pos- 
session of Thomas Brinley, Esq., one hundred years old, which 
was used on that occasion. 

John Brown, who was an eminent merchant of Newport, died 
October, 1753. He married a daughter of the Eev. James 
Honyman. He was extensively engaged in privateering, in com- 
pany with Godfrey Malborn and George "Wanton. 

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The enterprise which characterized the inhabitants of New- 
port, at that period, prove them to have been a superior class 
of men. There was a stimulus to action — for success crowned 
their efforts — and they were induced to push on, and to make 
Newport what she once was — the pride and admiration of the 

"We have not alluded to the Slave Trade, from whence she 
reaped a golden harvest. The large exportation of New Eng- 
land rum to Africa, which in return brought slaves, increased the 
wealth of the place to an astonishing degree. There were but few 
of her merchants that were not directly, or indirectly interested 
in the traffic. Some forty or fifty sail of vessels were in this em- 
ployment, and it was thought a necessary appendage to have 
on6 or more slaves, to act as domestics in their famiUes. 

Many an amusing anecdote is related of the slaves, which 
show them to have been rather more apt than what is usually 
the case. In imitation of the whites, the negroes held an annual 
election on the third Saturday in June, when they elected their 
Governor. This annual festivity was looked for with great 
anxiety. Party spirit was as violent and acrimonious with them 
as with the whites. The slaves assumed the power and pride, 
and took the relative rank of their masters ; and it was 
degrading to the reputation of the owner, if his slaves appeared 
in inferior apparel, or with less money, than the slave of another 
master of equal wealth. At dinner, the Governor was seated 
at the head of the long table, under trees, or an arbor, with the 
unsuccessful candidate at his right, and his lady on the left. 
The afternoon was spent in dancing, games of quoits, athletic 
exercises, &c. They have for many years ceased the obser- 
vance of this election. 

The owners of slaves in Newport, as a general thing, were 
indulgent masters, so much so that the blacks were not con- 
scious of being in bondage, but w^ere treated with^ every mark 
of kindness befitting their station.. Dr. Benjamin Waterhouse, 
late Professor in Harvard University, &c., in speaking on this 
subject, says : 

In Newport there was a worthy, opulent man, and very re- 
spectable member of the Society of Friends, named Joseph 
Jacobs, advanced in fife, who had four or five neat and well- 
behaved negro domestics, bound together by duty, respect, and 

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gratitude ; a pleasant picture of patriarchal government, with- 
out fear and without reproach. But being all blacks, it left the 
master and his wife alone in the parlor and garden ; when he 
invited Mary Oallender, daughter of Kev. Mr. Oallender, to be- 
come their parlor companion ; and she did so, to mutual satis- 
faction, waited on by black female slaves, who w^ore the plain 
garb of Quakers. The family was singular, and everything 
very decorous ; relatively respectable, and marked by humble 
wisdom. To see the negro women, with their black hoods and 
blue aprons, walking at a respectful distance behind their mas- 
ter, to meeting, was not an unpleasant sight on those days. 
Friend Jacobs himself was somewhat unique in. his habits and 
manners. Easy in his circumstances, and intellectual in taste, 
he filled up his leisure hours in watching the wind, his clock, and 
his weather-glasses. At that day, he was the only person on 
Ehode Island who owned a thermometer." 

Newport was not alone in the slave trade ; other places con- 
tributed their full share, and reaped the profits. It was at that 
period thought to be just and equitable, and none entertained 
conscientious scruples against it. It is unbecoming in the 
North, who have been the means of entailing slavery on the 
South, to turn round and denounce them as a class of unprin- 
cipled men, and deny to them the right which properly belongs 
to them, to manage their own domestic institutions as they 

The course which has been pursued, so far from hastening 
the extinction of slavery, has retarded the event to an indefinite 
period. If we could be satisfied that immediate emancipation 
would better the condition of the slave, we would heartily 
acquiesce in the measure. But what has been the result in 
the British "West Indies ? Has the physical and moral condi- 
tion of the slaves been improved, by granting to them their free- 
dom ? "We believe it to be susceptible of proof, that it has not 
■been the case ; for the value of estates has declined, and both 
planter and negro, have become infinitely worse off by the pre- 
mature and hasty measure. The results which have since fol- 
lowed, were not at the time anticipated. Great Britain has no 
great occasion to glory in the. measure, but rather to lament it. 
In corroboration, heed and hearken to the voice that comes up to us 
from the ponderous columns of the London Times ; that journal 

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which of all others, perhaps, speaks most accurately the feelings 
and opinions of the British people on this, as on niost other sub- 
jects of public concern : — 

^' Our legislation has been dictated by the presumed neces- 
sities of the African slave. After the Emancipation Act, a 
large charge was assessed upon the Colony, in aid of civil and 
rehgious institutions for the benefit of the enfranchised negro, and 
it was hoped that these colored subjects of the British Crown, 
would soon be assimilated to their fellow-citizens. From all the 
information which reaches us, no less than from the visible pro- 
babilities of the case, we are constrained to beheve ihai these 
hopes have been falsified. The negro has not acquired with his 
freedom, any habits of industry or morality. His independence 
is little better than that of an uneaptured brute. Having 
accepted few of the restraints of civilization, he is amenable to 
few of its necessities ; and the wants of his nature are so easily 
satisfied, that at the current rate of wages he is called upon for 
nothing but fitful or desultory exertion. The blacks^ therefore^ 
instead ofbecomirig intelligent husbandmen^ havebecome vagrants 
and squatters^ and it is noio apprehended that luith the faikire of 
cultivation in the island^ will come the failure of its resources 
for instructing or controlling its population. So imminent does 
this consummation appear, that memorials have been signed by 
classes of colonial society hitherto standing aloof from politics, 
and not only the bench and the bar, but the bishop, clergy, and 
ministers of all denominations in the island, without exception, 
have recorded their conviction, that, in the absence of timely 
relief, the rehgious and educational institutions of the island 
must be abandoned^ and the masses of the population retrograde 
to bojfbarism P'' 

The New- York Express adds some very sensible remarks, 
which we here subjoin : 

'' Would that those in our own country, who profess to be the 
only real friends of the African, would study these painful truths, 
and lay them to heart. Would that they abandon their wild chi- 
meras of immediate, compulsory .emancipation, to benefit the Afri- 
can, and betake themselves to the more humane, enlightened, and 
practical cause of Colonization, now seemingly the only door 
left open for the regeneration of the race. The bitter experience 

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of Great Britain should teach us wisdom. The mistaken phi- 
lanthropy which gave to the West India negroes the boon of 
freedom, which they neither knew nor cared how to value, has 
been fruitful of evils which, for the true welfare of the slave 
population in our own country, it were prudence and wisdom to 
guard against. English emancipation has done for the slave 
population of the West Indies, just what Abolitionism at home 
seeks to do foF the same class of population in our Southern 
States, (only in a more aggravated form,) the bestowing upon 
them of an independence but' ' httle better than that of an 
uncaptured hrute^ and a condition which, so far from enabling 
them to become intelhgenty comfortable, and happy^ will as in- 
evitably reduce them to ' mere squatters and vagrants\, among 
the rest of mankind." 

Could the Abolitionists succeed in carrying out their plans, 
in giving freedom to the slaves, what, we inquire, would be the 
moral and physical condition of the North ? Already, the popu- 
lation has become so dense in our cities and larger towns, and 
such the competition in labor, with the low prices paid, that the 
poor man can hardly sustain himself and family. This incendiary 
measure would flood the North with • emancipated negroes, and 
the collision would be painful to contemplate. 

But the Abohtionists say, in reply : " Let the masters employ 
them and compensate them for their labor, and this would 
obviate the difficulty." This is mere theory. They having 
heard so much of the sympathy expressed for them by their 
Anti-Slavery friends of the North — who, bye-the-bye, would not 
contribute one dollar to ameHorate their condition — would, how- 
ever, be induced to come among them and enjoy their hospital- 
ity^ and that liberty of which they have heard so much ; but 
which, alas ! would only be imaginary in its nature, for their 
condition, instead of being improved, .would be infinitely worse 
by the change. 

There are certain laws in the physical and moral world, which 
we can never change, and it is not for us to arraign Omnipo- 
tence, and attempt to impeach his divine character. His wis- 
dom, is infinite, and out of these discordant materials good will 
ultimately arise. Our Saviour illustrates the kingdom of 
heaven, by " a woman's putting a piece of leaven into a measure 
of meal, until the whole was leavened." This implied the process 

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of fermentation, and it required time. To have attempted to 
change the order of nature would only have effectually de- 
stroyed the article and rendered it useless. So in the moral 
elements, they are at work, and operating to the final consum- 
mation and overthrow of all evil in the world. But \ye cannot 
successfully hasten the time, by our own plans and purposes, 
but must leave it to Infinite Wisdom, at the same time employ- 
ing the means which his Word and teaching furnish. 

While the North held slaves, she took her own time to 
free them, and this was not done until she had become con- 
vinced that they were no longer profitable. It was a mere 
matter of dollars and cents^ and not a conviction of its moral 
wrong, which urged them to the measure. No one attempted 
to coerce the North, which they were then satisfied they had no 
moral or pohtical right to do. Let the North, then, leave the 
South to manage her domestic institutions in a manner most 
agreeable to her wishes, and hence put an end to agitation^ 
which has already caused the temple of liberty to tremble to 
its very base. The union of these States should be dear to 
every American, and the individual who would put forth a sui- 
cidal hand to destroy the work of ages, should be denounced as 
a traitor of the ^^ first water ^'^^ far beyond Benedict Arnold in 
infamy and crime. Colonization is the only feasible plan devised, 
to ultimately free the country from slavery. And we believe it 
to be God^s plan, for in no other possible w^ay, can we conceive 
of the civihzation and Christianizing of the dark Continent of 

It should be borne in mind by the reader, that Slavery was 
entailed upon us while we were Colonies to G-reat Britain; and 
her interference with our institutions — now that we are free and 
independent — is an assumption of power which should not for a 
moment be countenanced by these United States, Her emissa- 
ries sent forth to stir up strife and sedition between the mem- 
bers of this Confederacy, should be told to go back instanter, 
and reform the abuses which exist in their own country, and 
which are most revolting in their nature — ^infinitely surpassing 
Southern slavery, which theiv im^gmsitioii hm conjured up m 
the greatest evil existing in the world. 

Nations are very much like individuals; their own wrongs are 
not seen, while the wrongs and errors of others are magnified 

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to the utmost stretch of a morbid mind. Let Great Britain 
survey the deep and damning misery which is to be found 
among the underground subjects of the realm, laboring and 
toiling in those hells, the coal-mines^ shut out from the light of 
heaven, and crouching under their burden, until their hmbs be- 
coming contracted, premature old age follows, and death is their 
only hope of rehef from the wretchedness of their conditioB. 

This is the nation which it was once said was "the bulwark of 
the Christian rehgion!" When Great Britain will make some effec- 
tual effort to free her lohiie slaves, we of this nation may feel 
more inclined to receive council and instruction from her, in re- 
lation to real or imaginary wrongs, which are to be found in 
this country. With her present jjolicy, we have reason to 
believe that her aim and object is, to divide, if possible, these 
United States, regardless, entirely^ of the state and condition 
of the slaves, which, if they had the control, would 5^^i// be 
found in the cotton-fields, laboring to keep in successful opera- 
tion their extensive manufacturing establishments. 

The writer to whom we are to refer as evidence of the truth 
of the above remarks, is the Eev. WiUiam Sewell, B.D., Author 
of ^' Christian Politics," and late Professor of Moral Philosophy 
in the University of Oxford : — 

" We sigh over the imprisonment of the canary-bird, ex- 
claim against the cruelty of its oppressor, unbar the doors of 
its cage without a moment's delay, and the poor bird claps it^ 
wings with joy, flutters into open air, regains its liberty, its 
blessed liberty, — and the next day is found dead of cold and 
hunger. It is not for a Christian to argue in favor of slavery ; 
still less to speak of it, except with abhorrence^ when the master 
abuses his power, and the slave, instead of being raised by him 
by degrees, to the capabiUty and enjoyment of his freedom, is 
riveted in his chains forever. But a Christian may indeed ask, 
whether the total exclusion of all restraint, of all fear, of all 
positive external obligation from the relation of master and 
servant, has not ended in 'i'educing the servant in this country 
to a condition far worse, far more abject and degraded, far 
more hopeless, far more vitiated, than that of any slave in any 
period or country of the world ? Our mines, our factories, our 
common workshops, — even our farms and agricultural cottages, 
full of cripplied children and deformed women, of famine and 

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fever, of drunkenness and vice, — of depraved, miserable, hope- 
less beings, doomed by their own free act, the free act of a 
being in the agony of starvation, — to the severest toil in dark- 
ness, at midnight ; deprived of rest, stinted in food, seUing their 
children to the same misery with their own for a few shillings, 
or sickening over hours of toil to earn their pence, — all the 
horrible scenes revealed by late inquiries into the state of our 
lower classes, — what is there in the records of slavery to be 
found more heart breaking or more appalhng, to those who 
beheve that nations, like individuals, are visited by curses from 
the Almighty,— and that the first curse denounced in His 
commandments is uttered against those who depart, even in 
the slightest degree, from His positive, external, revealed truth, 
and shape out ideas of the divine nature after their own fancy." 
—pp. 313-328, 

In the year 1768, March 21st, it being the anniversary of the 
repeal of the Stamp Act, the day was celebrated with public 
exhibitions of joy, A flag was displayed on the top of the 
noble wide spreading tree of hberty, and a copper-plate afl5xed 
to its venerable trunk, in the room of that which was infamously 
taken from it on the 25th of August preceding. A flag was 
hoisted at Port George, at Liberty Mast, on the Point ; and 
the shipping in the harbor displayed their colors. ' The bells 
rung a merry peal, and every thing wore a joyous aspect. In 
the evening, rockets were discharged from the tree of liberty, 
at Liberty Mast ; and at the house of John Madsly, Esq., a 
number of gentlemen were politely entertained, and the glass 
circulated in honor to the British and American patriots. 
Many other gentlemen assembled, in diflerent parts of the 
town, to commemorate the glorious event, and the whole day 
was spent in decent festivity. 

John Madsly owned and occupied the house, now in the 
possession of Dr. Watson, at the head of King-street. He is 
said to have been a polished gentleman, and distinguished for 
his benevolence, ever ready to confer^favors on those who stood 
in need. The Prench fleet, in firing on the British batteries, 
threw several shot unintentionally into the town ; Mr. Madsly 
had apprehended such an event, and had fitted up his oil-house 
cellar, adjoining his mansion, and invited the neighbors to take 
shelter there, A bullet entered the building, and lodged, with- 

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out causing damage to any person in the cellar. It remained 
where it lodged, until the building was repaired and fitted up 
as a dancing hall for Carpentiere. 

We find, as a matter of record, that " many persons were 
determined to use their influence in putting a stop to the 
destructive and pernicious effects attending the immense con- 
sumption of foreign teas, which must, otherwise, soon render 
us a poor, weak, debihtated people. The Hyperion, or Labra- 
dor tea, is much esteemed, and by great numbers vastly pre- 
ferred to the poisonous Bohea." 

Newport, in 1767, passed resolutions to discourage, as much 
as possible, further importations of European manufactures. 

" We have heard of many gentlemen in town, of figure and 
fortune, who are determined to clothe themselves and families 
for the future, with the manufactures of this country. These 
resolutions were responded to by other sections of the country." 

The* New York Journal, May 30, 1768, says, " What a glo- 
rious example Newport has set us. Eouse, my countrymen ! 
We are well informed that one married lady and her daughter, 
of about sixteen, have spun full sixty yards of good fine hnen 
cloth, nearly a yard wide, since the first of March, beside taking 
care of a large family. The linen manufacture is promoted and 
carried on, with so much spirit and assiduity, among all ranks, 
that we are assured there is scarcely flax enough to be had in 
town, to supply the continued consumption of that article." 

King Lemuel says, Prov. 31 : 28, '' Her children arise up, 
and call her blessed." v. 19, '' She layeth her hand to the 
spindle, and her hands hold the distafl*," &c. 

Spinning and weaving was for ages an art of distinguished 
life, and was considered in the same light as nee die -work now 
is with us. Accordingly, it was customary to represent those 
most distinguished, as excelling in the art of spinning, and 
poets sang of the distaff and loom. Homer alluded to it in the 
address of Alcondra to Helen ; so also Theocritus, in present- 
ing a distaff to his friend's wife, says, 

" distaff; friend to warp and woof, 
Minerva's friend in man's behoof." 

It is said that Augustus, at the height of his regal splendor, 
appeared among his nobles in a robe, made for him by the queen. 

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Dr. Buslinell has wisely remarked, in his centennial address, 
that ''the age has been called a homespun age f" and we 
would add, one of simplicity, and of comparative happiness, 
when those artificial distinctions, the result of mere wealth, was 
then in a great degree unknown." The homespun age pro- 
duced economy in every member of the family, and they were 
contented with small things. 

The expense of hving, prior to the revolution, was far less 
than now, and what would then have been considered a suffi- 
cient sum to have rendered a man independent, would be looked 
upon at the present time as quite insignificant. Simon Pease, 
of Newport, one of the " upper ten thousand" at that day, 
who lived in a state of elegance befitting his station, was ac- 
costed by a "Wilham Hookey, a silversmith, who had witnessed 
the expensive hving of Mr. Pease : " It must cost you a great 
deal to support your family." Mr. Pease rephed, " thai; it cost 
him the enormous sum of $500 per annum " A person then 
worth ten thousand dollars, was considered a rich man, and 
even at this day of extravagance in th^ price of living, perhaps 
there is no maritime town, where the income arising from ten 
thousand dollars, would go as far in supporting a family, as it 
would in Newport. 


Preached in Trinity Church, Newport, Khode Island, on 
Monday, June 3rd, 1771, at the Puneral of Mrs. Abigail 
"Wanton, late Consort of the Hon. Joseph Wanton, Jup., Esq., 
who departed this life on Priday, May 31st, 1771, in the 36th 
year of her age. 

By George Bisset, M.A. 

" St, Luke xii. 40. — 'Be ye therefore ready also.' 

" It is to be remembered to her honor, that in the day of 
prosperity, and in an age noted for its thoughtlessness and 

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dissipation, her heart was lifted up in the ways of the Lord, to 
keep his commandments. It was a practical maxim with her, 
that as God is our chief benefactor, and can alone be our ex- 
ceeding joy, so he is justly entitled to our highest veneration 
and regard ; and that, consequently, it is surely good for us on 
every occasion, to draw near to him, both in his word and in 
his sacraments. Constant and regular was her attendance 
here, where her behaviour was remarkably composed and 
serious, equally distant from the indecent levity of those who 
come hither solely to comply with custom, not having God in 
all their thoughts, and from that constraining stiffness of the 
gloomy and superstitious, who imagine the object of their 
worship to be altogether such a one as themselves. 

" She carefully and steadily observed the precept of the wise 
man, ' Keep thy foot when thou goest to the house of God ;' 
and the whole of her deportment here always discovered that 
happy mixture of rehgious awe and filial confidence, which 
necessarily arises from just and worthy conceptions of the 
greatest and best of Beings, who is greatly to be feared in the 
meeting of his saints, and to be had in reverence of all that are 
about him. 

" But her sense of religion was not confined to the Church, 
nor to the closet, but as she set God always before her, so that 
great Being, who honoreth those who honor him, kindly con- 
ducted her, with dignity and applause, through the several 
connections and relations of life. She was a grateful and 
dutiful daughter, a prudent and affectionate wife, a tender and 
indulgent parent, a mild and gentle mistress, a sincere and con- 
stant friend. She was a safe and easy companion, and pos- 
sessed, in an eminent degree, the happy art of pleading and 
entertaining in conversation, without ever having recourse to 
the fashionable topics of slander and defamation. Her most 
intimate friends knew not, indeed, whether to admire more her 
sweet and engaging compliance towards those who were 
present, or her tender regard for the character of the absent. 
Being highly sensible of the value of a good name, she always 
looked upon it as base and ungenerous meanness to hurt any 
one in that respect, either through malice, or a vain and un- 
meaning spirit of censoriousness ; and if wit and good nature 
be incoro-patible, it must be honestly acknowledged, that she 

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had no pretensions to the former, as she was never able in the 
least . to rehsh the horrid pleasure of exposing the mangled 
reputation of a neighbor for the amusement of tlie company ; 
on the contrary, it was her constant study and endeavor, to 
promote the interest of good will and friendship, by giving to 
merit its due praises, by endeavoring to remove all causes of 
dissentions, by hiding the faults of those with whom she con- 
versed, and by putting the best construction upon their words 
and actions, which they could possibly admit of ; and thus her 
excellent accomplishments, constantly employed in the cause of 
virtue, were really a blessing to herself and to society ; being 
agreeably recommended and set off by the still more valuable 
ornament of a meek, a candid, and a quiet spirit. Those who 
moved in the higher spheres admired, and were charmed with 
that elegant simplicity, and unaffected gracefulness of manners, 
with that solidity of judgment, and benevolence of heart, and 
with those thousand inexpressible decencies, which uniformly 
appeared in all her words and actions ; and the poor, encouraged 
by her condescensions, and refreshed and cherished by her 
extensive charity, rose up and called her blessed, and with 
heart-felt gratitude, almost adored the liberal hand which was 
so ready to supply their wants ; of which that universal gloom 
and dejection, which has now so remarkably overspread their 
faces, give a much more ample and noble testimony, than any 
encomiums from this place. 

" As her life was thus, in all respects, useful and agreeable, 
so it happily serves to confirm a truth, highly important to 
the interest of morality, that whoever is pitiful and courteous, 
and anxious to promote the happiness of others, will be uni- 
versally beloved, and universally regretted. It was unnecessary, 
and perhaps impertinent, to have said so much of this amiable 
and universally admired character ; you all knew her worth, 
and I trust will long respect her memory ; and those who were 
most intimately connected with her, have no need to be put in 
remembrance, that these things were, and were most dear to 

In the past, it was not the drapery alone which charmed the 
beholder, but rather the moral and intellectual acquirements of 
the mind ; these were the gems which rendered the casket, in 
comparison, valueless. The expenditures for Schools and 

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A;cademies were far less than at the present period, and the 
progress in knowledge as in actual accomplishment, far in ad- 
vance of this age. There was a sohdity of judgment, a fixed- 
2iess of purpose, a devotion to principle, which distinguished 
the minds of a former age, and which rendered society highly 
attractive and agreeable. 

That Hghtness and frivoHty of character, unbecoming the 
gentleman and lady, and which is disgusting to an elevated and 
refined mind^ >vas not to be met with in the higher and fashion- 
able circles of society. 

We have given the foregoing extract of a most valuable ser« 
mon, in order to give the reader some idea of what then consti- 
tuted greatness t)f character ; and would to God that the 
present age would labor to copy after such an example as is 
here held up to view. 

If all the energies of the intellectj and all the treasures which 
liave been expended in fostering malignant passions, and in 
promoting contentions and warfare, had been devoted to the 
great object of cultivating the principle of benevolence, and 
•distributing happiness among men, the moral and physical 
aspect of our world would, long ago, have assumed a, very dif- 
ferent appearance from what it now wears. 


The Malborn and Brinley families figured largely in the past 
history of Newport. Col. Godfrey Malborn was a native of 
Prince Anne county, Virginia, and his farm was near the city 
and borough of Norfolk. He came to Rhode Island about 
17&0. He was a man of sturdy frame and character. The 
tradition is, that he disliked school discipline, absconded from 
his friends, became a sailor boy, and that he was actually bound 
out as an apprentice to a ship-master, by the authority of the 
town of Bristol, then in the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, 
During his apprenticeship, by the death of one of his ancestors, 
he became entitled to a large property in Virginia. He settled 
In Newport, where he .married Margaret Scott ] became, as 
<the reader has already seen, a distinguished merchant, and waf^ 

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eminently soccessful. In the war of 174G, wifh Eramee and 
Spain, be fitted out several private armed vessek of war, whicb 
made many captures. He died at Newport,. February 22d, 
1768, and was buried in the vault under Trinity Church, of 
which he was one of the founders. He left two sons, G-odfrey 
and John ; Thomas, another son^ a graduate of Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, having died at an early agey the victim y it has 
been said, of an over-devotion to study. 

Godfrey, the eldest son, was educated at Queen's College, 
Oxford ; returned to Ehode Island in 1774, and carried on 
business on a large scale^ in compaBy with his brother Johuo. 
They were largely engaged in the Colonial Neutral trade, m 
the war of 1756-7, ending by the peace of 1763, and at first 
was uncommonly successful^ but in the end suffered severely,. 
by the apphcation of the rule of 1756. Two large ships laden 
with sugar, bound for Hamburgh, having been captured, were 
ebndemned, after a long and expensive litigation in the Eisghsh 
Courts of Admiralty. These, and other vexatious los&es, in- 
duced Mr. Malborn to retire from business, to the calm retreat 
of his large estate, in Pomfrety Connecticiiiit, Mr. Malborn 
built an Episcopal Church in Brooldyn, known as the " Mal- 
born Church." 

'' This was the first church erected, and for a long period, the 
only church of that denomination in this country. It was 
erected before the Revolutionary war, by Godfrey Malborn^ 
Jun., Esq., a gentleman from Newport, Rhode Island. On hi& 
removal to Connecticut, he brought with him fifty or sixty 
slaves, on his large estate on which he resided. A great pro- 
portion of the colored people in this part of the State are 
their descendants." — Connecticut Historical Collections. 

The Rev. Mr. Eog, the first Rector of the church, was a 
gentleman of highly respectable attainments, and continued to^ 
ofiici ate until his death. 

Mr. Malborn married Miss Brinley, of Roxbury, sister of 
Francis Brinley, of Newport, and died without issue, 1785. 
His remains lay interred in the church-yard of the Episcopal 
Church in Brooklyn. 

Grodfrey Malborn, senior, had five daughters ; one m-arried 
the above Francis Brinley ; another, the youngest, to Dr, 
William Hunter, father of the late Hon, William Hunter. 

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One married Major Fairchild, one Dr. Mac-Kay, and another 
Shiibel Hutchinson. 

Thomas Brinley, in the reign of Charles the First, held the 
office of Auditor- General. At the downfall of that sovereign, 
he adhered to the fortunes of Charles the Second, and followed 
Mm on his exile upon the Continent. Upon the restoration of 
the second Charles, he held the same office under him, and died 
one year after ; he was buried in the middle aisle of Datchet 
church, near London ; the slab over his remairas, still records 
these facts. 

His son, Francis, (the first of Newport,) left England, and 
arrived at Newport, Ehode Island, and there amassed a large 
fortune ; he died in Newport. He had previously sent his 
eldest son, Thomas, to England, for his education ; he married 
in London, and had three children, and died there with the 
small-pox. His son, William, died, aged 13. His eldest son, 
Francis, (the second,) and daughter Elizabeth, with their 
mother, came to America, and inherited the fortune of his 
grandfather. -He built the house at Eoxbury, after the model 
of the old family mansion at Datchet, in England. 

Elizabeth, grand- daughter of Thomas Brinley, Auditor- 
Greneral for King Charles First and Second, came over with 
her brother Frank and their mother, from England, and settled 
at Eoxbury ; she married a Mr.- Hutchinson, father of Shrimp- 
ton Hutchinson, who married a Malborn» Mrs. Col. Putman, 
George Brinley^'s wife's mother, was, in 1840, the only one of 
the stock remaining, i(L est. \hQ Hutchinsons. 

There was a branch of the Brinley's in New Jersey, as 
early as 1776 ; I know this from the following records in my 
office, (Surveyor-Cenerars :)— 

"^ Lib, 2, fols. 33 & 80 : > Warrt. Survey and Patent^ from 
8th March, 1677- ) Sir George Carteret, Knt., &a 
Proprietor of E, Jersey, to Simon Brinley^ ^ for a parcel of 
land about the towne of Piscataway.' " 

Simon Brinley's will was recorded at Trenton, 5th January, 
1724-5. in " Book A^ of Wills, page 348." I can trace him no 

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Erank "W. Brinleyj, Esq., of Perth Amboy, IST. J.,. General^ 
Surveyor, one of my old schoolfellows, has kkdly furnished; 
some interesting notes of his family, which are here subjoined^, 
as standing in most intimate relation with the past events of 

'' Thomas Brinley,. first son of Erancis and Deborah, of Eox- 
bury, Massachusetts, was a King's Counsellor, and went to 
England with the British troops. He m-arried a Miss Leyed, 
received a compensation from the British government, and died 
in England ; he left no issue. 

" Edward Brinley, third son, remained in Boston at the Ee- 
volution, and was much persecuted as a Loyalist ;. he kept a 
grocery in Boston, and was very unfortunate. He was father 
of Greorge Brinley, druggist, now of Hartford, Connecticut^ 
and of Erank and William,, who lived at Eoxbury. 

" Nathaniel Brinley, fourth son, lived at Tingsbury^ a farmer 
of large estate: had one son,. Eobert, still alive, and resident at 
Tingsbury ; said to be one of the best of men. 

" George Brinley, fifth son, (my father's idoL) He was 
Commissary in the British army, during the Eevolution. In 
1777, at the time of the action at Princeton, the British being 
in New Brunswick and Perth Amboy, on his way from New- 
Brunswick to Perth Amboy, with one servant, he was fired 
upon by a party of Provincials, ^ minute-men,' w^ho had come 
down from Woodbridge, on the main road between Brunswick 
and Amboy, from what is now (1850,) known as the ' Old 
Tappan House,' in the village of Bonhamtown. He received 
five musket balls- in yarious parts of his body ; but retained his 
Beat on horseback. His- servant, being somev^hat behind^ 
wheeled, and rode back to New Brunswick, reporting his 
master as killed. Each ball made a flesh wound, and did not 
touch a bone. George rode on, until he reached ^ Hangman's 
Corner,' (the parting roads from Perth Amboy, to Bonhamtown 
and Woodbridge,) where he fell from his horse, from loss of 
blood, and was seen to fall by the sentinel at the ' King's bar- 
racks.' A party was sent out, who brought him in, with his 
horse, that remained by him. He laid many months at Am- 
boy. My fatherj (Edward,) who came from Newport to attend 
him, says, ' that when he saw his uncle, he had lain so^ long^. 
that the shoulder-bones were through the skim' He finally 

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recovered, and returned -with the British troops ; was appointed 
Commissary at Hahfax, and afterwards Commissary- G-eneral of 
the British troops in America. 

'' He married a daughter of G-overnor Wentworth, of New 
Hampshire, had two sons, Thomas and "Wilham, and a daugh- 
ter, Mary. "William was a pay-master in the British army. 
Mary married a ' Moody,' in England, and one of her daugh- 
ters was in Boston two or three years ago. 

" jFrank, my father's eldest brother, served his time with Dr. 
Hunter, who married Miss Malborn, (my grand-mother's sister.) 
Frank was Surgeon of the ^ ISTew-York Volunteers,' and went 
to Carolina with them, — afterwards died at my father's house, 
(Edward Brinley,) at Shelburne, in 1757-8. 

'' Commissary George's son, Tom, was a Colonel in the 
British army, and was with Sir John Moore, in Spain; was 
detached to the West Indies, and there died an Adjutant- 

'' Francis Brinley, my grand-father, lived at Newport, Ehode 
Island ; married Aleph Malborn, daughter of Godfrey Malborn. 
My uncle, ' Frank,' died young ; was at College, at Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, at the time the British troops marched to 
Lexington. My father, Edward, was there on a visit to his 
brother. On the retreat of the British, the Americans were in 
pursuit, and, from the circumstance of some of the British 
officers having been with Frank and my father, (Ned,) imagined 
that Frank had ' pilotted the troops.' The Americans, or some 
of them, were so exasperated, that my father and others were 
obliged to lower Frank, by sheets tied together, from one of 
the College windows ; while the Americans battered the door 
of his room, and destroyed everything. 

'' Frank and Ned afterwards came together, got an old horse 
from a pasture, and went " ride and tie' to Newport, ' full of 
wrath.' They met the British troops and joined them, and were 
called ' Tories' ever afterwards. My father says, ' Had it not 
been for this circumstance, we would have been the best of 

*' Deborah, my aunt, married an Episcopal clergyman, Bev. 
Daniel Fogg, of Brooklyn, Connecticut. She died a few years 
ago ; had Francis Brinley Fogg, who studied at Newport, 
under the late Hon. William Hunter, and removed to Nashville, 

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Tennessee, where he married, and is an eminent lawyer : Ed- 
ward, who still lives with his sister, Aleph Brinley Fogg, at 
Brooklyn, and Godfrey Malborn Fogg, who is, I believe, still 

" Elizabeth, my aunt, married Capt. William Littlefield, 
formerly of the United States army, stationed at Newport ; 
Littlefield was aid-de-camp to Gen. Nathaniel Greene, who 
married his sister. 

" Edward Brinley Littlefield, of Tennessee, who was highly 
esteemed there, WiUiam, of Newport, and John, a physician, 
who died some years since, at New Orleans. 

" Thoj^ias, my uncle, still resides at Newport, a very aged 
man, though remarkably vigorous for one of his years. (He 
has recently died, aged 87.) 

" Catharine, my aunt, married a Dr. Field, a Surgeon in the 
British army, and died at Jamaica, on Long Island, without 

^' Gertrude Aleph, my sister, married the Eev. Edward 
Gilpin, son of John Gilpin, long his Britannic Majesty's Consul 
at Newport. 

^' Ehzabetii Parker, my sister, married theBev. J .F. Halsey, 
son of Capt. Halsey, of the United States' army. 

" My father married, in 1806, Mary, the daughter of Dr. 
Johnson, of Newport ; had issue, Edward L. Brinley, now a 
merchant, of the firm of Furness, Brinley & Co., Philadelphia: 
he married Fanny, sister of Major Brown, now in Eussia. 
" My son, Edward, is an officer in the United States' navy. 
" My father, Edward Brinley, resides with me ; he is 94 
years old, but will not use a cane. He was, when young, shot 
through the body, with an iron ramrod, still in my possession. 
The following is the copy of the record of the accident in his 
own hand- writing : 

'' ^ RECORD. 

" ' This ramrod was shot through my body, when I was 
about twenty-one years old. It was an accident, and happened 
thus ; I was out shooting snipe, robins, and other small birds, 
in company with a young man of about my own age ; his gun 
had an iron ramrod, and in the course of the morning's shooting 

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got foulj and the ramrod stuck, and being stronger in the grip 
with my fingers, I had twice pulled it out for him, the third 
time it stuck so fast that I 'could not draw it. I proposed 
firing against a crib, about twenty-five yards distance, and, I 
suppose, I cocked the gun for that purpose. He objected, say- 
ing, that he would lose his sport for the remainder of the day. 
I then told him to take hold of the breech, and I took the end 
of the ramrod, and both pulled away. I think it probable his 
hand was before the guard of the trigger, and he must have 
touched it with his finger. Off went the gun, the ramrod 
through my body. It entered about two or two and a half 
inches above my navel, and came out about the same distance 
from the back-bone, going, as the doctors said, through the 
lower part of the liver. The ramrod was found at the foot of 
an apple-tree, in the same form that it is now, /'^""^n , about 
thirty yards off. My companion, half frightened to death, ran 
off, leaving me to get to a house, not far distant, but with a 
five-rail fence to get over. An express was immediately sent 
off to town, about two miles distant, and my father, and mother, 
and sister, and three doctors, two of them skilful surgeons in 
the British army, who then were in Newport, to whose know- 
ledge of similar cases, I am, probably, indebted for my life. In 
about three weeks I was taken to town in a litter, and in another 
three weeks quite well, except weakness. 

" Given under my hand this Eighteenth day of October, 
A. D. 1848. 

" EDWAED BEINLEY, aged 90 years.'' 

" The pictures of my great-grand-father, and great-grand- 
mother, hanging up in my parlor, were painted by Simybert, 
who came over to this country with G-eorge Berkley, Lord 
Bishop of Oloyne, about 1700. The child in my great-grand- 
mother's arms is my grandfather, Erancis Brinley, (second of 
Newport.) The back ground of the picture representing my 
great-grand-father, is a view of his meadows, &c., with the 
town in the distance. The pictures are in good preservation, 
(life size,) and have been pronounced ' chef-d'oeuvres.' 

" The house at Eoxbury. Massachusetts, built by Francis 
Brinley, of Eoxbury, was after the model of the old family 
mansion at Datchet, near London, and still is in good preser- 

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1634. The record of the Brmley family, commences in 
America. It will be perceived by the reader, that the Brinley 
family were Ijoyalists. They may have thought, like Saul of 
Tarsus, when he was waging a war of extermination against 
Christians, that they did it all in good conscience. But '' the 
sword of the Lord and of Gideon" prevailed against our ene- 
mies ; and they and their descendants fiave reaped the blessings 
acquired by other hearts, and other hands,, in the glorious 

I have the following information of an old family of Newport 
taken from these Eecords, viz. : 

" Book 0, page 158, ) Deed from Sarah Eeape, widow of 

1st August, 1694. ) Wilham Eeape, late of Ehode 

Island, deceased, to William Marsh, son of Jonathan Marsh, of 

Newport, mariner, for certain lands in Monmouth county, 

N. J." 

"William Brinley signs this deed as a witness ; dated in 
Shrewsbury, Monmouth county. New- York. 

It appears that this Sarah came from Newport, about the 
year 1676, and had one patent for land to her in Shrewsbury, 
of 2010 acres, and various other large patents ; one of 500 
acres, '' in right of her deceased husband."" 

" Lib. B2, fol, 165, ) Deed from Jonathan Marsh, of New- 
20 Sept. 1685. > port, &c., merchant, to Sarah Eeape, 
for a right of Propriety in East jersey." 

From the above documents, I find that her husband's (Wil- 
liam Eeape) will, was dated 1st August, 1670. 

" Lib. A, of Wills, page 5, ) Sarah Eeape's Will ;" (by which 
7th of Jan. 1715. ) it appears she had a large 

estate in Weymouth, Dorsetshire, in Old England. She devises 
as follows): — "To my grandson, WiUiam Brinley, my house 
lot, that I bought of the town of Newport, on Ehode Island, 
with the housings thereon. And also all my land at Eack 
(Wreck) Pond ; and unto his three sons, Erancis, Wilham, 

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and Thomas, a silver spoon to each, and all my tract of land 
of about 400 acres, in freehold. To my grand-daughter, Sarah 
Brinley, feather-beds, &c. ; to my grandson Wilham Brinley^ 
my great silver cup, and all my land that lyeth at Whale Pointy 
and all my right of propriety ; to my grand-daughter, Elizabeth 
Brinley, a silver spoon, &c. ; to my grandson, Wilham Brinley, 
youngest son of Eeape Brinley, my lands in Weymouth, in Old 
England," &c. 

By her will she must have been very rich. 

My presumption is, that Francis Brinley, (first) of Newport^ 
had first, Thomas, then a second son, who married a daughter 
of Wilham and Sarah Eeape, of Newport, and their son, Wil- 
ham, emigrated about the year 1685, to Monmouth county^ 
New Jersey, and settled with his grandmother ; he was one of 
the executors to his grandmother's will. 

This Wilham became a man of large possessions, and of 
much note. He is first named on the Eecords as a yeoman^ 
then esquire, gentleman, and judge. The first grant of lands 
to him was in 1718 ; and he had many extensive grants of land 
besides those devised to him by his grandmother, Barah. 

He died about the year 1765, in Shrewsbury. 

John Brinley appears on the Eecords, from 1754 to 1774o 
He died during the Eevolution. 

Eeape Brinley, heir of Wilham Brinley, and the youngest son, 
(mentioned in Sarah Eeape^s will,) was ahve, in Shrewsbury, 
the 10th August, 1801. His son, Joseph Brinley, lived near 
Eatontown, in Shrewsbury, a man of considerable property, 
and a member of our Legislature about 1840. He died about 
1843, leaving one child, a daughter. 


The celebrated Dean, afterwards Bishop Berkley, who re- 
sided here at the time is thought to have suggested its for- 
mation. The society was select, and some of its members were 

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men of great intellectual power, among whom were Judge 
Edward Scottj Hon. Daniel Updike, Governor Jonas Lyndon, 
Dr. John Brett, Hon. Thomas Ward, Hon. "William Ellery^ 
Eev. James Honeyman, Eev. James Searing, Eev. John 
Chickley, Jun., and the Eev. Jeremiah Condy, of Boston. 

Among the occasional numbers, w^ere Governor Stephen 
Hopkins, and Samuel Johnson, D.D., afterwards President of 
Columbia College, New-York, and to this distinguished array 
of talent the Eev. Elisha Oallender also belonged. 

As this was probably one of the earliest societies of the kind 
in this country, we have thought that it might prove interesting 
to the reader, to subjoin a few extracts from the '^ Eules and 
Eegulations of the Society." The original is in the hand- 
writing of J udge Scott. 

^' Eirst Eegulation. — The members of this society shall meei 
every Monday evening, at the house of one of the members, 
seriatim^ and converse about, and debate, some useful question 
in divinity, morality, philosophy, history, &c. 

'^Second. — The member who proposes the question, shall be 
moderator, pro hac vice^ and see that order and decency be 
maintained in all the debates and conversation. 

^^ Eifth. — No member shall divulge the opinions or argu- 
ments of any particular member, as to any subject debated in 
the society, on penalty of a perpetual exclusion. Nevertheless, 
any member may gratify the curiosity of any that may enquire 
the names, number, general design, method, and laws of the 
society, and the opinions, or conclusions of the major part, 
without discovering how any particular member voted. 

'' Newport, Eebruary 2d, 1735.' 

One of the objects of this society, was the collection of 
valuable books. It was subsequently joined by Abraham 
Eedwood, Esq., who gave the sum of five hundred pounds 
sterling, to increase its hbrary, on condition that the society 
would build a suitable edifice. 

The society obtained a charter from the Colony in 1747, by 
the name of " The Company of the Eedwood Library." 

Abraham Eedwood, was the son of Abraham Eedwood, 
formerly of Bristol, England, and Mehitable, his wife, daughter 

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of Jonas Langford, of the island of Antigua. At what time 
they came to Ehode Island is unknown. Mr. Bedwood died 
in Newport, in 1772. They belonged to the Society of Friends. 
Mr. Redwood, by the death of an elder brother, became aole 
heir of the large estate of his grandfather, Langford, in 

In 1748, the present classical building was commenced, from 
a design by Mr. Harrison, the assistant architect of Blenheim 
House, England. It is remarked by Dr, Waterhouse, that in 
architectural taste and costly structure, Newport stood pre- 
eminent. He says : ^' Where is there a structure now in New 
England, that surpasses the Redwood Library ? "We have 
only to lament its perishable material. If you say that it was 
copied from an Athenian temple, still there is some credit due 
to them in selecting, seventy years ago, and relishing so chaste 
a specimen of Grecian taste," At this period, Newport was 
the " Athens of America." 

We would suggest that the entrance to the Library be 
restored, agreeably to its original design, which was a gate in 
the centre, leading direct to the steps. It is now in bad taste, 
and contrary to the rules of architecture. 

Henry Collins, Esq., proved a noble coadjutor of Mr. Red- 
wood, and presented, in June, 1748, to the Company, the lot of 
land then called Bowhng-G-reen, on which the present edifice 
now stands. 

The building was not completed until 1750 ; a tax of twelve 
hundred pounds was assessed on the members of the Company^ 
to defray the e^^pense of completing it. The principal library 
room occupies the whole of the main building, is thirty-seven 
feet long, twenty-six feet broad, and nineteen feet in height. 
The present number of volumes is 6,000. The King of 
England gave to Redwood Library eighty-four volumes, of 
which seventy -two are large folios, and twelve octavos, which 
is said to be the largest collection sent to this country. The 
entire set has been nearly thirty -five years in the course of pub- 
Hcation, and from the great demand for the different works of 
which it is composed, many of them have become exceedingly 
scarce, and some of them are now out of print. They consist 
of Doom's-day Book, Statutes of the realm, Parhamentary Acts 
of both England, Scotland, <&Co 

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The master builders of the Ubrary were, Wing Spooner, 
8amuel Greene, Thomas Melville, and Isaac Chapman. 

Abraham Bedwood, of Dorset-place, Mary-le-bone, London, 
England, gave the homestead place, situated in Newport, to 
the library. In 1837, Baron Hollinguer, a distinguished banker, 
of Paris, who was connected by marriage with the Eedwood 
family, presented the Company one thousand francs, for the 
restoration of the building. Many other bequests have been 
made by the friends of literature. 

A certain elegant writer, (Dr. Waterhouse,) asserts, '^ That 
the founders of Eedwood Library, sowed the seeds of science 
among us, and rendered the inhabitants, if not a more learned, 
yet a better read, and more inquisitive people, than that of any 
other town in the then British Provinces." 

The late Dr. W. E. Channing, in a discourse delivered in 
Newport, in 1836, alludes to the neglected condition of the 
Library, at the period during which he pursued his studies in 
the town. He says, ''I had no Professor to guide me ; but I 
had two noble places of study, — one was yonder beautiful 
edifice, now so frequented, and so useful as a public library, 
then so deserted, that I spent day after day, and sometimes 
week after week, amidst its dusty volumes, without interrup- 
tion from a single visitor." 

The other classical spot was Easton's Beach, then equally as 
retired, though now so much frequented. He remarks, in his 
usual glowing style : ^' No spot on earth has helped to form me 
so much as that beach. There I hfted up my voice in praise, 
amid the tempest; there, softened by beauty, I poured out my 
thanksgiving, and contrite confessions. There, in reverential 
sympathy with the mighty power around me, I became con- - 
scious of power within. There, struggling thoughts and 
emotions broke forth, as if moved to utterance by nature's 
eloquence of the winds and waves. There began a happiness 
surpassing all worldly pleasure, all gifts of fortune, the happi- 
ness of communing with the works of God." 

As the name of Berkley has been introduced in this connec- 
tion, it may not be amiss to dwell somewhat on his character, 
which, for moral purity, was unexampled. Berkley was en- 
dued with great powers of mind, and possessed vast stores of 
erudition. His intellectual and moral qualities, inspired to 

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form in him a character of high and attractive, excellence. 
The learned Bishop Atterbury said of him, " So much inno- 
cence, and such humihty, I did not think had been the portion 
of any but angels, until I saw this gentleman." Pope, who as 
i friend knew him well, describes him as possessed of ^' every 
v^irtue under Heaven." 

It was to such society, that Newport was indebted for the 
hitelligence and refinement of manners, which characterized her 
past history. Berkley was highly prepossessed in favor of 
Newport, as his letters to his friends plainly show. 

The following is an extract, from a letter, written by Dean 
Berkley, to Thomas Prior, Esq. 

" Newport, on Ehode Island, 
April 24th, 1729. 

*' I can by this time say something to you, from my own 
experience, of this place and people. The inhabitants are of a 
mixed kind, consisting of many sects, and subdivisions of sects. 
Here are' four sorts of Anabaptists, besides Presbyterians, 
Quakers, Independents, and many of no profession at all. 
Notwithstanding so many differences, here are fewer quarrels 
about religion than elsewhere, the people living peaceably with 
their neighbors of whatsoever persuasion. They all agree in 
one point, that the Church of England is the second best. 
This island is pleasantly laid out in hills and vales, and rising 
ground ; hath plenty of excellent springs, and fine rivulets, and 
many delightful landscapes of rocks, and promontories, and 
adjacent lands. 

" The town of Newport is the most thriving place in all 
America, for business. It is very pretty, and pleasantly situ- 
ated. I was never more agreeably surprised, than at the first 
sight of the town and harbor." 

The following verses were written by Bishop Berkley, 
during his residence in Newport, which fact demands their 

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'< The muse disgusted at an age and clime. 
Barren of every glorious theme ; 
In distant lands, now waits a better time, 
Producing subjects worthy fame. 

In happy climes, where from the genial sun 

And virgin earth, fresh scenes ensue, 
The force of art by Nature seem outdone, 

And fancied beauties by the true. 

In happy climes, the seat of innocence, 

Where Nature guides and virtue rules ; 
Where men shall not impose for truth and sense, 

The pedantry of Courts and schools. 

There shall be sung another golden age, 

The rise of empire and of arts ; 
The good and great inspiring epic rage. 

The wisest heads, and noblest hearts. 

Not sucb as Europe breeds in her decay, 

Such as she bred when fresli and young ; 
When heavenly flame did animate the clay, 

By future ages shall be sung. 

Westward the course of empire takes its way, 

The four first acts already past ; 
A fifth shall close the drama with the day, 

Time's noblest ofispring is the last." 

" The Minute Thilowpher ^"^ wMch he penned while he 
was a resident of Newport, consists of a series of dialogues, 
involving most of the important topics in debate between Chris- 
tians and Infidels, the principal arguments by which Christi- 
anity is defended, and the principal objections with which it 
has been opposed. 

In treating on academical study, he remarks, '' Academical 
study ma}^ be comprised in two points, reading and meditation. 
Their reading is chiefly employed on ancient authors, in dead 
languages ; so that a great part of their time is spent in learn- 
ing words, which, when they have mastered with infinite pain, 
what do they get by it ? but old and obsolete notions, which 

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BISHOP Berkley's bequests. 129 

are now quite exploded and out of use : then, as to their 
meditationSj what can they possibly be good for? He that 
wants the proper materials of thought, may think and meditate 
for ever to no purpose. Those cobwebs, spun by scholars out 
of their own brains, being alike unserviceable, either for use or 
ornament. Proper ideas, or materials, are only to be got by 
frequenting good company. I know several gentlemen, who, 
since their appearance in the world, have spent as much time 
in rubbing off the rust and pedantry of a college education, as 
they had before in acquiring it." — Minute Philosopker^ pp. 
35, 36. 

" The weather was so fine, we had a mind to spend the day 
abroad, and take a cold dinner under a shade in some pleasant 
part of the country. "Whereupon, after breakfast, we went 
down to a beach, about half-a-mile off, where we walked on the 
sniooth sand, with the ocean on one hand, and on the other, 
wild broken rocks, intermixed with shady trees and springs of 
water, till the sun began to be uneasy. We then withdrew 
into a hollow glade between two rocks. 

^' Here we felt that sort of joyful instinct which a rural scene 
inspires, and proposed no small pleasure in resuming and con- 
tinuing our conference without interruption till dinner. But 
we had hardly seated ourselves, and looked about us, when we 
saw a fox running by the foot of our mound, in an adjacent 
thicket. A few moments after we heard a confused noise of 
the opening of hounds, the winding of horns, and the shouts of 
the country squires."— -i^e-r/v-Zey. 

It must strike the mind of the reader with surprise now 
that the island is nearly cleared of wood, that such fine sport 
was enjoyed by the early inhabitants; but one hundred and 
twenty 'five years have wrought great and surprising changes. 

The spot which Berkley so graphically describes, is the 
Hanging Eocks, which was his favorite retreat ; it is near 
Sachuest Beach, on which he often rambled. It was not far 
from Whitehall, his former place of residence. The scenery is 
highly romantic, and, to a mind like his, was justly appreciated.. 
Bishop Berkley, during his residence at Newport, augmented 
the library of Harvard College, by valuable donations of the 
Latin and Greek classics. To Yale College he presented eight 
hundred and eighty volumes ; and, on his departure from 

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Newport, lie gave the Whitehall estate, consisting of his mansion 
and one hundred acres of land, for three scholarships in Latin 
and Greek. He returned to England in 1733, and died sud- 
denly and calmly at Oxford, January 14th, 1753, in the 73d 
year of his age. 

Bishop Berkley, though an Episcopahan, was no sectarian, 
as his public gifts plainly show. He was far in advance of the 
age in which he lived, which is evident from the prophetic 
vision in his poem, " On the Prospect of Planting Arts and 
Learning in America." 

This extraordinary, prophecy may be considered only as the 
result of long foresight and uncommon sagacity ; of a foresight 
and sagacity stimulated, nevertheless, by exciting feeling and 
high enthusiasm. So clear a vision of what America would 
become, was not founded on square miles, or on existing num- 
bers, or on any vulgar laws of statistics. It was an intuitive 
glance into futurity ; it was a grand conception, strong, ardent, 
glowing, embracing all time since the creation of the world, 
and all regions of which that world is composed ; and, judging 
of the future by just analogy with the past. And the inimit- 
able imagery and 'beauty with which the thought is expressed, 
joined to the conception itself, render it one of the most strik- 
ing passages in the language. 

Could he have lived to this day, to witness the rapid strides 
which have been made westward, until the Pacific Ocean has 
been reached, and cities planted by American enterprize, it 
would have rejoiced his benevolent heart. And it should be 
matter of exultation and pride to every American, that repub- 
lican principles are destined to exert a moral, and poHtical 
influence over this vast continent. Nothing short of the power 
of God, has wrought such stupendous changes, in so short a 
period of time. 

The high encomium passed on the state of society in New- 
port, by Bishop Berkley, was highly honorable and commen- 
datory, and should influence the inhabitants to cherish a spirit 
of mutual forbearance and kindness, toward one another. His 
mind was not circumscribed and limited to self; he took a 
broad and comprehensive view of things, and beheved that 
good would ever spring up out of evil. He remarks that 
" men of narrow capacities, and short sight, being able to see 

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TsO further than one link in a chain of consequences, are shocked 
at small evila^ whlcla attend upon vice. Bat those who can 
enlarge their views, and look through a long series of events, 
may behold happiness resulting from vice, and good springing 
^out of evil, in a thou&and instances." — Minute Philosopher. 

" The Rev. Gleorge Berkley, B. B., was born and educated 
in Ireland, being of an English fanaily, who had settled there in 
the time of the StuartSo His native place was Elcrin, in the 
county of Kilkenny, where he was born in 1684. In his youttu, 
like his friend Oglethrope, he was patronized by the Earl of 
Peterborough, who had an instinct for discovering and bringing 
forward men of different orders of talent. Berkley was also 
the intimate friend and companion of Po^pe, Bean Swift, and 
Sir Richard Steele, for the latter of whom he wrote several 
pieces for his periodical, called '' The G-uardian." 

" Bisplaying at an early age great literary abilities, Berkley 
soon gained a Mgb reputation in tbe learned worlds by several 
of those works which still entitle him to be classed among the 
most profound and original inquirers into the philosophy of 
mind and the first principles of knowledge. His first work, 
written before he was twenty years of age, was on mathematics. 
This was followed at various periods, among otber writings, by 
ibis " Essay towards a new theory of Vision ;" " Principles of 
Human Knowledge," and " Alciphron, or the Minute Philo- 
■sopber," the latter of which was written during his residence 
in Newport, Rhode Island. 

^' This great /public benefactor was promoted in IT'Si, 
•through the patronage of Queen Caroline, to the Bishopric of 
€loyne, and resided in that diocese until July, 1752, when he 
removed to Oxford, to superintend the education of his son, 
" He had three sons and a daughter. In person he was 
stout, and well made., his face was benignant and expressive^ 
and his manners elegant, engaging, and enthusiastic. In the 
latter part of his life he continued his literary labors, and pub- 
lished various of his writings. His ^' Minute Philosopher," 
written as we have mentioned during his residence at Newport, 
Rhode Island, was pubUshed in 1732. 

" His remains were interred in Christ Church, Oxford, and 
an elegant monument was erected to his memory by his widow/' 
---Mew York Atlas. 

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As Newport increased in wealth and prosperity, many of her 
eminent citizens turned their attention to the erection of town 
and country residences ; the most splendid of which^ was that 
erected by OoL Godfrey Malborr^, about one mile fro^m the 
State House. It was commenced in 1744, and was some time 
in the course of completion. It was sixty-four feet front, and 
fifty-two in depth; and was pronounced the most splendid edi- 
fice in all the Colonies. The materials of which it was built 
was Connecticut stone. It was two sto^ries high^ with a do^uble- 
pitched room^ dormer wmdowsj, with a cupola^ which com- 
manded an extens-ive view of the oce-'aBy and Narraganset Bay. 
In architectural style, it is said to hare resembled the State 
House. The fifteen steps leading to- the hall were spacious^ and 
standing as the building did OYh elevated ground,- gaye to it an 
imposing appearance. The interior is said to have been equally 
as grand. The doors were of mahogany, as well as the elegant 
finished circular stair-way, which led to the attic. An aged) 
gentleman, of Newport, remarked ta the author, '^ that the cost 
of the stair- way alone,, he had heard his father say, was equal 
to the expense of building the Brenton House, now owned and 
occupied by Simmons S. Coe, Esq.,. in Thames-street. The 
estimated expense of this- palace, for it well deserves the appel- 
lation, was one hundred tho'usand dollars. 

The farm^ consisted of upwards of six hundred acres,, extend- 
ing north to Coddington's- Cove. The garden, which lay direct 
in front of the mansion, with natural embankments, embracing 
as it did ten acres, was enchantingly laid out, with graveled 
walks, and highly ornamented with box, fruits of the rarest 
and choicest Mnds, flowers, and shrubbery of every description. 
Three artificial ponds, with the silver fish sporting in the water,, 
gave to the place the most romaDtic appearance. We have 
often fancied to ourselves, in our youthful days, when seated on 
the high flight of steps which led to the spacious hall of this 
princely mansion, and which commanded an extensive view of 
the beautiful bay of Newport, of the magnificent state in which 
Ool. Malborn must have lived, far beyond any thing of the 
present day. It is one thing to have wealthy and another to 

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know iiow, and in what manner to appropriate it. There was, 
at this period, sublime conception and taste; which enabled the 
gentleman to beautify and adorn the island. 

No situation could possibly exhibit a scene more diversified 
and pleasing than this ; here the ej^e wandered from xjne beauty^ 
to another more enchantiog, and when it seemad to have 
discovered a still more superior view, the slightest glance pre- 
sented another, if possible more inviting and wonderful,— 
apparently raised by the power ^f magic to captivate the 
astonished beholder. 

This seat was once the resort of ail the gay, and great ones 
of the island,, and has been th^ scene of many a splendid 
banquet and joyous festivals. 

* Hers, if soiae iwaad'ring wrebek, ike <5hild of fats 
Told his sad tale^ and humbly ask'd relief, 
^o surly menial drove him from the gate, 
Humanity hegaikd the tear of grief. 

The well-knowa %ench th<3 mess wiTl ©ver-creep. 
And where each rose ki gay 'luxuriance hung,— 

Eude tangling weeds will proud donainion keep, 
Aad nettles giroiit,^ the spot wher^e blossoms sprung. 

Wild berries elust'ring on its straggling thorn. 

Will then remain, to mark the shrubb'ry's bound | 
i-O'er-grown with weeds, the solitary lawn. 

To mem'ry scaree will prove its high renowno 

The dreary thought my sinking h^art appals, 
And trembling I quit the fancied gloom 

Alas ! like this, each human fabric falls., 
And gradual sinks oblivious in the tomb. 

Majestic ruin ! noble in desay, — 

Thy fame shall liwe, when th©u ai't sunk away.** 

Ok June 7th, 1766^ this .elegant dwelling was entirely con- 
sumed by fire. The Colonel had a large party at dinner. It was 
>a calamity to be deplored^ His nam<e, however, has become 
immortalized by the erection of this magnificent .structure, with 
the garden attached, which still bears the name of " Malborn's 
Cxarden^" though but little remains beside the artificial ponds. 

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Saturday dinners were alternately giyen among the. prmcipal 
families, and continaed until the death of Prancis Brinley, Esq> 
One principal dish, which was served up on the occasion, was 
dun-fish^ a very choice article^, Thomas Brinleyy Esq. , informed 
the author, that they cost at that day, as^ high as ten dollars- 
per quintal. The process of cooking them was quite different 
from the ordinary mode now pursued ;, they were placed in 
soak o-ver nighty, then taken out and sewed up in a napkin,, and 
simply simmered over the £re ; they were then served up whole,, 
with melted butter and boiled eggs. A variety of other dishes 
went to make up the entertainment. 

It was on one of these' occasions, that the blacks in. the 
kitchen of Ool. Malborn, through carelessness,, permitted, the- 
wood-w^ork above the fireplace to take fire, and being destitute 
©f brains, did not at once throw on a bucket of water, which 
would have extinguished it. It spread so rapidly, that before' 
the engines arrived from Newport,^ it was enveloped in a sheet 
of fiiame, and beyond their power to check its progress ; it& 
walls crumbled and felL 

It has been stated that the Colonel bore his loss with much 
sang-froid, but this tradition we do no.t believe,, A ridiculous 
statement was made^ in a small work^ pubhshed a few years 
since, that Mrs. Malboni, for fear that her rich and costly 
furniture would be injured, prohibited the firemen from entering 
the house, Now, the presumption is, that Mis. Malborn, hke 
all other ladies, was so much terrifi^ed^ as not to dictate on this^ 
occasion, but to make her exit from the burning house with all 
possible dispatch, and hence save her life 

The wealthy • portion of Newport,, in those days, lived m 
©picurean styk ; perhaps- there was no place in the Colonies, 
that could vie with them in the magnificence of their pubhe 
©ntertainmeBts. It w-as Old-English hospitality,. — when the 
wine was passed round after dinner, and then followed '' the 
feast of reason, and the flow of soul." 

The town-house o-f Ool Malborn, which is yet standing in- 
Newport, was a splendid habitation. It is an aacient brick 
building, and has an imposing appearance with its portico^ 
double flight of lofty steps, and its heavy and highly ornamental 
iron gate and raihngs. On the gate-posts were placed stone 
pine-appleSj, and the iron railing arouad the portico^, bore the 

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Initials G. M. in the centre. The interior also presented many 
vestiges of its former splendor, in its gilded cornices and paneL 
work, and its mantels of rich marble. A splendid hall, with a 
noble "flight of circular stairs, reaching to the attic, displayed 
the fine taste of its owner. Does the reader ask, where is this 
building ? Alas ! the hand of modern vandahsm has shorn it 
of its former splendor ; it is now but an ordinary building, and 
scarcely noticed. 

Mr. Malborn added much to the interest of the place, and 
was generous in all his public acts. It is said that he once re- 
marked, " What will not money buy ?" — being a man of ordi- 
nary appearance, a wag standing near, overheard the remark, 
and was disposed to have some sport. He penned the follow- 
ing lines, and stuck them up where they could be seen and 
read * 

" All the money in the place, 
Won't buy Old Malborn a handsome face." 

This highly exasperated Ool. Malborn, whereupon he offered 
a reward of ten guineas to find out the author. The real 
author came forward, and frankly acknowledged it. It is said, 
that the Colonel was so much amused with the joke, that he 
paid him the reward, and treated him in the bargain. Com- 
merce expands the mind, and liberahzes the heart. 

The site formerly occupied by Mr. Malborn's house, after a 
period of eighty-four years, has been improved by J. Prescott 
Hall, Esq., of New- York, who has erected a house for a sum- 
mer residence, but the glory has departed. 

Mr. Hall's mother was the daughter of Peter Mumford, Esq., 
of Newport, and his wife being a Ehode Island lady, daughter 
of the late Hon. James D'Wolf, of Bristol, has attached him 
to Newport. 


Engine No. 1, was the gift of Col. G-odfrey Malborn. It was 
manufactured by Newsham and Ragg, of London, in the year 

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173.6 "With the exception of the box, it remains the same, and 
is pronounced as perfect a specimen of the kind, as is to be met 
with, even in this day of improvement. 

Judge Bowler, like most of the wealthy merchants of that 
period, had his town and country residence. The former is 
now the Vernon Mansion, corner of Clarke and Mary-streets, 
and is certainly a beautiful specimen of architecture. And the 
latter, the farm, now occupied and belonging to the heirs of 
Isaac Chase, in Portsmouth, which then contained an elegant 
garden, filled with every description of fruits and flowers, with 
artificial ponds, &c.,at present is nothing more than an ordinary 

Mr. Bowler married, in 1750, Ann Fair child, of Newport, 
and left a number of descendants. 

Vaucluse, the residence of the late Samuel Elam, Esq., he 
inherited from his uncle, Jarvis Elam, who resided on the place 
for many years before his death. Samuel was an English 
gentleman of the old school, and the taste w^hich he displayed 
in laying out, and embellishing his grounds, is evidence of the 
truth of the remark. His style of living was profuse, and he 
could well afford it, for his income was large, and fully ade- 
quate to keep up such an estabhshment. On occasions, when 
he gave large dinner parties to his friends, the choicest viands 
graced his table, as well as superior wines and liquors, of which 
he was a connoisseur. Many were the entertainments given at 
Yaucluse, in which the guests were treated with sumptuous 

His equipage was after the English style, with postillion and 
footman. He had his town as well as country residence ; and, 
on bank days, (for he was President of the Ehode Island Union 
Bank,) he uniformly took dinner at Newport. An old female 
domestic, Mar cy Sambo, took charge of the house, and provided 
for the occasion. He was a Quaker, and wore the peciiUar 
garb of that sect, and contributed to the society. He was a 
gentleman of strong prejudices, but whenever he took a fancy 
to an individual, he was most strongly devoted. Many an 
anecdote is related of him, which goes to corroborate the truth 
of the remark. His port and carriage was truly dignified and 
noble. His property fell to a nephew, residing in England, 
who came over to America, and disposed of his whole estate ; 

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and he immediately returned home, his taste being different 
from that of his uncle's. Vaucluse is now the property of 
Thomas E. Harard, Esq., and is certainly the most interesting 
spot on the island. 

The garden contains seventeen acres, most elegantly laid out, 
including a labyrinth, with serpentine walks, a fit emblem of 
ancient Troy. The walks are spacious, and running in different 
directions, presents a charming and picturesque scenery, and 
such as a highly cultivated mind would justly appreciate. The 
farm consists of about one hundred and fifty acres, scientifically 
cultivated. Mr. Harard is a practical farmer ; every thing 
indicates system and proper management, and a walk over his 
extensive grounds, would soon convince the reader, that we 
have not too highly colored the picture. 

Many other beautiful residences were to be found on the 
island, in her palmy days ; the Overing, Bannister, &c., which 
shows the taste of the inhabitants at that interesting period. 

Many of the inhabitants were from the first families in Eng- 
land, and Newport was regarded not only for her commercial 
importance, but as the emporium of fashion, refinement, and 
taste. ^' This aristocratic trait of character has continued among 
her inhabitants to the present day." The writer from whom 
we have made this extract, says, " But the change of popula- 
tion, and the death, dispersion, and poverty of those families, 
has now reduced society more conformable to the general 
republican manners of the country, and has levelled those 
arbitrary distinctions, which once so generally prevailed." 
Now the views here entertained of the aristocracy of Newport, 
being based on wealth, and the loss of wealth levelling those 
distinctions, is not founded in fact. The aristocracy of New- 
port rested on a sub-stratum more durable. It was intellect, 
and refinement of manners, which made the broad distinction 
in society. The mere boor, with no other recommendation 
than money, his society was not courted; while many, whose 
pecuniary means were limited, were held in high estimation 
for their moral and intellectual acquirements. This was the 
peculiar characteristic which distinguished the age, and which 
outweighed every minor consideration. 

" Worth then made the man,iiot money — the want of it the fellow ; 
The rest was all but leather or prunella." 

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"We wage no crusade against wealth, provided it be justly 
acquired, and judiciously appropriated. But when it is made 
the idol, and used as an instrument of power, it then becomes 
a curse ; and induces many to obtain it in the most fraudulent 
manner, in order that their respectability may be secured. It 
is truly painful, when we reflect, that man can be so besotted 
with gold, which will perish with the using ; and arrogate so 
much selfimportance, when there is evidently a want of intel- 
lectual ballast, which renders them pitiful objects lo contemplate. 

" There's not a day, but to the man of thought, 
Betrays some secret, — that throws new reproach 
On life, and makes him sick of seeing man." 

In 1768, the ship Endeavor, commanded by Gapt. James 
Cook, sailed from England for the South Seas, having on 
board Sir Joseph Banks, &c., for the purpose of observing the 
transit of Venus over the Sun's disk, which took place on the 
4th of June, 1769. After making the observation at Otaheite, 
Oapt. Cook proceeded south, and having made many discoveries, 
returned, by the way of the Cape of Good Hope, to England, 
in 1771. She was subsequently engaged in the whaling busi 
ness, and put into Newport, in consequence of the war between 
England and France, where she. was condemned. She was 
then sold for the benefit of the underwriters, to Capt. John 
Cahoone, and his brother, Stephen, (father of Benjamin J. Oa- 
hoone, Esq., of the United States' navy,) who were building a 
packet called the Concord, and the materials which were found 
suitable were w^orked in. Eor many years the lower part of 
her hull lay on Cahoone's shore, at the south part of the town. 
It has long since disappeared, having been manufactured into 
canes, boxes, &c., as curiosities. William G-ilpin, Esq., has in 
his possession the crown, taken from her stern. 


The fanciful name now employed is the " G-len." "We prefer, 
however, the original name, as being associated with many 
interesting events. It is now^ the property of the Hon. Samuel 

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ciunb^ll's mills. IS9 

Clarice, who married Barbary, the daughter of the kite Joseph 
Oundall, Esq., of Portsmouth. Judge Clarke furnished the 
author with the subjoined facts : 

" The earliest notice of the Oundall family in my possession 
is, an indenture of apprenticeship of Joseph Oundall, son of 
widow Oundall, of BruntlofF, in the county of York, England ; 
said indenture is dated ' first day of ye first month, called 
March, in the fifth year of the reign of our Sovereign Lady 
Queen Anne, A. D. 1706.' As the term of time required to 
learn a trade was seven years at least, it tnay be supposed that 
said Joseph Oundall was born about 1692. Said Joseph Oun- 
dall erected, or purchased, a small fulling-mill, where a stone 
factory now stands, in which to dress woolen cloths, &c., and 
purchased a third of a dwelling-house, in the north-east corner 
of Hunting Swamp, (where sportsmen resorted for game) ; said 
house stood on the sonth. side of the highway, nearly opposite 
the residence of what was then Abraham Anthony's^ who was 
Town Olerk of the town of Portsmouth. At this house, the 
wife of said Joseph Oundall died, on the 3rd day of June, 1745. 
Said Joseph Oundall purchased, of James Sisson, the farm, long- 
called Ound all's Homestead. It contained forty-six acres, with 
a fulling-mill, and other buildings thereon." 

The farm at present consists of one hundred and forty acres. 
The descendants now living are Isaac Oundall, Samuel B., and 
Mary, the wife of Perrin Burdick, merchant, of Newport, and 
Barbary, the wife of Judge Olarke, who resides at the place. 

On Ohristmas-eve, December 24th, , a violent snow storm 

occurred, in which Mr. Oundall, on leaving his mill for home^ 
perished, having lost his way. 

Oundall's Mills is one of the most romantic spots on the 
island, and has become a general resort of strangers, who 
visit Newport in summer, to enjoy the salubrity of its climatej 
and its picturesque scenery. The walk through the shady 
bower of trees, which opens to the east passage, with Tiverton 
and Little Compton in view, is a rural scene, at once grand and 
imposing, suited to convey a just appreciation of the enjoyment 
of retirement, over the busy whirlpool of fashion. 

The stream of water, which propels the small fulling-mill^ 
adds beauty and sublimity to the scene. It flows on uninter- 
ruptedly in its course, agreeably to the language of the poet :™ 

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" How steadily thou murmurest on, thou tangled little stream, 
That stealthily in this deep glen hides — from the day's broad beam 5 
Small birds are singing near thee, green branches wave on high, — 
But neither breeze, nor bird's glad song, thy murm'ring may put by." 


This valley, or gulley, as it was once called, is situated on the 
west side of the island, in the town of Portsmouth. This is a 
delightful retreat in summer ; blooming wild weeds hang luxuri- 
antly in waving wreaths from innumerable impending projections 
of rock. Many beautiful vagrant rills gently steal through va- 
rious crevices, while some, impeded in their course by rude frag- 
ments of stone, impetuously break a passage, and precipitate 
the sparkling foam down the declivity, till it pauses in the 
many windings of a gentle stream. It is sublimely beautiful to 
contemplate this wild luxuriance of prolific nature. No spot 
furnishes more inviting rides and walks than the island of Rhode 
Island, and to the mind of perception and taste, is presented a 
wide field for contemplation on the beauties of nature^ 

The entrance to this rural retreat, is situated about midway 
of the road running west from the Union Meeting-house, near the 
bridge, known as Cuff's bridge. Cuff was an old family negro, 
belonging to the Lawton family. His residence was a small 
cottage at the base of the hill, near the bridge. The old cellar 
is all that remains to mark the spot. We well remember his 
coming to market, in his old-fashioned coat, with the produce 
of his small plantation. These reminiscences) afford pleasure 
and dehght, far beyond anything of the present day. 

This portion of the island is very interesting, and to one who 
prefers sohtude to the vortex of fashion, presents attractions of 
a highly interesting character. 


" Other parts of America were only beautiful by anticipation, 
"but the prosperity of Rhode Island was already complete ; 

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industry, cultivation, activity of trade, w^ere all carried to great 


" Newport, well and regularly built, contained a numerous- 
population, whose happiness was indicated by its prosperity 
It offered delightful circles, composed of enlightened men and 
modest and handsome women, whose talents heightened their 
personal attractions. All the French officers who knew them,> 
recollect the names and beauty of Miss Champlin, the two 
Misses Hunter, and several others, 

*' Like the remainder of my companions, I rendered them 
homage, to which they were justly entitled, but my longest 
visits were paid to an old man, very silent, who very seldom 
bared his thoughts, and never bared his head. His gravity 
and monosyllabic conversation announced at first that he was a 
Quaker. It must however be confessed, in spite of all the 
veneration I felt for his virtues, our first interview would pro- 
bably have been our last, had not I seen the door of the draw- 
ing-room suddenly open, and a being which resembled a nymph 
rather than a woman, enter the apartment. So much beauty, 
so, much simphcity, so much elegance, and so much modesty^ 
were perhaps never combined in the same person. It was 
Polly Leighton, (the way it was then pronounced, but it was 
always spelt Lawton,) the daughter of my grave Quaker. Her 
gown was white, like herself, while her ample mushn necker- 
chief, and the envious cambric of her cap, which scarcely 
allowed me to see her light-colored hair, and the modest attire, 
in short, of a pious virgin, seemed vainly to endeavor to conceal 
the most graceful figure, and the most beautiful form imaginable. 
Her eyes appeared to reflect, as in a mirror, the meekness and 
purity of her mind, and the goodness of her heart ; she 
received us with an open ingenuity which delighted me, and 
the use of the famihar word ' thou,' which the rules of her sect 
prescribed, gave to our acquaintance the appearance of an old 

" In our conversation she excited my surprise, by the candor, 
full of originahty, of her questions : 

'' ' Thou hast, then,' she said, ' neither wife nor children in 
Europe, since thou leavest thy country, and comest so far to 
engage in that cruel occupation, war V 

<>' ' But it is for your welfare,' I replied, ^ that I quit all I 

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beld dear, and it is to defend your liberty that I come to figlit 
the Enghsh.' 

" ' The English j' she rejoined, ' have done thee no harm, and 
wherefore shouldst thou care about our liberty ? "We ought 
never to interfere in other people's business, unless it be to 
rpconcile them together, and prevent the effusion of blood.' 

" * But,' said I, ^ my king has ordered me to come here, and 
engage his enemies, and your own,' 

'' ' Thy king, then, orders thee to do a thing which is unjust, 
inhuman, and contrary to what thy God ordereth. Thou 
shouldst obey thy God and disobey thy king, for he is a king 
to preserve, and not to destroy. I am sure that thy wife, if she 
has a good heart, is of my opinion.' 

'' "What could I reply to that angel ? for, in truth, I was 
tempted to believe that she was a celestial being. Certain it is, 
that, if I had not been married and happy, I should, whilst 
coming to defend the liberty of the Americans, have lost my 
own, at the feet of Polly Leighton. 

" The impression produced upon me by this charming girl, 
was so different from what is experienced in the gay vortex of 
the world, that, as a natural coAsequence, it diverted my mind, 
at least for a time, from all idea of concerts, fetes, and balls. 

" However, the ladies of Newport had acquired strong claims 
upon our gratitude, by the kind reception they had honored us 
with, and by the favorable opinion they expressed of our com- 
panions in arms, whose absence they deeply regretted ; we 
resolved to give them a magnificent ball and supper, a step not 
dictated by absolute prudence, since we were only seven or 
eight ofi&cers, ten leagues distant from our army. 

" Long Island, which was occupied by our enemies, was not 
far from Newport ; and we were told that the English priva- 
teers sometimes made their appearance on the coast. Such 
being the case, and the report of our fet6 having got abroad, 
they might have paid us a visit, and rather strangely disturbed 
our jovial party. This apprehension, however, appeared to us 
quite unfounded, and 1 quickly sent for some musicians belong- 
ing to the regiment of Soissonnais Desoteux. Desoteux, who 
since acquired some celebrity during our revolution, as a leader 
of ' Ohouans,' under the name of Oomartin, took upon himself, 
assisted by Vauban, to make the necessary preparations for, the 

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ball and supper, whilst we went about town, distributing our 

" The little fete was one of the prettiest I have ever wit- 
nessed ; it was adorned by beauty, and cordiality presided 
over the reception and entertainment of the guests. But Polly 
Leighton could not be present, and I cannot deny that this cir- 
cumstance occasionally cast a gloom over my spirits. 

'' Time glided on so agreeably at Newport, that we were not 
anxious to return to our tents, and, relying upon the indulgence 
of our General, we exceeded by a few days the leave of absence 
he had given us. But M. Be Eochambeau, who knew all the 
importance of a strict adherence to discipline, dispatched 
positive orders for us to join immediately our respective regi- 
ments ; we therefore reluctantly quitted Newport, and quickly 
returned to our head quarters, which were at Providence, and 
which, at that period, contained three thousand inhabitants." — - 
Count Seguiii's Memoirs. 

Polly Leighton, or Lawton, lived in the house, corner of 
Spring and "Washington-square, now Touro, changed in honor 
of Abraham Touro, Esq., for his noble bequest. 

Count Seguin's vivid description of Newport, cannot fail to 
convince the reader, of the justness of the high-wrought enco- 
miums which have been passed upon her, by those who well 
knew her past history. There were acknowledged leaders of 
the ton^ and their elegant and pohshed manners, with minds 
intelHgent and cultivated, combined to draw around them the 
elite of the capital, and to render their mansions a most attrac- 
tive place of resort. 

Entertainments of every description was the order of the 
day, and the prominent fashionables w^ere emulous in gaiety. 
Newport gave the ton to the surrounding country, who looked 
to them for fashions and manners, previous to the revolution. 


As this family held a high rank, and occupied an important 
position in the early history of Newport, we have felt called 

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upon to chronicle the interesting part which they took in the 
pohtical drama. 

The first of this family who came to Bhocle Island, was 
Thomas Ward, who came from G-lo'ster, in England, to New- 
port, where he married and settled. His father, John Ward, 
afterwards came over, and died in 1693. Thomas Ward died 
the same year, aged 48 years. 

Eichard Ward, the son of Thomas, was born in April, 1689. 
He was elected, in 1714, General-Eecorder, or Secretary of the 
Colony, and held the office till 1733. In 1740, he was elected 
Deputy- Grovernor ; and, on the death of Governor Wanton, 
was appointed by the General-Assembly to the office of Gover- 
nor for the remainder of the year. In 1741-2, he was re-elected 
by the people to the same office. He died at Newport, 21st 
August, 1763, leaving a numerous issue; among his sons were 
Samuel Ward, who was Governor of the Colony in 1762 — 65 ; 
Thomas Ward, who died in 1760, was fourteen years Secretary 
of the Colony, and Henry Ward, who was Secretary from 1750 
until his death in the year 1797, a period of thirty-eight years. 

Many of the descendants are now living in New-York, highly 
respectable; — E. E. Ward, Esq., John Ward, and Samuel 

The year 1758 is rendered memorable in the history of 
Ehode Island, as opening the great political drama of Messrs. 
Samuel Ward and Stephen Hopkins. 

Mr. Hopkins at the time filled the chair of the chief magis- 
trate, and Mr. Ward entered the field to contend with him for 
that honor. The office, at this period, was held in high esti- 
mation in Ehode Island. Mr. Ward was the favorite candidate 
of the South, and received the almost undivided support of the 
mercantile interest ; while Mr. Hopkins was as warmly sup- 
ported by the yeomanry of the North ; and was again re-elected 
the three succeeding years. 

In 1762, Mr. Ward was elected, but was defeated the fol- 
lowing year, and Mr. Hopkins elected. The strife of political 
party raged with increasing violence, until such was the heart- 
burning hostility of the belHgerent parties, as very greatly to 
impair the enjoyment of domestic tranquillity, and interrupt the 
hospitalities of social life. 

In 1763, the office of Deputy- Governor w^as vacated by the 

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death of the Hon. John Gardiner, who then filled that place. 
On the meeting of the General Assembly, Mr. Hopkins and 
friends proposed that Mr. Ward be invited to fill that ofince, 
and that he be elected by the Assembly, then in session. Ac- 
cordingly, a committee waited on Mr. Ward with this propo 
sition, which was indignantly rejected, and a message returned, 
embracing the only conditions of peace, viz. : '^ that both rival 
candidates^ at the ensuing election, relinquish their pretensions 
and retire from the field." 

Another proposition was then submitted by the House of 
Assistants, to Mr. Ward, to induce him to accept that ofiSce ; 
that five, or one-half of that body, would cheerfully resign their 
seats in favor of an equal number of his friends, and the division 
of the spoils of offices should be equally divided between the 
parties at the approaching election. This proposition was too 
humiliating for the Spartan spirit of Mr. Ward, consequently, 
it was as unpropitious as the former one ; and he returned for 
answer, " that no peace could be expected, while Mr. Hopkins 
was in the chair ;" — but repeated his willingness to relinquish 
his pretensions, on condition that Mr. Hopkins would do the 
same. Other overtures were made to Mr. Ward, but without 
success, and both parties prepared to enter the field, with fixed 
and settled resolution. 

The friends of Mr. Hopkins triumphed, and he was again 
elected ; but the following spring he suffered a defeat, and Mr. 
Ward and friends were covered with laurels of political glory, 
which they were permitted to wear the two succeeding years, 
At the opening of the spring campaign, in 1667, Mr. Hop- 
kins' party, having been recruited and drilled for the conflict 
entered the field, with a firm determination to oust the incum' 
bents ; and achieved a victory, leaving Mr. Ward minus four 
hundred and fourteen. This was the last pitched battle between 
the belligerent parties. 

At the October session of the General Assembly, overtures 
of peace were again made by Governor Hopkins to Mr. Ward, 
which were soon followed by a cessation of hostilities, and 
finally resulted in a reconcihation of the parties. This propo- 
sition, highly honorable to Mr. Hopkins, was as follows, viz. : 
that Mr. Ward and friends, should nominate a Governor from 
those in the interest of Mr. Hopkins ; and these should 

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nominate a Deputy- Governor from among the friends of Mr« 
Ward, and so forth, alternately, with the whole council ; or if 
Mr. Ward and friends decline the nomination, his Honor, and 
those associated with him, will nominate a Governor from 
among the friends of Mr. Ward, and so on as before. Preli- 
minaries were soon entered into by both parties at Providence, 
and a treaty of peace was finally concluded at Newport, March 
29th, 1768. 

Newport being the capital of the State, it is really gratifying 
to learn of the chivalry which she displayed in behalf of Mr. 
Ward, her favorite candidate. The venerable Moses Brown 
has said, ^' that the violent hostility between these rival candi- 
dates grew out of a private feud, which had long existed 
between WiUiam Wanton and E. Ward, and that to this cause 
alone was the pohtical war waged for so long a period." At 
that day, however, a greater freedom of opinion was manifest ; 
parties were not afraid to shew their colors ; the chain had not 
then been forged to bind the human mind, and crush the 
intellectual power of man in the dust. There was a pride of 
character, then possessed by the inhabitants of Newport, which 
we would feign flatter ourselves may be revived. 

These gentlemen were again soon called from the peaceful 
quiet of domestic retreat, to enter the field, as friends, to con- 
tend for the rights of the Colonies, against the encroachments 
of British power ; and engaged in the cause of American free- 
dom, when one soul animated each heart. 

They were among the first who fearlessly stood forth in 
defence of the rights of their country. That they fully enjoyed 
the confidence of their fellow-cixizens, both as patriots and 
statesmen, is demonstrated in their choice to represent them in 
the first Continental Congress. Mr. Hopkins' name, with that 
of WilHam Ellery, stands inscribed on the proudest monument 
of fame — The Declaration of American Independence ; — and, 
though Mr. Hopkins' hand trembled, owing to a paralytic 
stroke, his heart never. 

The following inscripticn appears on his tombstone, which has 
a rich coat of arms emblazoned on its head : 

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This Monument is erected to the Memory of 

The Honorable EIOHARD WAED, Esq., 

He was early in life 
Employed in the Public Service, 
And for many years 
Furnished some of the most Important Offices 
For the Colony, 
With great ability and reputation. 
He was a Member of the Sabbatarian Church of the TowH, 
And adorned the doctrine of his Saviour, 
By a sincere and steady practice 
Of the various duties of life. 
He died on the 21st day of August, 1763, 
In the 75th year of his age. 


The Harards were descended from Thomas Harard, who 
emigrated from Wales, about the year 1639, to the Jerseya, 
and from thence to Rhode Island, and settled in Portsmouth in 
1640, His son, Robert, at that time about four years old, 
came with him, and was the only son that did so, as far as can 
be ascertained, Th^ eldest son of Robert was Thomas, who 
died in 1745, aged 92. His children were Robert, George, 
Jeremiah, Benjamin, Stephen, Jonathan, and Thomas, From 
these sons a numerous issue have descended, and many of them 
distinguished men. 

George Harard, mentioned above in the record, was the son 
of Thomas, who was Lieutenant-Governor of the Colony in the 
years 1734, 5, 6, 7, and 8, and great-grandson of the first 
settlers, who died in South Kingston. George, the youngest, 
early settled in Newport, as a merchant, and was elected a 
representative . to the General Assembly from that town, for 
many years. He was the only Mayor of Newport under the 
city charter, in 1784, and held other honorable and responsible 
offices in the State. He died at Newport, August 11th, 1797, 

Nathaniel Harard, third son of Mayor George, was a repre- 
sentative in the General Assembly for several years, and was 

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Speaker of the House. In 1818, he was elected a representa- 
tive to Congress. He died in Washingtan, and was interred in 
the Congressional burying- ground. 

" The late Hon. Benjamin Harard was a profound lawyer^ 
and represented his native town, Newport, in the G-eneral 
Assembly for thirty-one years, and^ of coursey was subjected to 
the ordeal of sixty-two popular elections^ a singular proof of the 
enhghtened stability of his constituents, of his general high 
deserty and his peculiar fitness for this important office. This 
fact, independent of all others^ entitles him to claim rank as a 
distinguished man, and, as it were,, demonstrates the possession 
of those impressive and useful qualities,, whose combination 
render character at once eminent and enduring, 

'' His knowledge of the affairs of the State was far mor© 
extensive than that of any other man, and his attachment tc 
her interest and prosperity was unbounded. Governor James 
Fenner once said, ^ Mr. Harard, you are in every respect a 
Ehode Island man;^ this was a high encomium, and well 
merited. Mr. Harard's course of reading and of study, operat- 
ing upon a mind of genuine native strength, and confirming 
and justifying a native steadiness of will, (the germ and guaran- 
tee of greatness,) gave to all his hterary efforts and political 
proceedings, an air and cast of originality. In the middle and 
latter periods of his professional career, he was employed in 
most of the important lawsuits of the day, both in the Courts 
of the State, and the United States." — Updike's History of the 
'Narragansett Church. 

A block of wood, from the house built by Grovernor "WilHam 
Coddington, was procured by A¥. A. Clarke,, Esq,, cashier of 
the bank of Rhode Island, and is now used to cancel notes. 

In 1772, King, now FranMin, and Pelh am -streets, were 
paved, from the proceeds of lotteries granted for that purpose. 
On the 16th of July, a packet, from Newport to Providence^, 
with a number of passengers, was captured near the north end 
of Prudence, by a refugee-boat, with eig^ht men. On its being 
known at iSTewport, a packet was manned by volunteers, under 
Gapt. Webster, who succeeded in recapturing the vessel, before 
she could be got to sea, and brought her in, together with five 
of the men belonging to the boat. 

We presume that this was Capt. Nicholas Webster^ who waf3= 

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for many years a very successful packet-master ; he was grand- 
father of the wife of James Atkinson, Esq., pubhsher of the 
" Advertiser." 

On the 13th of July, a most distressing accident took place 
in Newport ; a pleasure party, consisting of five young men, 
and thirteen young women, while on their way to Oanonicut 
Island, in a two mast boat, were upset in a squall, and one of 
the young men, and six young women were drowned ; the 
remainder of the party were rescued by a boat in sight. The 
names of those lost were John Stall, Betsy and Lydia Hockey, 
daughters of WilUam Hockey, Polly Spooner, Betsy Allen, 
Nabby Stanton, and Suckey Hefferon. 

Matthew Oozzens, an eminent merchant, built the house, 
commonly calkd the Dudley House, in Middietown, 


Th^ history of Franklin^s press is this : — James Franklin, 
elder brother of Dr. Benjamin, imported, in 1720, a press and 
type, for the purpose of carr^nng on the " Art and business of 
Printing."" He soon after issued the first number of the '' New 
England Courant," the second paper pubhshed in America. 
His brother Benjamin became his apprentice., and was employed 
in distributing copies to his customers, after having assisted in 
composing and working them oft". The publisher of the Cou- 
rant having given offence to the Assembly, the paper was 
suppressed, and he removed his office to Newport. Here he 
first published the '^ Ehode Island G-azette,'' and shortly after 
(1758,) established the " Newport Mercury." The press was 
used as long as it was serviceable. It is now honored as the 
one on which Dr. Pranldin worked, when learning his trade ; 
and as giving to the world his first effusionSj in the form of 
anonymous letters, printed in the '' Courant." It still remains 
in the printing office of the " Newport Mercury.'''' 

Amidst the changes which have occurred in Newport, many 
of which are of a most painful character, there are, nevertheless, 
Bome estateSg which have remained m the families from the eSLvlj 

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settlement of the Island, and some prior to the American Eevo- 
lution. It may prove interesting to the reader to be informed 
on this subject The Overing property has continued to the 
present period, in the hands of the heirs, Oahoone, Freebodyjr 
Hockey, Job Cornell, Webber, John Stephens, Martin Howard, 
corner of Malborough and Thames-streety Jonathan T. Almy, 
and the Marsh Estate, which deed was given by Grovernors 
Walter Clark^ Bull, and Oarr, from the early settlement. 

In. Portsmouth, the farm of Burrington Anthony, Esq., has 
been in the family from the period of the settlement, as well as 
the Mott, Coggeshall, Sisson, &c. 

Caleb Carr was a native of Scotland, and came to Ehode 
Island, but the precise time is not known ; he was a large owner 
of land in the towns of Newport and Jamestown, some of which 
is held by his descendants, together with the ferry, as originally 
granted to him, and have since remained in the family. 

He held various offices in the Colony, and was Governor here 
in 1695, and died before the expiration of that political year. 
His tomb-stone is still legible, and lies in the Carr burial ground^ 
in Newport, which ground was sequestered, and given by him^ 
for that use. It contains the following inscription : 

Here lies the body of 


Governor of this Colony, who departed this life, the 17th day 

of December, in the 73d year of his age, 

in the year 1695. 

He left three sons, John, Nicholas, and Samuel. John settled 
in Newport; Nicholas, in Jamestown; and Samuel, on Long 
Island. John, the eldest, died in Newport, 1717, leaving four 
sons, Samuel, Caleb, Eobert, and Frances. Samuel, the oldest, 
settled and died in Newport, 1740, leaving four sons, Caleb, 
Samuel, Ebenezer, and John. Samuel, the second son, settled 
in Newport, afterwards removed to Jamestown, and died 1796, 
leaving two sons, Samuel and Ebenezer. Samuel, the oldest, 
settled in Newport, and died 1814, leaving four sons and one 
daughter, who owned the Ferry Estate, which descended to him^ 
in a regular line, from Caleb Carr, to whom- the first grant was 
given for a ferry between Newport and Jamestown, by an Act 
of the Assembly of Rhode Island. It is still in the possession 
of the grandchildren of Samuel Carr, 

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TMs account of the family was furnished the author by 
Eobert E. Oarr, Esq., of Newport, son of Samuel. The Oarr 
burial ground is situated on the north side of what was once 
called the Ferry "Wharf Lane, but now Mill-street. "We would 
suggest the importance of having this ground renovated and 


The interest which accumulates as we proceed in the history 
of Newport, admonishes us of the necessity of being brief No 
spot presents more attractive materials than Newport. Before 
the -Revolution, she had attained to a high degree of celebrity, 
and stood unrivalled by any city or town in the Colonies. Doc- 
tor Benjamin Waterhouse, himself a native of Newport, says : 

'' The island of Ehode Island, from its salubrity, and surpris- 
ing beauty, before the Eevolutionary war so sadly defaced it, 
was the chosen resort of the rich and philosophical, from nearly 
all parts of the civilized world. In no spot of the thirteen, or 
rather twelve Colonies, was there concentrated more individual 
opulence, learning, and liberal leisure." 

It was no doubt owing to the highly cultivated taste of her in- 
habitants, why so many of her youth indulged in poetry and paint- 
ing. Newport has been fertile in producing artists, some of whom 
have been highly distinguished in their profession. Edward Gr. 
Malborn, son of Col. John Malborn, has left an imperishable fame 
as a miniature painter. It is said that when Mr. Malborn, who 
went to Europe for the purpose of improvement in his profession, 
was introduced to Mr. West, and produced specimens of his 
work, after examining them, that distinguished and celebrated 
artist, inquired for what purpose he had come to England ? Mr. 
Malborn answered, to perfect himself in the art of painting. 
Mr. West replied, '' Sir, you can go home again, for a man who 
can paint such a picture as this, need not come to England for 
instruction." His picture of the '] Past, Present, and Euture," 
now belonging to his brother-in-law, John Gr. Whitehorne, Esq., 
is one of the most chaste and splendid things of the kind in ex- 
istence. It represents three female figures. The Past has an air 

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of dejectioiij the Present seems all life and animation, tlie Future 
buoyant with hope, and anticipating unalloyed pleasure. 
" Earth's perfection, aogel graces 
In each feature fair." 

"We fondly hope that this valuable relic will never be taken- 
from Newport. 

"Washington Allston received his first instructions as a painter, 
from Mr. Samuel King, late of Newport, who displayed a fine 
taste in the art, and his propensity for painting was probably 
cultivated by his residence daring his boyish days, amid the 
scenery of Newport, whence he had come from South Carolina 
to attend the classical school in this place, kept by the late 
Kobert Eogers, Esq. 

Charles B. King, now resident in "Washington city, where as 
a painter, he is much patronized, is also a native of Newport. 
It has been said that Mr. King wishes to bestow his valuable 
collection of paintings on his native town, on condition that a 
suitable place be provided for their reception. It is highly de- 
sirable that a chaste building should at once be erected, for the 
Southern Department, in which to place whatever is valuable in 
a historical point of view. And many others, who have not en- 
gaged in this employment as a profession, in their early days 
have sketched, and drawn, and painted, until immersed in the 
business of life, they have dropped the pencil, but still retain 
the taste. 

Gilbert Stewart is claimed as being a native of Newport, 
though Mr. Updike says he was born in Narragansett. We 
have no wish to claim for Newport more than she deserves, but 
will merely state the discrepancies of the two accounts of his 
birth-place, and leave the reader to judge. 

The following is extracted from a letter of Miss Anne Stew- 
art, the daughter of Gilbert Stewart, addressed to Mr. Updike. 
She states in reply to the questions asked, in relation to what 
family of Anthony's her great -grandmother was, that she " was 
the daughter of Captain John Anthony, who was from Wales, 
and had a farm on tfie Island, near Newport, which he sold to 
Bishop Berkley. It was on this farm that my mother was 
born, and was married in Narragansett to my grandfather, Gil- 
bert Stewart, who was from Perth in Scotland. They had but 
tliree children, James, Anne, and Gilbert. As to their birthplace^ 

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you are much letter informed than myself. My father was edu- 
cated in the grammar-school in Newport, and then sent to Scot- 
land, to Sir George Chambers, for the purpose of finishing his 
education at Glasgow, after which he returned to Newport, where 
he remained for a time, and was then sent to England to study 
with Benjamin West, the great historical painter of that day." — 
Updike's History. 

It seems from this letter that Mr. Stewart was educated in 
Newport, and after going abroad, on his return comes to New- 
port, and here tarries, but not one word of his being at Narra- 
gansett. Miss Anne Stewart seems to be quite ignorant of her 
father's birth-place ; she refers the matter entirely to Mr. Up- 
dike, which is most certainly strange and unaccountable. We 
have conversed with Miss Jane Stewart, and she appeared to be 
ignorant of his birth-place being in Narragansett. She remarked 
that her father's associations and attachments were all in New- 
port, and she expresses a, strong wish that the remains of her 
father which he buried in Boston, might be removed here and 
placed by the side of , his wife, which repose in the common 
burial ground in Newport. 

Without attempting to invalidate the statement made by 
Wilbour Hammond, of the conversation said to have passed be 
tween him and Mr. Stewart, on his last visit to Narragansett, 
as every one is liable to mistakes and misapprehensions ; it be- 
comes us to offer such evidence as is furnished of the birth- 
place of this distinguished man. 

An aged and highly respectable citizen of Newport, in a con- 
versation with him on his last visit to Newport, and before 
crossing the ferries to visit the old snuff mill, which his father 
had formerly carried on, he asked him the question, where he 
was born ; standing near the spot, he pointed to the story and 
half house, at the head of Bannister wharf, on the south side, 
and said : '' there I have been told that I was born." This 
statement is confirmed by other aged citizens, which has given 
the impression that Stewart was a native of Newport. It is 
certain that the name of Gilbert Stewart appears in the census 
taken by John Bannister in 1770, and he is there found in the 
very spot where he stated that he was born. The building has 
since been taken down and another erected in its place. It is 
also said that he derived his first impression of painting from 

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witnessing Neptune Thurston, a slave, who was employed in his 
master's cooper-shop, sketch likenesses on the head of casks, and 
remarked that if he had an instructor, he would make quite a 
celebrated artist. 

Stewart has been pronounced to have been the greatest painter 
of the human head, that the age in which he lived produced, 
and perhaps of any other age. The form and features of the 
father of his country, the immortal Washington, from his pencil, 
will be transmitted to posterity, not only with truth and accu- 
racy, but in a style of execution, worthy of the subject, and that, 
too, by a son of our own favored isle. The likeness of Wash- 
ington, in the State House at Newport, was pronounced by 
Stewart as his greatest effort. And it is said he wished his 
native town to have it. 


1771. Henry Bull was the grandson of Henry Bull, one of the 
eighteen associates who first came to Ehode Island. He was 
born 23d of November, 1687. Being a man of strong powers 
of mind, he studied, and soon acquired a knowledge of the law, 
and became distinguished as a practitioner in the courts. He 
was occasionally a member of the House of Eepresentatives 
from Newport, elected Attorney- General, in 1721, re-elected 
in 1722, but declined serving. He was elected Speaker of the 
House of Eepresentatives in 1728-9 ; was one of the Committee 
to conduct and manage the controversy between the Colonies 
of Ehode Island and Massachusetts, respecting the eastern 
boundary. He was Chief Justice of the Court of Common 
Pleas for Newport county, at its first estabhshment in 1749. 

^' I have heard," says Major Bull, " the aged who had been 
acquainted with him, relate what he had told about his law edu- 
cation. W^hen he had made up his mind to practice law, he 
went into the garden to exercise his talents in addressing the 
Court and Jury. He then selected five aabbages, in one row, 
for Judges, and twelve in another row for Jurors. After trying 
his hand there awhile, he went boldly into court and took upon 
himself the duties of an advocate, and a little observation and 

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experience there, eonvinced him that the same cabbages were 
m the court house which he thought he had left in the garden ; 
five in one row and twelve in another." 

The conclusion to which he arrived proves him to have been 
a man of common sense, and a strict observer of human nature. 
But by whatever means he acquired a knowledge of the law", 
he certainly "rose to the height of his profession, as a practitioner 
in the courts of law and admiralty; as the profession stood in 
his day. 

He partook liberally of the enjoyments of life, was of an 
amiable and engaging disposition, and hved to a great age ; 
having been born November 23d, 1687, and dying December 
24th, 1771, aged 84. 

James Honyman was the son of Eev. James Honyman, Eector 
of Trinity church, Newport. As a speaker, Mr. Honyman was 
elaborate, but his industry, talents, and faithfulness, commanded 
an extensive and profitable practice at Newport, and on the cir- 
cuit. In deportment he was dignified — always dressed in the 
best, fashions of the times — scrupulously formal in manners — 
domestic, yet social in his habits. In person, he was tall, broad- 
shouldered, and muscular, but not fleshy. 

Mr. Honyman married EHzabeth, the daughter of George 
Golding, a merchant of Newport, and left two sons and six 
daughters. Most of his daughters and granddaughters having 
married British officers, or Americans adhering to the cause of 
the Crown, departed with the enemy, when the British evacu- 
ated Newport ; and the estates devised to them by Mr. Hony- 
man were confiscated. They were afterwards restored by an 
Act of Assembly. 

Daniel Updike having apphed himself to the study of the law, 
and being duly admitted to the bar, opened an office in New- 
port, and married Sarah, the daughter of Gov. Benedict Arnold 
Mr. Updike in person was about five feet ten inches in height, 
with prominent features. As an advocate, he sustained a high 
reputation ; and among other personal advantages, possessed a 
clear, full, and musical voice. Dr. Bradford used to speak of 
him as being a '' fine speaker, with great pathos and piercing 
irony." Mr. Updike possessed a large library of classical and 
general literature, a considerable portion of which is now 

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Mr, Updike and Dean Berkley were intimate friends. In 
testimony of tbe friendship and esteem which the Dean enter- 
tained for Mr. Updike, he presented him on his departure for 
Europe, an elegantly wrought silver coffee pot, and after his 
arrival, sent him his ^' Minute Philosopher," which now remains 
in the family as remembrancers of this distinguished divine. 

Augustus Johnson. He came to Ehode Island, when quite 
young, studied law with Matthew Robinson, Esq., who was his 
step-father, and settled at Newport. After a few years' practice 
he was considered one of the best lawyers in the State. With 
an acute and penetrating mind, he could unravel the most intri- 
cate cases with apparent ease, but his great forte was in sifting 
and reconciling discordant testimony. 

Mr. Johnson was a loyalist, and the stand which he took in 
favor of the Crown, brought down the ire of the whole populace 
against him. This was on account of his acceptance of the office 
of Stamp-Master. He was constantly hissed at and insulted in 
the streets, but it had little or no effect on his determinations. 
In 1765, his house was surrounded by an infuriated collection 
of men, who by their unusual tumult and rage, first led him to 
feel that his person was in danger. He was afterwards seized, 
and after suffering many indignities, a promise was extorted 
from him, to resign the office, with which he reluctantly com- 

On the repeal of the Stamp Act, in 1766, as soon as the news 
was received, the people of Newport erected a gallows, near the 
State House, and had the effigies of Mr. Johnson, Martin How- 
ard, jun., and Dr. Moffat, the stamp-masters, conveyed through 
the streets, in a cart, with halters about their necks. They were 
carried to the gallows and hanged, and shortly after cut down 
and burnt, amid the shouts and acclamations of the assembly, 
The contents of their houses and cellars were destroyed by a 
mob at night. Howard died Chief Justice of South Carohna ; 
a fine portrait of him is in the Boston Court House. The popu- 
lar indignation made it necessary for Mr. Johnson to seek pro- 
tection on board of a British armed vessel then lying in the har- 
bor. In the year 1779, he accompanied the enemy's forces to 
New- York. His property in Newport was confiscated, and as 
remuneration for his persecutions, he received a pension from 
the British Government as long as he lived, and after him the 

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game was continued to his widow, who survived him many 

Major Matthew Eobinson Johnson, was the son of Augustus 
Johnson, who was a native of New Jersey ; he was born in 
Newport, in 1761, and entered the British army at an early age, 
and served under the Duke of York and Gleneral Abercromby, 
at the siege of Dunkirk, and was in the various battles during 
the campaign in Holland ; he afterwards served in the West 
Indies, and in all sustained the reputation of an accomphshed 
and brave officer. 

After the peace of 1800, feeling a longing desire to revisit his 
native place, he sold his commission, and came to Newport, 
where he married, and resided, except for a few years, on a farm 
in Portsmouth, until his death, which took place on the 5th of 
May, 1818, in the 56th year of his age. He was a high-minded 
and honorable man, and enjoyed the respect of all who knew 
him. His former residence, in Portsmouth, is now the Asylum 
for the Poor of that town. 

Henry Marchant, was another highly distinguished counsel- 
lor. His father was Hexford Marchant, of Martha's Vineyard, 
a captain in the merchant service. His wife was a Butler, 
who died when the subject of this memoir was four years old, 
a short time after the removal of the family to Newport. Oapt. 
Marchant married, for his second wife, the daughter of the first, 
and sister of the second General "Ward. 

The connection which the father had formed with the Ward 
family, had a happy effect upon the future destiny of the son. 
Having completed his studies under every favorable advantage^ 
he came to Newport, and commenced practise. He was the 
only dissenting, or ^' hberty lawyer," in the Colony. His 
acquirements, industry, and forensic talent, soon raised him to 
the head of his profession. In 1766, Mr. Marchant wrote and 
prepared the deed from Wilham Read, to William Ellery, John 
Oolhns, Eobert Cooke, and Samuel Powler, of " Liberty Tree 
lot," (a large buttonwood tree standing on it, at the north end 
of Thames-street, Newport.) Said lot and tree thereon, were 
conveyed to the grantees '' in trust, and forever thereafter to 
be known by the name of the ' Tree of Liberty,' to be set apart 
to, and for the use of, the sons of liberty ; and that the same 
stand as a monument of the spirited and noble opposition to the 

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Stamp Actjin the year 1765, by the sons of liberty in Newport, 
ai^d throughout the eontinent of North America, and to be 
considered as emblematical of ' public liberty taking deep root 
in Enghsh America, of her strength and spreading protection, 
of her benign influences, refreshing her sons in all their just 
struggles against the attempts of tyranny and oppression.' 
And furthermore, the said tree of hberty is destined and set 
^part for exposing to pubhc ignominy and reproach, all 
offenders against the liberties of the country, and the abettors 
and approvers of such as would enslave her. And, in general, 
said tree is hereby set apart, for such other purposes as they, 
the true born sons of hberty, shall, from time to time, from age 
to age, and in all times and ages hereafter, apprehend, judge, 
and resolve, may subserve the glorious cause of Pubhc Liberty." 
The deed is witnessed by thirty-one of the most respectable and 
influential Whigs in Newport. 

"When the island was afterwards possessed by the enemy, the 
tree, thus dedicated, was destroyed ; but after the evacuation,, 
in 1783, it was replaced by another, which is still standing. 
The names, engraved on copper, and placed on the tree, are 
nearly covered over by the tree's enlargement. Let the inhabi- 
tants of Newport be reminded of their liberties, when they 
look on this tree, and guard against every attempt to under- 
mine their glorious privileges. 


Member of the Revolutionary Congress, and 

United States' Judge for the District of Rhode Island, 

Died August 30th, 1796, 


William Channing was another distinguished counsellor, of 
Newport. In early hfe he sustained many honorable offices 
by legislative appointment, and at the annual State election in 
1777, he was, by his fellow-citizens, elected Attorney- General^ 
without opposition ; his predecessor, Mr. Marchant, having 
been, at the same period, chosen delegate to the Confederated 

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Mr. Channing was grandson of Jolin Ghanning, of Porset- 
shire, England ; the first of the name who, came to America, 
and who arrived in Boston about 1715. He was born in New- 
port, May 31st, 1751, and was educated at Aashua Hall, 
(Princeton College,) where he graduated in 1769. He was the 
father of the late W. E. Channing, D. D., who ranks as one of 
the most eminent divines the world has ever produced, as also 
Walter Channing, M. D., of Boston, who is distinguished as a 

Matthew Eobinson, the only son of Eobert Eobinson, was ap- 
pointed Searcher of the Customs in Newport, by Queen Anne, 
andassumedthe duties of the office about the year 1706. Matthew 
was born in Newport, in the year 1709. He was well educated, 
and was an apt and ready Latin and G-reek scholar, but whether 
he graduated from any public institution, cannot now be ascer- 
tained. He estabhshed an office in Newport, about forty years 
before the Eevolution, and practised law with reputation, and 
his business was considerable on the circuits. He was a great 
collector of amazing incidents, trite sayings, and conundrums, 
which he preserved in a book kept for that purpose. One was, 
'' that it was difficult to drive a black hog in the dark." 

Eobert Lightfoot was born in London, in 1716. His family 
were wealthy, and of high respectability. He graduated from 
the University of Oxford, studied law in the Inner Temple, and 
was appointed Judge of the Yice Admiralty, in the Southern 
District of the United States, in the reign of George II, with a 
salary of £6,000 a year. He entered upon the duties of his 
office, but the climate enfeebling his health, he came to New- 
port, which was then, as now, celebrated for its restorative 
influence to renovate his impaired constitution. Finding the 
island and its scenery as dehghtful as his fancy could sketch, 
and its society refined and attractive, he was disinchned to 
return, and resigned his office. 

The venerable Dr. Waterhouse, in his letter, observes, '^ I 
knew Judge Lightfoot very well ; he was a well-educated man, 
and first taught me to value and study Lord Bacon, and from 
him I learnt to value Locke, and Newton, and Boerhaave. He 
was the oracle of Hterary men in Newport ; was a very able 
and learned man, and appeared, at Ehode Island, I thought-— 

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* * * < Condemn' d to trudge, 
Without an equal, and without a judge.' 

" He was a great epicure, a perfect encyclopsedia, and wel- 
come to the tables of the first characters, and constantly dined 
from home." (In those days G-rahamism was unknown, and to 
enjoy life seemed to be the wish and desire of all.) " He was 
not a buffoon or mimic, but a fine relator of apt anecdotes. He 
informed every body, and contradicted no one, but had a happy 
Socratic method of teaching. He honored me with his notice, 
and I gained more knowledge from him than any other man in 
the choice of books." These were the palmy days of Newport, 
when the island was the intellectual constellation of this Western 


The names of Hunter, Halliburton, Brett, Moffat, Hooper, 
&c., rank high among the most eminent physicians of that or 
any other age. Dr. Waterhouse says : 

'' About the year 1756, Dr. "WilHam Hunter gave at Newport, 
B. I., the first anatomical and surgical lectures ever delivered in 
the twelve Colonies. They were delivered in the Court House, 
two seasons in succession, by cards of invitation, and to great 
satisfaction. His collection of instruments was much larger 
than any professor exhibits at this day. Dr. Hunter was a man 
of talents, well-educated at Edinburgh, and a gentleman of 
taste in the fine arts." 

He further says, alluding to Dr. Hunter and HaUiburton : 
" We doubt whether Boston, New- York, or Philadelphia, ever 
had, at one and the same time, two practitioners of physic and 
surgery, better educated and more skillful than these two gentle- 

Dr. Hunter's daughters were said to have been beautiful and 
accomphshed women. Soon after the peace of 1783, they went 
with their mother to Europe, for the purpese of procuring medi 
cal aid for one of the daughters. The youngest was married on 
the Continent, to Mr, Falconer, a celebrated banker in Naples, 
and the other to Count de Callender. 

Dr Hunter was the father of the late Hon. William Hunter, 
who was Minister to Brazil, South America. Of his distin- 
guished talents we are fully acquainted. He was one of nature's 

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noblemen, and his native town of Newport felt justly proud of 
him, and highly appreciated his commanding talents, in their 
electing him to the various offices of importance in the State, 
and in the national councils. In the Senate of the United States 
none held a higher rank. His eloquence was hstened to with 
the profoundest attention. He showed himself a man ; one who 
was every way qualified to discharge the high and important 
trust committed to him by his constituents. His form and car- 
riage indicated the finished gentleman. Those who remember 
him in his palmy days, will be ready to respond to the view 
here given of him. 

Mr. Hunter was an independent man ; he acknowledged no 
superior in the sense as to lead him to abandon his own pri- 
vate opinion, to gratify some would-be lordling. He planted 
his feet on the broad principle of right, and maintained the honor 
and dignity of the country which gave him birth. He enjoyed 
the friendship and esteem of James Madison and Andrew 
Jackson, which we conceived to be no small honor. Mr. Hunter 
was of the old school. He never followed in the track of the 
modern pigmies and dwarfs, whose pedantry lead them to think 
that all knowledge will die with them. His was a higher stan- 
dard of moral excellence, derived from an age when firmness 
and stability of character were the characteristics of the times. 

Dr. Isaac Center, who succeeded the distinguished names 
already, was a native of Londonderry, N. H., and was born 
about the year 1753. He received his medical education in 
Newport, E. I., that place being famed at the time for the num- 
ber of its distinguished physicians. "While pursuing his studies, 
the news of the battle of Lexington, April 1775, arrived, and 
filled with patriotic ardor, he immediately joined the Ehode 
Island troops, whom he accompanied to the camp at Cambridge, 
as a surgeon. On the organization of the army, he received a con- 
firmation of his appointment, and was sent with the expedition of 
Gen. Arnold to Quebec. The road was up the Kennebec river, 
through the untried wilderness, which occupied thirty-two days, 
in the inclement months of November and December, before they 
reached the settlement on the Chaudiere ; the w^hole march was 
made on foot, during which he, with the rest of the army, suffered 
almost incredible hardships. In the assault on Quebec, all of 
Arnold's division were either killed or made prisoners of war ; 

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among the latter was young Center, who after being detained some 
time to attend to the sick and wounded, was released and suffered 
to return home. In 1779, he quitted the army, and served as a 
physician, in the town of Cranston, E. I., and was soon after 
elected one of the Representatives to the General Assembly, 
from that town. In 1784 he was chosen Surgeon and Physician- 
General of the State and Army, and removed to Newport, where 
he commenced the practice of physic, under the most favorable 
auspices, nearly all the old physicans having either died or emi- 
grated during the war. 

The Rev. "WiUiam E. Channing, D. D., in speaking of Dr. 
Isaac Center, says : ^^ He was a physician of extensive practice, 
who was thought to unite with great experience, a rare genius 
in his profession, and whose commanding figure rises before me, 
at the distance of forty-five years, as a specimen of manly 
beauty, worthy of the chisel of a Grecian sculptor." 

He contributed to several papers, and also to the medical 
publications of the day, which acquired him a reputation not 
only in his own country, but in Europe. He died in 1799. 
He left two sons and three daughters. Di<. Horace Center, 
was educated in England, and was a practising physician of 
Newport, a gentleman highly distinguished in his profession. 
He was killed near Savannah, Geo., in a duel with the Hon. 
John Rutledge, of South Carolina. Nathaniel Greene *Center 
died at sea, having been in the East India service. Edward 
Gilbon, the youngest son, was a young man of fine genius and 
elegant appearance. His eldest daughter, Ehza, married Eev. 
N. B. Crocker, D. D., Rector of St. John's church. Providence. 
For forty-eight years he has continued to minister to this church 
and congregation, with acceptance. Having devoted the energies 
of his nature in proclaiming the Gospel of Christ, avoiding ques- 
tions which gender strife, rather " than godly edifying, which is 
in faith" — a long life has not ahenated, but increased and 
strengthened the affections of his people towards him, and evi- 
dences the preponderance of good sense over ignorance, which 
distinguishes the society. It is no flattery to say of him, that he 
is a man of " blameless hfe and godly conversation," and entitled 
to the respect and confidence of the community among whom he 
has Hved for nearly half a century. 

Sarah married Clement S. Hunt, Purser in the U. S. Navy. 

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Jahleel BrentoQ^ Oapt 
John Brown, 1st Lieut. 

William Mamford, 2d " 
John Tillinghasty Ensign, 
Josias Lyndon, Clerk. 

t, ^ 


A Charter was granted to the Artillery Company in 174L 
The first officers elected were.: 

John Channing, 
Samuel Freebody, 
Vf alter Cranston, 
Jos i ah Brown, 
Job Bennett, 
Peter Frebj, 

This company has always held a high rank, and embraced 
the most distinguished citizens of Newport And for the honor 
of the town, and out of respect to the memory of the first offi- 
cers, may it never lose its hold on the hearts of the people. 


A List of Fish brought to Newport in 1779., as reported % 
Edward Thurston,^ Esq. 


Bass, Sea and Striped . 
Blue Fish 
Bull Fish 
Bull's Eyes 


Clams, Mud 
" Beack 
^Crabs, Green 
' Sand 
" Spide^r 
" King 
" Sea 
" Kunning 
« Fiddler 
Cat Fish 


~Eigg Fish 
Eels. Sea 
" Lamper 
" Conger 
" Common 
^' Sand 

f^rost Fish 


I Flying Fish 

i G-runters 


( Haddock 

> Holibut 

j Herrings, English 


) Lancets 
j Lobsters 

> Limpets 


I Mackerel, Bound 

" Small ditk) 
*' Large Horse 
« Small ditto 
" Spanish 

! Menhaden 

\ Mussels 

' Millets 

> Mummy Chogs 
] Maids 

! Minnums 



Perch, Sea 

" Fresh-water 
Polluckj Whiting 

Pumpkin Fish 


I Quahog 

I Bazor Fish 
I Budder Fish 

* Ship Jack 
' Scuppague 
', Sheep's Head 
\ Sneateague 
I Sturgeon 
) Skate 
\ Shad 

> Smelts 

1 Sucking Fish 
\ Salmon 
« Slice Fish 
I Sole 
j Scollops 

> Squirt 

J Shrimps 
[ Sea Mails 

> Sagars 

\ Sword Fish 
[ Shiners 
» Sun Fish 
\ Sharks 

; 1 

\ Thrasher 

! Tautogue 
; Tom-Cod 
} Trout 
j Toad Fish 


J Whale, Bight 

" Humpback 
" Striped 

> " Bone 

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Newport has long been justly celebrated,, for having the best 
fish market in the world, both for variety and quahty. The 
choicest kinds, and the most sought after, are the Tautogue Sea 
Bass^ Striped Bass, Horse Mackerel^ and Blue Eish. The 
Tautogue, as served up in Newport style, is esteemed a very 
great luxury by the epicure : cooked as they are, immediately 
after taken from the sea, render them greatly superior to those 
obtained elsewhere. It is one great inducement for strangers 
to visit Newport, in connection with other attractions v/hich 
are to be met within this highly interesting town. 

It is delightful to ascend the chff where the fishermen resort^ 
and enjoy the healthy breezes of the ocean, and contemplate 
the restless wave, dashing its starry foam along the rock-bound 
shore; while at a distance the inflated white sails of passing ves- 
sels, burnished by the meridian sun,= glide on the bosom of the 
ocean, and dazzle with its brightness the attentive eye that 
watches the beautiful sight. 

Fishing, to the gentleman of leisure, is a pleasant pastime ; 
nothing is more exciting and animating, than to hook a fine 
white chin tautogue, and draw him up on the rocks, in connec- 
tion with anticipating the moment when he^ is placed on the 
gridiron, well-smothered with onions, &c. Why the mere thought 
makes the mouth water for such e; repast. 

It has been a question whether the facihties for fishings which 
are enjoyed to so high a degree in Newport, is of advantage or not 
to the place. "We have no hesitation in saying, that situated m 
Newport' is, it proves a great blessing to the inhabitants, afford- 
ing employment to ximnj who would otherwise have nothing to 
do ; and it is also a laudable occupation and conducive to 
health and longevity. It is one of God^s blessings to his crea- 
tures, and as such, should be highly appreciated and valued by 
the inhabitants. 

The Point— the northern part of New^port— is a highly inter- 
esting and beautiful portion, already beginning to be appreciated 
by strangers. In this section of the town, many of the inhabi- 
tants procure a hvelihood by following the business of fishing. 
They own their boats, and go outside as far as Beaver- tail .; 
occasionally they obtain a job to pilot some vessel to Providence^ 
Fall Eiver, &c. The Youngs, Gladdings, Huddys, fe^., have 
been an easy and clever set of fellows, and they have well per- 
formed their part in securing varieties from the briny deep. 

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All old fisherman, Samuel Maxson.5 has kindly furnished the 
author with the most noted spots which have long been the re- 
sort of tbe inhabitants, of Newport, to take fish. They are to 
be found at the south part of the island, about two miles from 
the town, viz : Taylor's Point, Elli-son's Eocks, Shelf Eock, 
Stanton Eock, OoggeshalPs Ledge, Bass Eock, Eough Pointy 
Cluster Island Eocks, Gulley, near the boat-house^ Spouting 
Eock, a httle to the west of south, Jeffries' Point, or Eock Parm 
Point, Gooseberry Island., a short distance from Ehoda Island.. 
This was a favorite place of resort of CoL John Malborn, and 
his associates, who were often in the habit of spending a week 
on the island^ taking fish and adhering strictly to the old maxim 
of having their swim three times. They used to have a jolly 
time of it, and often indulged to excess. Cherry Neck, Price's 
Neck, Seal Eock, Brenton's Eeef, Castle HilVso named from an 
old fort remaining on the farm, Isle Eock, Churches Beach, 
Kettle-bottom Eock, Almy's Pond., and Lily Pond, where 
perch were occasionally taken .^ the salt water fish being pre- 
ferred, on account of thair superior fiavor, not many are taken. 
These are the most important places in Coggeshall and Bren- 
ton's Neck ; and no sight is more pleasing .than to witness the 
fishertoen returning with a fine supply of fish, to furnish New- 
port market. 

Every day in the year some kinds of fish may be found at the 
head of Bamister'e Wharf, Ferry Wharf, and tke G-ranary or 
Brick Market, the three principal depots. Here stand the 
wheel -barrow^s, with their choice contents, an object of interest 
to the inhabitants. This is one of the old land-marks, like the 
blue eggs and egg-nog.^ which continue to be sold on the day 
of general election, and may these relics of anti(|uity forever dis- 
tinguish th^ town. 

Wild fowl are at .certain seasons quite abundantj asd are es- 
teemed a great luxury by many. Captain Jeremiah Bhss, the 
son of the late Elder Bliss, who has attained to th^ advanced 
age of fourscore years, was comsidered the best shot on the 
Island ; h^ has been known in former days to load ahorse with 

To the man of leisure, it is fine sport to shoot the fowl 
which hover around the shores, and still more gratifying.^ to 
pa^rtake of a .stew, m.ade of them 

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Having alluded to the Boat-house, we would subjoin a few 
remarl:s. It has existed from a very early period, and was in- 
tended as an accommodation to the inhabitants of Newport. 
Captain Jeremiah Bliss says : '^ I have- known it for more than 
sixty years, and helped to build the one which was destroyed 
m the September gale."' The Malborn^B, &c.., were in the habit 
of resorting there before this period, and had partitioned off 
a room to keep their guns and ammunition. In the transfer of 
the farm, which has been frequent, this privilege to the land has 
always been granted, as being a public benefit in which each 
citizen of the town had a right to participate. There was one 
attempt m'ade to question the propriety of having this site oc- 
cupied for the above purpose, but public opinion put the matter 
to rest. 

Sir G'ranvilTe Temple's daughter died of small pox, and wafj- 
buried on the Harrison Farm,. S. S. W. of the Lime Eocks. 

Dark Day, 1780^. The Dark Day was distinguished by the 
phenomenon of a remarkable darkness in the North part of 
America, and is still called the Dark Day. 

The following is an account (i>f its appearance at Newport, a® 
given at the time : 

" There fell here a singular and remarkable darkness, which 
overspread the hemisphere for about five hours. In the morn- 
ing were showers attended with) distant thunder ; about 1 G o'block 
A. M., a darkness came on, which by 1 1 o'clock, was perceived 
to be very unusual and extraordinary, and in half an hour after 
was considered as what was never before seen in these northern 
dimates in America. The darkness was so' intense, from 
a little before noon to two o'clock, as that persons could not 
read, and it became necessajy to light up candles. Even the 
fowls, it is said,, went to roost. Many of the inhabitants were 
thereupon thrown into the greatest consternation, as if the ap- 
pearance was supernatural, and believed that the Day ef Judg- 
ment was about to come. A little after 2, P. M., it became 
somewhat lighter, but the darkness soon returned. About 3: 
o'clock it began to go off, and at 4, P. M., the heavens resumed 
their usual light, as in a cloudy day, although the cloudinesB 
continued all the rest ef the afternoon." 

Tarious were the speculations on the eventj but no fixed coa^ 
elusions were ever arrived at. 

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In 1717, two great snow storms took place, on the 20th and 
24th of Eebruary, which covered the ground so deep with 
snow, that people for some days could not pass from one house 
to another. Old Indians said, their fathers had never told 
them of such a snow. . It was from ten to twenty feet deep, 
and generally covered the lower stories, so that people dug 
paths from one house to another, under the snow. Soon after, 
a slight rain fell, and the frost crusted it over, so that the 
people went out of their chamber windows, and walked over it. 
Many of the farmers lost their sheep, and most of the sheep 
and swine which were saved, hved from one to two weeks 
without food. 

Great damage was done to the orchards, by the snow freez- 
ing to the branches, and splitting them from the trees by its 
great weight. 

This fall of snow formed a remarkable era in New England, 
and old people in relating an event would say, that it happened 
so many years before, or after, the great snow. 

About the first of January, 1780, a period of steady cold 
commenced ; during forty days, even on the south and sunny 
side of the buildings in warm situations, there was no indication 
of a thaw. The light and dry snow drifted and eddied wnth 
the incessant motion of thfe wind ; paths' opened, were imme- 
diately filled up, and communication was entirely interrupted, 
ISTarragansett Bay remained frozen over for six weeks, and the 
ice extended from the shore as far as the eye could see. 

The inhabitants of Newport experienced the greatest distress 
for fuel ; wood could not be had, and they were obhged to 
resort to wharf logs, old buildings, fences, "and every other ex- 
pedient to keep themselves from freezing. Wood was sold at 
the enormous price of $20 per cord. Provisions were equally 
scarce. Corn was sold at four silver dollars per bushel, and 
potatoes at two dollars per bushel ; and other articles in like 

In 1756, a look-out house was built on the top of the stone 
mill, which then belonged to John Banister, Esq. Benedict 
Arnold's daughter married Edward Pelham, who inherited his 

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estate. Mr. Pelham left two daughters, one of whom married 
John Banister, and the other John Gowley, to whom his 
estate descended, consisting of Banister's Wharf, and the one 
known as Stephens' "Wharf, which extended from Pelham-street 
to what is now called Bellevue-street. 

The Banister family once filled a large place in Newport. 
The farm of the late George Irish, Esq., was the country seat 
of the Banisters, They lived in a style of affluence, and the 
choice viands which graced their table, would satisfy an 
epicurean palate. But one of the name is now left in Newport, 
of this once distinguished family. We have in our view at this 
very moment, Mrs. Banister, one of the older branches of the 
family, who resembled a lady dowager in the dignity of her 
appearance, and the courteousness of her manners. 


" Taney spreads her wing 
Around thy time- scathed brow, and deeply tints 
Her fairy scroll, while hoar antiquity 
In silence frowns upon the aimless flight. 

And whatsoever bears 
The stamp of hoary time, and hath not been 
The minister of evil, claims from us 
Some tribute of respect." 

In dimensions this mill is nearly twenty-five feet in height, 
its diameter on the outside is twenty-three feet, and inside is 
eighteen feet nine inches. It is circular, and supported upon 
eight arches, resting on thick columns, about ten feet high ; the 
height of the centre of the arches from the ground is twelve 
feet six inches, and the foundation extends to the depth of four 
or five feet. 

There has been much speculation-, in relation to this struc- 
ture, within the last twenty years ; strangers, visiting Newport, 
have attempted to make it out as being erected by the labor 
of Northmen, whom they supposed to have discovered this 
continent, anterior to Columbus in the twelfth century. 

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These Northmen were the descendants of the BcandinavianSj 
who, it is thought, sprang from the Thracians, mentioned by 
Homer, a nation now extinct. The Danes, Swedes, Nor- 
wegians, and Icelanders, all come under the name of Northmen, 
or Norsemen. Their literature has been compared, in extent, 
to the literary remains of Greece and Latium. This opens a 
new fountain of research, where the scholar may often 

" Return and linger, linger and return." 

In a work recently published in Denmark, the author has 
attempted to show that the old Stone Mill was built by North- 
men. The Eev. Mr. Kipp, of Albany, tells me he saw at the 
residence of the Duke of Tuscaify, a .Swedish Count, who spoke 
of this building as the work of Northmen. He was perfectly 
familiar with the discoveries of those whom he proudly called 
" his people." 

^' The active mind of man instinctively surveys the dark 
regions of the past, and would gladly break the unfathomable 
silence of the nations of the dead, and raise the veil where their 
beauty and glory have slept for ages. The strong desire to 
learn something of those who lived when time was young, 
leads the antiquarian to often adopt groundless theories." — 
Antiquities of America^ by A. Davis. 

We have made this extract, for the purpose of preparing 
the mind of the reader, to draw his own inferences from the 
views entertained by antiquarians, with those which are held 
by the people of Newport, especially those of David Melville, 
Esq., who has devoted much time and attention to the investi- 
gation of the subject. 

The most ridiculous views have been entertained of the 
nature and object of this structure, and. also of the period when 
it was erected. These visionary ideas are of recent origin, and 
are not founded in fact, but the mere workings of a fanciful 
imagination which aims to surround the structure with a kind 
of romance, in order to gratify a morbid appetite which delights 
in the marvellous. We shall offer extracts from the will of 
Governor Benedict Arnold, and of Edward Pelham, who mar- 
ried his daughter, and then present the arguments which have 
been ably employed by one of our most respectable citizens, 
David Melville, Esq : 

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170 HISTORY or p.hode island. 

^' My body I desire and appoint to be buried at ye northeast 
corner of a parcel of ground containing three rods square, being 
of, and lying in, my land, in or near the line or path from my 
dwelling-house, leading to my stone-built wind-mill, in ye town 
of Newport abovementioned." — A True Copy from the Records 
of the Toion Clerkh Office in the Toiun of Newport^ Page 348. 
No. 5 Probate Records. 

What language could possibly have been employed, more 
significant, to convey to the mind the object for which this struc- 
ture was reared, " my stone-built wind-mill, in the town of New- 
port." He does not say, " my so-called mill." as though he was 
ignorant of the origin or the design of the structure, but speaks 
in the most expHcit manner, no 'doubt bemg entertained in his 
mind, of the nature and design of the building. We have 
asked the opinion of legal men, in what hght they understood 
the language of Governor Arnold, and they have at once ad- 
mitted that it was to be understood in its most literal significa- 
tion, as a mill built by Governor Arnold, for a useful purpose, 
viz. : to grind corn for the early settlers. 

Extract from Edward Pelham's will, dated May 21, 1741. 
Bequest to bis daughter Hermseoine, the wife of John Banister, 
after others previously made : 

'^ Also one other piece or parcel of land situated, lying and 
being in N,ewport aforesaid, containing eight acres or there- 
abouts, with an old stone wind-mill thereon standing, and being 
and commonly called and known by the name of the mill field, 
or upper field." 

The butts and bounds shew this to be part of the lot men- 
tioned in Benedict Arnold's will, on which he says '' standeth 
my dwelling, or mansion-house," &c., '^ as also my stone-built 

This property remained in the Banister family until the Ameri- 
can Eevolution. Here we have additional testimony of the 
nature and object of this structure,. which has called forth such 
frequent discussions in the public prints. It is here clearly im- 
phed, if language can be understood, that it w^as built for a 
wind- mill, and this has been the opinion of the inhabitants of 
Newport, who have given the least attention to the subject. 

Mr. Pelham does not attempt to make out in his will, that it 
was anything else than what had been before so lucidly and 

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dearly described by Governor Benedict Arnald, but says, " an 
old stone wind-mill thereon standing." No instrument ever writ- 
ten could have been plainer or more to the point ; and it shows a 
very great weakness in the human mind, to attempt to prove 
that it was built anterior to the discovery of this Continent by 

Those who settled the Island of Aquedneck, were not ignorant 
men, they had a knowledge of architecture, acquired in Europe^ 
and the abundance of stone at their hand, induced them to erect 
the wind-mill, of this material, as being more permanent and 
lasting. There is nothing very remarkable in its constructioni 
It is built of rough stone, placed without order, though in a 
communication made to the Antiquarian Society of Copenhagen^ 
by Dr. Webb, he has made a statement so entirely incorrect as 
to deceive the Society into the idea that it could not have been 
erected by the early settlers of the island. He represents it as 
" built of stone, and laid in regular courses," which is not the 
fact, and had a tendency to mislead the mind of those to whom 
the statement was sent. 

To our mind, the construction of this mill for an important 
and useful purpose, viz., to prepare food for the inhabitants, is 
a rational conclusion to arrive at, and one infinitely preferable 
to the vague notion embraced by many minds hving at a dis- 
tance, that it was erected as a fortress to defend a; race who- 
occupied the Island in the twelfth century. The former is the 
only sensible view which can be taken of the subject, while the 
latter is replete with the most egregious folly. 

Nicholas Easton, who built the first house in Newport, makes 
no mention of the mill, which, if it had then been standing, 
would no doubt have been made matter of record by him or 
others of the early settlers. 

A gentleman procured a quantity of the cement or mortar^ 
from the wall of the old stone house in Spring-street, which 
was built by Henry Bull, one of the first purchasers of the 
Island, and immediately after the first settlement of the town^ 
in 1638, and specimens from several other ancient buildings and 
stone chimneys, and some from the tombs of Governor Arnold 
and his wife, and from the stone mill, and analyzed and com- 
pared them, and found them of the same quality, and composed 
of shell lime^ sandy and gravel ; and considered it very strong 

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evidence that they were buiit not far from the same time — all 
probably within a period of thirty or forty years from each 
•other. It will be borne in mind by the reader, that we noticed 
the making of shell-lime at a very earlyperiod of the settlement 
of the town. 

It may appear strange to the reader that this discovery has 
so recently been made. But when it is considered that pubhc 
attention has never been called, to the investigation of the sub- 
ject until of late, their surprise and astonishment should cease. 
Many things are taken for granted, which may not in fact be 
true. It was currently reported and beheved in olden times, 
that the celebrated spot known as Purgatory, at the second 
beach, had no bottom, and that frequent attempts had been made 
to sound it, but without effect. Now, so far from this being 
the truth, the tide ebbs and flows into it, and at low water it is 
quite shallow. Superstition has ever had its votaries, down to 
the period of spiritual knockings. 

We will now subjoin a portion of the correspondence, held 
through the Neivport Herald and The Rhode Islander^ on this 
recently mooted subject, feeling satisfied in our own mind that 
our venerable townsman, David Melville, Esq., has done ample 
justice to the subject, and confounded the idle theories of his 
opponents, and shown to the world that it is nothing more or 
less than an old stone mill 

^' Mr. Eastman, 

" Your readers will recollect the controversy pubhshed some 
months since in relation to this ancient structure, which ori- 
ginated from the inquiry of a ' Visitor,' published in the 
Mercury, as to its origin and object, w^hich w^as answered by a 
writer in the Newport Daily News, under the signature of 
^ x^ntiquarian, Brown University, Providence, Ehode Island.^ 
The correctness of which was disputed, and pronounced false 
and groundless by the writer, under the signature of ' One of 
the Oldest Inhabitants,' published in the Herald of the Times 
and Ehode Islander. The pubhcation of his last article on the 
subject, in the Herald of August 5th, 1847, silenced ' Antiqua- 
rian,' by showing conclusively that his whole statement was a 
base fabrication, without the least foundation in truth, and 
andoubtadlj intended for deception ; the object of which ap- 

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peared to be to fix tlhe date of its structure to remote antiquity^ 
and that it was the works of the ISTorthinen, (the ancient Scan- 
dinavians,) who visited the eastern portion of this continent as 
early as the tenth century, and as evidence that they visited^ 
and estabhshed themselves on this island at that period ; from 
what sinister motives this was undertaken, the writer will not 
attempt to decide, but leaves that to the pubhc. 

" In conformity to the declared intention of the writer to 
represent the facts to the Eoyal Society of Antiquarians at 
■Copenhagen, he forwarded to the President of the InstitutioUy 
by the favor of the Honorable George Bancroft, our Minister 
in England, through the Danish Legation in London, a copy 
of the Herald of the Times and Ehode Islander, of August 5^ 
IMT, which contained the full report attributed to Professor 
Scrobien, as published by ' Antiquarian, Brown University, 
Providence, Khode Island,' with a letter, calling the attention 
of the Eoyal College to the subject, (which is too lengthy and 
quite unnecessary to be pubhshed,) asking the favor of an 
answer, if such a report had ever been made to the Society ^ 
and acted upon as stated in the report. 

*' To this communication, the writer hss just received the 
following answer : 

'^ ^ Copenhagen, January 4th, 1848. 
'' ' Sir, 

" ' Your letter of the 12th of August, with the Herald of 
the Times and Ehode Islander, of August 5th, 1847, I duly 
received a few days ago. 

" ' I beg to return you my thanks for the communication 
transmitted, and deem it my duty to inform you that the article 
which lately appeared in your journals, on the subject of the 
ancient structure in Newport is, from beginning to end, a 
downright fabrication, no such having ever been made to the 
Eoyal Society of Northern Antiquities as the one alluded to. 
The persons mentioned in the article, too. Bishop Oelrischer^ 
Professors Scrobien, Graety, &c., are all fictitious characters^ 
there never having existed here individuals bearing those names. 
Thus the entire notice is nothing more than a fiction, the object 
of which is to mystify the pubUc, 

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*' ' It were to be -wisbed, tbat sucb of tbe American journals 
as have admitted tbe article in question into tbeir columns, 
would apprize tbe public of its entire falsity. 

" ^ In 1837 I published, on behalf of our Society, the Old 
Korthern Sources to the Ante- Columbian History of America 
in the work entitled, Antiquitates AnERicANiE. Taking the 
astronomical, nautical, and geographical evidences contained in 
the ancient records themselves for a groundwork, I have en- 
deavored to prove that our Scandinavian forefathers in the tenth 
century discovered a portion of the eastern coast of North 
America, and in particular visited Massachusetts and Ehode 

" ^ Inquirers of the greatest celebrity here in Europe, have 
looked upon the arguments used by me as conclusive, among 
whom I may mention Alexander Humboldt, in his recently 
pubhshed Kosmos, vol 1 1, pages 269-272, where he considers 
the results of my investigations as historical facts fully de- 

'' * At the time when I published the work above alluded to, 
I was not aware of the ancient structure in Newport, which, 
consequently, cannot have led in the remotest degree to the 
results deduced, nor is there a single word said about it in my 
work, which, moreover, is to be met with in most of the larger 
libraries in America, as well as in Eurppe ; and thus opens an 
easier access to the study of the original written sources them- 

" ' The right interpretation of the accounts in the ancient 
parchment copies, clearly proves that it was precisely Massa- 
chusetts and Ehode Island which the ancient Scandinavians 
visited, and where they established themselves. The agree- 
ment of the astronomical, nautical, and geographical evidences, 
leads in this respect to so certain a result, that doubtless 
nothing further is required. 

" ' The early monuments which are met with in those regions, 
unquestionably merit the attention of the investigator, but we 
must be cautious in regard to the inferences to be drawn from 

*' ' Concerning the ancient structure in Newport, -(of which 
we had no previous knowledge whatever,) we first received a 
communication on the 22d of May^ 1839, from Thomas H. 

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Webb, M. D., (now of Boston, formerly of Providence,) which 
is inserted in our Memories des Antiquaires du Nord, 1836 — 
1839, page^361, and I feel assured, that whoever reads that 
article, will therein discern all the caution which a scientific 
investigation demands, and all the respect due to an institution 
which has acquired confidence in and out of Europe. 

^^ ' From the drawings transmitted to us by a trust -worthy 
hand, our ablest judges skilled in the history of architecture, 
have pronounced the architectural style of the building to be 
that of the twelfth century, from which period a structure 
exactly corresponding has been pointed out, along with others 
in the same style. It is difficult, how^ever, without being on 
the spot, to offer any decided opinion as to the period to which 
the structure itself is to be referred, nor has any one here ven- 
tured to do so. Here, in the North, no wind-mills occur of 
this construction, and a gentleman distinguished for his know- 
ledge in the progressive history of the arts, and who has 
traveled much in Europe, has declared, that he never met with 
any such.* It would seem better, therefore, to leave the matter 
undecided, until further information can be obtained. But, 
even supposing that the origin of this and other monuments 
cannot be ascertained with precision, this in no way affects the 
stabiUty of the historical facts deduced from the ancient manu- 
scripts ; that the Scandinavians in the tenth century, discovered 
and established themselves in Ehode Island and Massachusetts, 
in proof of which no other testimony is required than what is 
afforded by the ancient records themselves. 

" ' Our Society would be glad to receive trust-worthy 

* In the " Penny Magazine of the Society for the diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 
for November, 1836," p. 480, there is an engraving of a Wind-mill at Chesterton, 
Warwickshire, England, erected after a design of Inigo Jones, which, without the 
roof and vanes, shew an exact fac-simile of the Old Mill at Newport. An aged 
ship-master, late of this town, of the first respectability and of undoubted integrity, 
who has been many voyages to the North of Europe, informs me that he has seen 
there more than forty wind- mills, of the same material and construction as the old 
wind-mill here ; and he had curiosity once to ask, at one of them, why they were 
built on pillars and open between them ? and was informed that on this construction 
the wind having a free passage through, there was no eddy wind caused to make a 
back sail and lessen the power. Other authorities might be quoted, but we think 
it wholly unnecessary, for every sensible mind after reading the evidence adduced, 
must be convinced of the object for which the structure was intended.— A^oce hy 
the Author, 

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communications on the subject of Ante-Columbian Monuments 
of America, to be preservecl in the American section of the 
Society's Historico-Archseological Archives, and also for inser- 
tion in their Memories, in as far as they may be suited for the 
purpose. Such articles as the one you have made known to 
us, merits no place within the pale of science, and we are glad 
to observe that by you also, they are estimated according to 
their deserts. 

^^ ^ I have the honor to be, sir, 

'' ^ Your obedient servant, 

<' ^ Charles C. Eafn, 

'' ^ Sec'y, E. S. K A." 

" * David Melville, Esq., Newport, K. I.' 

*^ It appears by the foregoing letter that the Boyal College re- 
ceived a communication on the 22d of May, 1839, from Thomas 
H. Webb, M. D., (now of Boston, formerly of Providence,) 
which is inserted in their Memoirs des Antiquaries du Nort, of 
1836 — 1839, page 361, in which Doctor Webb gives a description 
of the architectural construction of the ruin, and they received 
also drawings of the same, transmitted to them by trust-worthy 
hands, from which description, and the drawings referred to, their 
' ablest judges,' skilled in the history of architecture, have pro- 
nounced the architectural style of the building to be that of the 
twelfth century. Upon this it is barely necessary to remark, 
that the description given by Dr. Webb, as well as the drawings 
which w^ere transmitted, though in their ^general contour cor- 
rect, are in their ininutise visibly incorrect, so decidedly so, as 
to mislead the judgment of those best skilled in the history of 
architecture, and to render it impossible for them to determine 
with any reliable precision, the period to which the structure 
may be referred ; there is no reliance, therefore, upon the opin- 
ions pronounced by the ablest judges skilled in the history of 
architecture, founded on date so incorrect as that submitted to 
their inspection. 

" The Royal Society of Antiquarians, at Copenhagen, which 
is universally considered as the source of correct information, 
on facts relating to subjects of antiquity, have been imposed 
upon by unprincipled miscreants in this country. As an instance 
of their success in their attempts at deception, I would refer to 
the follownng : The inscription on the Dighton Rock^ which is 

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undoubtedly an Indian inscription in commemoration of some 
great battle, and was so pronounced by General Washington, 
when a copy of it was shown to him at Cambridge, during the 
Eevolutionary War, he having seen many similar to it in the 
Indian country ; and is so considered by Henry E. Schoolcraft, 
Esq., Professor of Geology in the service of the United States, 
who visited the Eock the last summer, and who has seen many 
of the same description in various parts of the country, from 
Maine to the source of the Mississippi, and is acquainted with 
the meaning of many of the characters in the inscription. This 
inscription has been copied by some designing wretch, and for- 
warded to the Eoyal Society of Antiquarians, at Copenhagen, 
undoubtedly for deception, and pubhshed in the work alluded to 
by Prof Bafn, entitled Antiquitates AmericancB. The version of 
the inscription pubhshed in that work, and distributed throughout 
Europe and America, was altered so as to make it appear to have 
been the work of the 8candinavians,by altering the characters, and 
adding in the body of the inscription, the characters, E I NX, 
which is said to be the name of one of their early navigators ; 
such unwarrantable conduct is disgraceful to the authors, an 
imposition on that highly respectable institution and the world, 
and ought to be discountenanced and exposed by every admirer 
of th€ correctness of facts relating to ages past. The Society 
has, (from misrepresentations made to them in regard to the 
^ Newport Euins/ as it has of late been called,) been drawn into 
an error in supposing that their Scandinavian forefathers visited 
in the IDth century the island of Ehode Island. At the remote 
period referred to, in the letter of Professor Eafn, they may 
have visited Massachusetts, and reported it by its true Indian 
name, and if they had visited this Island, it is reasonable to sup- 
pose they would have called it by the name it was called by the 
native inhabitants, which was Acquethneck. It was not called' 
Ehode Island until 1644, as appears from the following extracts 
from the Old Colony Eecords, ' at a General Court held at 
Newport on the 15th day of the 1st month, 1644.' 

'' 'It is ordered by this Court that ye island commonly called 
Acquethneck, shall be from henceforth called ye Isle of Ehodes, 
or Ehode Island.' 

•^' There is no doubt that the Northmen discovered in the tenth 
century, the eastern coast of this Continent, and visited that 

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part called by the Indian inliabitantSjfMassacliusetts, but it is 
doubtful if tbey visited at that period the Island of Acquethneck, 
now Ehode Island. There does not appear from any history or 
tradition from our ancestors, that there was any tradition among 
the Indians of Acquethneck, ever having been visited by white 
men before the settlement of the country by our British ances- 
tors. When the first white inhabitants settled on the Elizabeth 
Islands, there was a tradition among the Indians^ that the Vine- 
yard had been visited many ages before by a colony of white 
men, who came there in a vessel from the North, and remained 
there for a season, and returned to the North in the winter, with 
an intention of returning there again the next year, but never 
came back, and were supposed to have been lost, and the same 
tradition was rife among the Indians on the main, and remains 
to this day. It is very probable that these were the Northmen 
from the borders of the St. Lawrence, and that the Vineyard 
Island was the extent of their progress westward along the 
coast. From this circumstance, and from sinister motives, it 
has been endeavored to be shown that the Northmen visited 
this Island in the tenth or eleventh century, and called the 
island ' Vinelant,' &c., and the Newport Euin has been endea- 
vored to be palmed upon the world through the Eoyal Society 
of Antiquarians at Copenhagen, as evidence of the fact of the 
visit of the Northmen, and the work of their hands,* but 

" Let Antiquarians say what they will, 
It is nothing but an Old Stone Mill. 

" One of the Oldest Inhabitants.'* 
What better traditionary evidence than that of Gov. Arnold's 
grandson, Josiah Arnold, who died long since the Eevolution- 
ary war, and that of his great-grandson, Sanford Arnold, who 
has been deceased but a few years, who both spoke of it as the 
old Stone Mill, built by their ancestor Benedict Arnold, as has 
been heretofore stated, but disregarded ? Why then dispute its 
origin, and the use for which it was erected, except it be for 
interested and unholy purposes ? 

In 1784, the harbor with the rivers, were all closed with ice, 
from Oastle Hill to Providence ; so that people crossed there 
from the Island to the main. 

* The author of this imposition, as well as the report attributed to Scrobien, is sup- 
posed to be a foreigner J a few years since a resident of this town. 

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1763. This year the Jewish Synagogue, in Newport, which 
was erected the year before, was dedicated to the God of Abra- 
ham, with great pomp and magnificence, according to the cus- 
tom of the Hebrews, At this time the town of Newport con- 
tained upwards of sixty families of Jews ; among them were 
many iperchants of wealth and enterprise. Mr. Aaron Lopez- 
was a man of eminent probity and benevolence, his bounties w^ere 
widely diffused, and not confined to creed and sect, and the 
people of Newport, notwithstanding the lapse of time, still con- 
secrate his memory. Mr, Lopez was afterwards drowned in his 
carriage in Scott's Pond, a few miles north of Providence. 

Eev. Mr. Touro, married, in Newport, a sister of the late 
Moses Hays, of Boston, and left two sons and one daughter, 
Mr. Hays removed from Newport soon after the peace, taking 
with him his family. One of the sons was the late Abraham 
Touro, who died in Boston in 1822, leaving a large estate; by 
bis will a fund of $10,000 was left for the support of the syna- 
gogue and burial-place in Newport, and $5,000 for keeping 
Touro-street in repair, on which they front. This fund is under 
the direction of the Town Council of Newport, and the interest 
is judiciously applied for the purposes above-mentioned. 

The other son is Judah Touro, Esq., of New-Orleans, a gen- 
tleman distinguished for his many acts of munificence. He went 
to New-Orleans previous to the cession of Louisiana, where in 
mercantile pursuits, he has acquired a princely estate, and is 
universally esteemed by the inhabitants of the city of New- 
Orleans. Such is the attachment of the Jews for Newport, and 
the sepulchre of their fathers, that their remains are brought 
here for interment. 

A gentleman who settled in Newport, about twenty years 
since, and erected a tasteful mansion in Bellevue-street, near 
the Jewish buria^ground, in a conversation had with a per- 
sonal friend of Mr. Judah Touro, suggested that it would be a 
commendable act on the part of Mr. Touro, were he to enclose 
the burial ground with a noble wall of granite, as the then 
present brick wall was in a decayed state, having been slightly 

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built. He gave an assurance that he would address him on 
the subject, which he accordingly did ; and Mr. Touro, with a 
liberahty which has uniformly distinguished him, authorized his 
friend to apply to some eminent architect for a suitable plan. 
The work was commenced, and completed in 1842, and a more 
chaste and beautiful enclosure, with the ornamental gateway, is 
not to be found in the countiy. The whole cost was |1 1,000. 
The architect was Isaiah Eogers, Esq.^ of Boston. 

A few years since, he gave $1000 to repair Eedwood Library. 
His adopted city has experienced his noble benefactions, irre- 
spective of denominational distinctions, in which be has set an 
example worthy to be imitated by Gentiles. Such an indivi- 
dual is a blessing to society, and throws into the shade many^ 
whose niggardly spirit renders them a burden to them&elves and 
to the world at large. 

Abraham Eod. Biviera, a highly respected Jew, was an 
importer of dry goods, in connection with other business. In 
early hfe Abraham was called " the honest man,'^ which title he 
merited as long as he lived. He was extensively engaged in 
commerce, and met with many losses ; and at that date there 
were no Insurance Companies, consequently, the risks in navi" 
gation were very great. Although a man of wealth, frequent 
losses at sea, forced him to assign his property, which, when 
divided, cancelled but a part of his habilities. As soon as the 
failure was known in England, the merchants with whom he 
had traded, offered him any amount of dry goods ; and, that he 
might avail himself of their generous offer, took the benefit of 
the Insolvent Act, clearing himself from old claims, and open^ 
ing a way to the renewal of bu&iness. He was prosperous, and 
at the '.end of a few years, gave his old creditors a dinner party ,- 
placing under the plate of each guest a check, for the amount 
due him, with interest. He died worth $120,000. Such was- 
the honesty of the past. 

There is now in the Town- Clerk's office, the copy of a deed,, 
(certified by WilHam Ooddington, Town- Clerk, Oct. I9th, 1677,) 
in book ISTo. 3, page 11, of Land Evidences, of a certain lot of 
land, thirty feet square, sold by Nathaniel Dickens, to Mordecai 
Oampannall and Moses Packeckoe, for a burial-place for the' 
Jews. This deed is dated Eebruary 28th, 1677, which shows- 
that-some of the descendants of Abraham found an asylum of 

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rest, from oppression and persecutionj on this island of the sea, 
at an early period of the settlement. It has been said that it 
was as early as 1657. 

How long prior to the purchase of the burial-ground, we 
have no accurate means of ascertaining. The first Jews who 
settled in Newport were of Dutch extraction, from Curraso, and 
were not possessed of the wealth, intelligence, or enterprise, 
which so eminently distinguished those who subsequently 
settled in this town, which, with the smallness of their number, 
accounts for the lapse of time from the first Jewish settlement 
in Newport, to the erection of the synagogue. 

It is not probable, however, that during all this time they 
maintained no regular form of public w^orship, and there is a 
tradition amongst the most ancient people of New^port, now liv- 
ing, that from the earliest settlement here, pubhc rehgious 
worship was regularly maintained in private houses. 

Between the years 1750-60, many famihes of wealth and 
distinction came to this country from Spain and Portugal, and 
settled in Newport, which contributed largely to the intelli- 
gence and commercial prosperity of the town. 

The synagogue was thronged with worshippers, from its 
erection until the war commenced, and the scriptures were 
pubhcly read, and the God of Abraham worshipped in the 
Hebrew language, in Newport, by more than three hundred of 
the dispersed house of Israel, up to that time. 

About 1763, and long after, flourished the distinguished 
famihes of Lopez, Eiviera, Pollock, Levi, Hart, Seixas, and 
their late respected priest, Isaac Touro. The north side of 
what is now the Mall, was once covered with Jewish residences, 
which were destroyed by fire. The Revolutionary war, so dis- 
astrous to the commercial interest and prosperity of Newport, 
induced the greater part of them to leave the town ; and after 
the conclusion of the war, the remnant that was left gradually 
declined, until not an individual now remains. Moses Lopez, 
nephew of the celebrated Aaron Lopez, was the last resident 
Jew in Newport. A few years previous to his death, he 
removed to New -York ; his remains were brought to Newport, 
and interred by the side of his brother J acob, in the burial- 
place of their fathers. Moses Lopez was a man of no common 
abilities ; he was an honorable merchant, deeply versed in 

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mathematics, and of uncommon mechanical skill. He was 
pleasant and interesting in conversation, and an ingenious 
defender of his religious belief. The Society of Jews, gene» 
rally, who settled in this town, have left a reputation for 
integrity and uprightness, which should perpetuate their 
memory from generation to generation. 

After the long interval of sixty years, in which the synagogue 
had been closed, in the year 1850 it was thrown open again^ 
and services were performed on Saturday (the Jewish sabbath,) 
by an eminent Eabbi from New-York. It was an important 
era, and calculated to revive in the mind the great and impor- 
tant events, which had taken place in the history of this dis- 
tinguished people. 

Emery's Corner, at the south side of Bridge-street, was a 
general resort in olden time for young men, residing in that 
section of the town. Hence we meet with it very frequently in 
the old records of the town, as we do that pf the Granary, or 
Brick-market, where the inhabitants assembled, and still con- 
tinue to assemble. "We like to retain antique names, as they 
remind us of the past, and the inhabitants of Newport have 
been more tenacious than most places, of innovation. But the 
recent resort of strangers to Newport, has led to an attempt to 
remove the ancient land-marks, which should not be counte- 
nanced for a moment by the original inhabitants. It is the 
remains of antiquity in Newport, which invests it with so much 
interest, and makes the spot more deeply interesting to the 

Hog Hole, before the'hand of modern vandalism despoiled it 
of its pristine beauty, was the scene of many a joyous festival. 
Purgatory, at Sachuest Beach, is invested with a high degree 
of romance, from the traditionary account of two lovers, who 
met at the brink of this dangerous chasm. The lady, to test 
the strength of his affections towards her, as the condition of 
the nuptial celebration, required that he should leap across it. 
Dangerous as was the experiment, he; quickly sprung ; she 
caught the skirt of his coat, which instantly rent, while he 
landed safe on the opposite side to the terror and dismay of the 
fair one. The Devil's foot-print is strongly impressed on the 
rocks, near to this chasm, with other singular marks, which has 
made it a place of interest to those visiting the island. 

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It affords pleasure and delight to ramble amid those joyous 
scenes, and listen to the serial choristers warbhng their orisons. 
The inhabitants of this charming retreat, seem the only unde- 
lighted enjoyers of the scene, because to them it exhibits no 
novelty, consequently but httle allurement ; the eye of the 
stranger alone beholds it with admiration and wonder, and the 
heart of sensibility could alone feel the exquisite sensation of 
delight its contemplation inspires. In the words of the poet, 
we would say : 

•' There's not a brook I have not leapt, 

Anear my native town — 
Nor field nor hill where man has stept, 

I have not wandered down : 
And these as freshly haunt me still, 

And still their forms I know — 
The brook, the field, the high peaked hill, 

That charmed me long ago !" 

In 1772, the first equestrian performances on Ehode Island, 
and probably in America, took place in Newport. The name 
of the manager was Bates. 

Two of the guns of the sloop Tartar, were placed at the foot 
of the Parade, where they remained until within a few years, 
when they were removed, and placed in front of the fountain, 
at the end of the Mall. 


As Newport has been the birthplace of many distinguished 
personages, as well as the residence of others who have 
occupied important positions in society, we have been induced 
to notice such parties, believing that it would prove highly 
interesting to the reader. 

In 1760, on the resignation of the Eev. Mr. Pollen, the Eev. 
Marmaduke Brown, a native of Ireland, was unanimously 
chosen to officiate as Minister of Trinity Church, Newport, and 
was appointed a Missionary by the Home Society. 

Mr. Brown continued his connection with Trinity Church 
until his death, which took place on the 19th of March, 1771. 

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He left an only son, who, in 1795, caused a marble tablet, with 
a raised profile likeness of his father, to be erected on the 
walls of Trinity Church, in memory of his parents. It bears 
the following inscription : 

To the Memory of 

The Eev. M A E M A D U K E BEOWN, 

Formerly Rector of this Parish, 

A Man eminent for Talents, Learning, and Religion, 

Who departed this Life on the 19th of March, 1771, 

And of ANN, his "Wife, 

A Lady of Uncommon Piety, and Suavity of Manners, 

Who died the 6th of January, 1767. 

This Monument was Erected by their Son, 


Now Senior Fellow of Trinity College, 

Dublin, Ireland, 

And Representative in Parliament for the same ; 

In Token of his Gratitude and Affection 

To the best and tenderest of Parents, 

And his Respect and Love for a Congregation, 

Among whom, and for a Place where, 

He spent the Earliest and Happiest of His Days. 

Heu ! Quanto minus est, 

Cum allis Versari, 
Quam tui Memisse. 


His above-mentioned son is the subject of the following notice : 
Hon. Arthur Brown, LL. D.,was at an early age sent from 
Newport to the care of a relative in Ireland, for education. He 
was a man gifted with extraordinary mental powers, which he 
improved by almost incessant study, and by an intercourse with 
the most able scholars and pohticians of the day. He soon rose 
to eminence — was Senior Fellow, and Senior Proctor of Trinity 
College, a Doctor of Civil Laws, King's Professor of Greek, &c., 
&c. Por a length of time he held the Vicar-Generalship of the 

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Diocese of Kildare, and also practised in the courts, as an emi- 
nent, though not a leading barrister, 

For many years no person in the University enjoyed greater 
popularity. They gave him their best and most honorable gifts 
— they appointed him their representative in the National Legis- 
lature, and the Irish House of Commons for many years listened 
with surprise and admiration, to his bold and powerful elo- 

On questions of great national importance. Dr. Brown could 
speak with surprising effect. With little subjects he seldom in- 
terfered. If with the opposition it was his desire or chance to 
associate — he supported all their leading measures — on the 
Place and Pension bills. Catholic Emancipation, the Suspension 
of the Habeas Corpus, &c., he brought all his talents into action. 
He was a strong advocate of Parliamentary reform, an enemy 
to the abuse of power, and always stood forward as the cham- 
pion of the people. 

On the great question of the Union of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, he took part with the ministry, and his support and exam- 
ple greatly contributed to that event. 

Shortly after the Union, Dr. Brown was appointed Prime 
Sergeant, and it is supposed, had he survived, he would have 
obtained a situation on the bench. 

Beside various political pamphlets, Dr. Brown was the 
author of two volumes of miscellaneous essays and dissertations, 
in which many questions of literature and criticism were ably 
discussed. These volumes are now out of print, which is the 
more to be regretted, as one of the essays was devoted to a pic- 
ture of Colonial manners and habits, especially as exhibited by 
the society of Newpnrt, Ehode Island. 

In a note he referred to many of the famihes with whom he 
was intimate — the Brentons, Malborns, Eedwoods, &c. His 
great work, however, is that on the Civil Law, which has passed 
through various editions, and is considered by the profession as 
a standard. 

This celebrated man died in Dublin, in the summer of 1805, 
of a dropsical complaint, leaving a large property, which he 
acquired from his situations in the College, and his exertions as 
a lawyer. 

The late Baron Kinsale, of Ireland, was also a native of 

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Newport. The following notice of the Baron De Courcy, is 
taken from the Neivport Mercury^ 1832 : 

" On the 1st of February last, died at Kinsale, the Eight 
Honorable Thomas De Oourcy, Lord Kinsale, Baron De Courcy, 
and Eingrone. His lordship was Premier Baron of Ireland, 
and enjoyed the hereditary privilege of wearing his hat in the 
royal presence, granted to John De Oourcy, Earl of Ulster, by 
King John, and lately exercised by Lord John De Oourcy, at a 
court held in Dublin Oastle, by George IV., in 1821." 

We transcribe this obituary notice from a London paper of 
February 20th, 1832, because we of Ehode Island, feel a pecu- 
liar interest with regard to this family, of which the present 
branch sprung from the town of Newport, Ehode Island. 

It was probably about the years 1720 and 1725, that the 
younger, and we presume the only brother of the Baron of 
Kinsale, for some reasons of discontent, emigrated to North 
America, and selected Newport, Ehode Island, as the place of 
his residence. 

WiUiam Eogers, D. D., Professor of Enghsh Oratory in the 
University of Pennsylvania, was born in Newport, Ehode Island, 
July 22d, 1751. A graduate of Brown University in 1769. 
He received his license to preach in 1771, and in May of the 
following year was ordained pastor of the Baptist church, ^Phila- 
delphia, where he continued till the commencement of the Eevo- 
lution, in 1775, when he was appointed Ohaplain of the Pennsyl- 
vanian forces, and not long after, of the Oontinental Army, and 
remained in the service till 1781. 

In 1789, he was elected Professor of English Oratory in the 
College of Philadelphia, and afterwards was appointed to the 
same office in the University of Pennsylvania, and held it till 
1812, when he resigned. His death took place April 7th, 1824, 
in the 74th year of his age. 

He held a highly respectable rank in talents and learning, and 
was greatly esteemed for his ability and faithfulness as a 

His daughter, a very estimable lady, is the wife of William 
Henry De Wolf, Esq., of Bristol, Ehode Island. 

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Robert Auchmuty was the first of the American family of 
that name. He was the descendant of an ancient Scotch 
family, holding a barony in the north of that country. His 
father settled in England, early in the eighteenth century. 
Eobert came to this country and settled in Boston ; he was con- 
sidered a profound lawyer, and possessed remarkable talents, 
shrewdness, and wit. Anecdotes of him have been handed down 
from generation to generation, to this day. He was greatly 
respected and beloved, both in pubHc and private life. His 
memory is held in high veneration by the bar in Massachusetts, 
and his opinions are still respected by the profession. He has 
many descendants still left there. He was Judge of Admiralty 
many years before his death. 

Eev. Samuel Auchmuty, son of the elder Eobert, was born 
in Boston, in4725, graduated at Harvard University in 1742, 
and was taken by his father to England, w^here he was ordaiued 
a minister of the Episcopal Church, and was appointed by the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, an assistant minister 
of Trinity Church, New- York. He married in 1749, a daughter 
of Eobert Nichols, Governor of that Province in 1764. At the 
death of the Eector, he was appointed to succeed him, and took 
charge of all the churches in the city, performing his arduous 
duties with faithfulness until the Eevolution. 

The children of Eev. Dr. Auchmuty were, 1st, Mary JuHana, 
born 1750, married General Mulcaster, of theEoyal Engineers, 
and left two sons and two daughters : 2d, married, died young ; 
3d, Isabella, born 1753, married a Mr. Burton, of Kent, in 
England, and left no children ; 4th, Eobert Nichols, born in 
1758, married Henrietta, daughter of Henry John Overing, of 
Newport, his second cousin. He died at Newport, Ehode 
Island, and was interred in Trinity churchyard, leaving eight 
children, Samuel 0. Auchmuty, Harriet, who married Major 
Heileman of the TJ. S. Army, a most accomplished gentleman 
and superior officer, Maria, widow of Capt. Wainwright of the 
Marine Corps, Eobert, Eichard of the XJ. S. Navy, Joanna, 
Isabella, and John of the TJ. S. Navy. 

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Samuel, afterwards Sir Samuel, born 1758, graduated at 
Columbia College, served in England, under Sir Ealph Aber- 
crombie, was a Brigadier- General, and K. C. B., in 1807, and 
commanded the expedition against Montevideo, which he took. 
He was promoted to be Lieutenant-Greneral, received the thanks 
of Parliament and a service of plate. He was afterwards en- 
trusted with a very important command in the Channel, at the 
time of Napoleon's threatened invasion ; was the Covernor of 
Madras, and commander of an expedition against the Island of 
Java, which he took, in 1800. On returning to England, he 
again received the thanks of Parliament, and a service of plate 
from the East India Company. He retired for a while to his 
estate in Kent, which he left on being appointed commander of 
the forces in Ireland, where he died, August 11th, 1822. 

The inscription on his tomb-stone is : 

Sacred to the Memory of 
Of His Majesty's Seventy-eiglit of Foot, who died on the 11th of August, aged sixty- 
four, •while commanding his Majesty's forces in Ireland. He was a brave, 
experienced, and successful officer, and victorious whenever he had 
the command. He twice received the thanks of Parliament 
for his services. The capture of Montevideo, in South 
America, and the Island of Java, in the East 
Indies, added both to his fame 
and fortune. 


He left in his will a princely fortune to the children of his 
brother, Eobert Nichols Auchmuty, of Newport, Ehode Island. 

We have dwelt thus long on the history of this family, from 
the fact of their intimate connection with Newport. Of the two 
surviving children of Eobert N. Auchmuty, Esq., Maria and 
Joanna, it is no flattery to speak of them in the highest terms, 
as illustrating the female attractions of the past. Maria was 
tall, and of exquisite proportions, her complexion beautifully 
transparent, the roseate bloom of health diffused its beauties on 
her cheek, and the benignant softness that beamed from her blue 
eye, gave her the appearance of a celestial divinity. Col. George 

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THE MmTtJRN r-AlvIILY. 189 

Gibbs e:xpressed his admiration of her charms, on witnessing 
her appearance at the ball-room in Newport, with the splendid 
head-dress on, the gift of Sir Samuel, K. 0. B. Her sister 
Joanna, was equally as graceful and captivating in form and man- 
ners. Her complexion clear, her teeth beautifully white and 
regular, a sweet expression played around her coral lips, her eyes 
were expressive, her voice exquisitely melodious, and her genius 
lively and expanded. In the science of music she took dehght, 
and touched the harpsicord to perfection. In the dance she was 
the sprightly serial of the scene, when her inimitable attitude and 
grace captivated every beholder. 

Those who recollect Monsieur Oarpentier^s dancing-room, 
which was graced with the elite and fashion of Newport, will be 
ready torpspondtolhe descriptionhere given of this lovely person. 
And now that the season of youth and gayety has passed away, 
her mind has been profitably and usefully employed in the cul- 
tivation of the morals of the nieces and nephews of her wudowed 
sister. From a gentleman of the first rank in the United States 
Army, we have received the most flattering account of her 
amiable qualities, which we could justly appreciate, from a long 
acquaintance with her and her family. 

"When heaven's harbinger shall claim his prize, 
And waft her purest soul to purer skies, 
Then shall recording angels trace her fame, 
And pity weep when memory breathes her name.' 


The ancestor of the Minturn family in this country, was a 
native of England, and was one of the early settlers of Narra- 
gansett. Jonas Minturn married Penelope Brown, of South 
Kingston, and died on his own farm in Narragansett. He left 
three children, Wilham, Hannah, and John, the latter of whom 
died at an early age. Hannah remained unmiarried, and died at 
an advanced age, in Newport. Wilham early exhibited that 
energy and decision of character, which was so conspicuous dur^ 
ing his hfe. Being of an enterprising disposition, and wishing 

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to see more of the world than his circumstances permitted, he 
made several voyages from Newport, in a ship of which he soon 
became mate ; during one of these voyages to a port in Eng- 
land, the vessel in which he sailed had the misfortune to be cap- 
tured and taken into Erance, England being at that time at war 
with that country. 

The voyage was thus in danger of being broken up, threaten- 
ing great loss to those who were concerned in its success. The 
Erench commander offered to accept a ransom for the vessel, 
which though ardently desired by the American captain, was 
deemed by him to be entirely out of his power to accomplish at 
this juncture. Mr. Minturn, seeing how vitally important was 
the measure, presented himself before the master of the ship : 
" Captain," said he, ^' land me on the coast of England — I will 
go to London ; I am certain that I can effect this desirable re- 
sult to a commercial house in that city." It was done ; dressed 
as he was, in his sailor's clothes, he proceeded on foot to London, 
found out the firm he was in search of, and by his intelHgence 
and perseverance, was able to convince them of the importance 
and feasibility of the object. He then re-crossed the channel, 
paid the ransom money, and arrived safely with the vessel at 

In testimony of the high opinion which the owners of the ship 
entertained towards him, by this signal service, he was imme- 
diately made captain of the same vessel ; and so fortunate was 
he, that he was soon able to become himself a shipowner, and to 
establish himself at Newport, where, becoming a successful mer- 
chant, he was greatly distinguished for benevolence and public 
spirit. Mr. Minturn removed from Newport to Hudson, in 
1788, but finding, however, the branch of mercantile business 
in which he was more especially engaged, that of commerce and 
navigation, could be prosecuted with more success at a point 
less remote from the sea, he concluded upon a change of loca- 
tion, and finally fixed upon the city of New-York, as possessing 
those superior commercial advantages which have since been 
accredited to it by the world. Hither he removed in 1791, con- 
tinuing his successful career, and realizing all the advantages 
which he had anticipated from this new abode. Having amassed 
a large estate for the times in which he lived, he retired from 

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the active duties of commercial life, enjoying the respect, the 
esteem, and affection of his fellow-citizens. 

In 1799, Mr. Minturn's health so rapidly declined, that he 
ardently longed to breathe once more his native air ; confidently 
believing that it would bring with it healing on its wings. He 
was also anxious to consult with Dr. Center, of Newport, the 
physician of his early hfe. In this desire he was warmly en- 
couraged by his friend and former partner in business, George 
Gibbs, Esq., who kindly procured a commodious house for his 
reception ; but his cherished hopes, and those of his attached 
family, were destined to be soon destroyed. His disease in- 
creased in severity, and he died in August of that year, univer- 
sally lamented. Justice, firmness, and charity, were the distin- 
guishing traits of his character. 

William Minturn married Penelope, daughter of Benjamin 
Greene ; she was a near relative of Major Nathaniel Greene, 
of the Eevolution, with w^hom she spent a considerable part of 
her early life, at Patawamut. After her husband's decease, 
Mrs. Minturn returned to New- York, where she resided till her 
death, in 1821 ; dying in that humility and faith which her 
Christian life had so pre-eminently exemplified. 

William Minturn left ten children ; 1st, Penelope, married to 
John T. Champlain ; 2d, Benjamin Greene, married to Mary, 
daughter of Eobert Bowne ; 3d, Hannah, who died in 1817; 
4th, William, also married to a daughter of Eobert Bowne ; 
5th, Jonas, married to Esther, daughter of William T. Eobin- 
son ; 6th, Mary, married to Henry Post ; 7th, Deborah, msrried 
to Eobert Abbot, jun. ; 8th, Nathaniel G., married to Lydia, 
daughter of Samuel Coates, of Philadelphia ; 9th, Niobe, who 
resides in New- York ; and 10th, John, who in 1817, removed to 
New-Orleans — he married Lydia, daughter of James Clements, 
of Philadelphia. The descendants of William Minturn have num- 
bered one hundred and forty-six persons. Some of his descend- 
ants are now extensive merchants in New- York. 

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" Newport, 2 Mo. 1, 1853. 
" The following is an extract from a letter I received from 
Rowland T. Eobinson, dated Ferrisburgh, Vermont, 1 Mo. 22d, 
1848, and, I presume, will convey the information you request 

" Your friend, 

" T. R. Hazard. 
" To Edward Peterson. 

^' ' I have obtained the followmg genealogical information 
from my father, whose recollections are clear on the matter; 
and I also find they are confirmed by " "W. Updike's History," 
page 249. 

<i c WilHam Hazard, the father of Lydia Hazard, who married 
John Field, was the son of Caleb Hazard. William had two 
brothers, Dr. Robert, and Caleb. 

" ^ Caleb Hazard, the father of WilHam, married Abigail 
Gardiner, daughter of William G-ardiner ; she was the sister 
of Dr. Sylvester Gardiner, of Boston. 

" ' After Caleb Hazard's death, his widow, Abigail, married 
Wm. Robinson, called Governor Robinson, who was my great- 
grandfather. They had six sons and two daughters, Chris- 
topher, Wilham, Thomas (my grandfather), Sylvester, James, 
and John. The daughters were Mary, who married a Dockray, 
and Abigail. 

" ' Phoebe Hull, who married William Hazard, was daughter 
of Captain Hull, who brought up Admiral Wager, of the British 
navy ; Charles Wager was taken by Capt. 'John Hull, when a 
poor boy, from Newport, and trained to the sea. In conse- 
quence of an advertisement which appeared in the pubhc papers, 
Capt. Hull took Wager to England, and assisted him in obtain- 
ing a large estate, and he became an Admiral. 

^' ' I have often heard my father relate the following anec- 
dote, which may be somewhat amusing to thy New-York cor- 
respondent Capt. Hull was a plain Friend, and in the pursuit 
of his calhng, he was at one time in some part of the West 
Indies, and learning that his ward, now Admiral Wager, was 
lying in the same port, he took his long boat, and went on board 
the Admiral's ship. He enquired for the Admiral, stating he 

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wished to see him. His appearance being rough, he was met 
by a sprig of the navy, and denied admittance ; but watching 
his opportunity, he stepped into the cabin, knowing he would 
be safe when once recognized, which proved to be the case. 
He was received with great kindness by the Admiral, greatly 
to the confusion of the officer who had denied him an audience. 
An intimacy! was long afterwards maintained, and the Admiral 
used to make an annual demonstration of his remembrance of 
his old master, by sending him a quarter-cask of wine.' " 

^' New- York, March 2, 1853. 
^' Dear Sir, 

" Hearing you were about publishing a history of Newport, 
and the events of the past, so highly important and interesting, 
connected with its early settlement, 1 beg leave to hand you an 
anecdote or two of the celebrated Admiral, Sir Charles Wager, 
who was bound apprentice to a Quaker sea captain, of the 
name of John Hull, of Newport. It was of Capt." Hull that 
Sir Charles first learned his skill as a captain, and by whom he 
was brought up in the straight ways of industry, perseverance, 
and honesty, which appear to have distinguished him through 

^^ ' Your sincere friend and servant, 

'^ Oliver Hull, 

" Mr. Peterson. 

" It is perhaps not generally known, even by the reading 
puMic, that the celebrated Admiral Wager, of the British navy, 
when a boy, was iDound apprentice to a Quaker, of the name 
of John Hull, who sailed a vessel between Newport, (Ehode 
Island,) and London ; and in whose service he probably learned 
the rudiments of that nautical skill, as well as that upright 
honor and integrity, for which he is so much lauded by his 
biographer. The circumstance of running his master's vessel 
over a privateer, first recommended him to an advantageous 
place in the British navy. The facts of this encounter, as near 
as I can gather them, are these : the privateer was a small 
schooner, full of men, and was about boarding the ship of 
Oapt. Hull, whose rehgious scruples prevented him from taking 
any measures of a hostile nature. After much persuasion from 

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young "Wager, the peaceable captain retired to his cabin, and 
gave the command of his ship to his apprentice. His anxiety, 
however, induced him to look out from the companion way, 
and occasionally give directions to the boy, who, he perceived, 
designed to run over the privateer, saying to him, ' Charles, 
if thee intends to run over that schooner, thou must put the 
helm a little more to the starboard.' The ship passed directly 
over the schooner, w'hich instantly sunk, with every soul on 

" On one occasion, when the Admiral was in Newport, Capt. 
Hull called at the coffee-house to see his former apprentice, 
and seeing a Lieutenant there, asked him, ' Where is Charles ?' 
at which the Lieutenant took umbrage, and threatened to chas- 
tise the old Quaker for his insolence, in not speaking more 
respectfully of his Admiral. When Wager heard of it, he 
took occasion to reprove the Lieutenant before Capt. Hull, 
saying, * Mr. Hull, sir, is my honored master.' 

" The certificate of marriage of John Hull, which is of parch- 
ment, among the witnesses, bears the signature of the mother 
of Admiral Wager, thus, ' Prudence Wager.' 

" John Hull died at Conanicut, on the 1st day of December, 
1732, aged seventy-eight years. 

" The following inscription is on the monument, erected to 
the memory of Admiral Wager, in Westminster Abbey, Lon- 
don, England : 

" ' To the Memory of 


Admiral of the White, 

rirst Commissioner of the Admiralty, and 

A Privy Councillor; 

A man of great natural talents, improved by Industry, 

and long Experience ; 

Who bore the highest commands, and passed through the greatest Employments, 

With Credit to himself, and Honor to his Country. 

He was in his Private Life, Humane, Temperate, Just, and Bountiful ; 

In Public Station, Prudent, Wise, and Honest ; 

Easy of access to all ; steady and resolute in his conduct ; 

So remarkably happy in his presence of mind, that no danger 

Ever discomposed him. 

Esteemed and favored by his King, Beloved and honored by his Country, 

He died the Twenty -fourth of May, 1743 

Aged 79 years. 

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We have been pleasantly employed in presenting to the 
mind of the reader, the growih and prosperity of Newport, 
with the highly cultivated state of manners, which characterized 
her early history. And it would afford unspeakable gratifica- 
tion, could we continue the prosecution of a theme, so deeply 
interesting to the human mind ; but every thing earthly is 
mutable, and subject to change. The prosperous to-day, may 
be in adversity to-morrow ; so with States and Empires,— but 
the events so painful in themselves, are not without their uses, 
for out of the discordant materials good will ultimately arise. 

No town in the British Colonies flourished to the degree of 
Newport, and while her canvass whitened every sea, and the 
products of every clime came freighted to her shores, it did not 
render her supremely selfish, -as is too apt to be the case, but 
her influence was directed to the cultivation of the arts and 
sciences, w^hich rendered her highly distinguished. The society 
of Newport was polished and refined; this was owing in a- 
great degree to the intimate relationship which subsisted 
between them and the mother country. The ofiftcers under the 
Crown were educated gentlemen, and this exerted a powerful 
influence on the minds of the inhabitants, and but for the 
Revolution, no one could possibly have predicted the extent of 
prosperity to which Newport would have arrived. But the 
oppression of the British Parliament towards her Colonies 
became insupportable, until forbearance ceased to be a virtue. 
Every remonstrance on the part of the Colonists, only tended 
the more highly to exasperate G-reat Britain towards them. 
Now it was never the intention of the Colonies to sunder the 
ties which so closely linked them to the mother country, but 
simply to obtain a redress of grievances. They had stood by 
England in storm as well as sunshine. When she had been 
engaged in conflict with other nations, the Colonies had fur- 
nished their quota of m.en and money to overcomAe her enemies. 
This loyalty on the part of the Colonies, could never have 
been alienated, but for the continual aggressions on the part of 
the Crown, disregarding the most solemn appeals, and setting 
at defiance every remonstrance made of the injustice of their 

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policy towards the Colonies. They were aware of their great 
inferiority, to attempt to cope with so gigantic a power as that 
of Great Britain, celebrated for her military and naval prowess, 
with her immense resources \ hence any measure which wisdom 
and prudence could dictate to effect a reconciliation was 
resorted to, but without effect. Great Britain was determined 
to overawe her Colonies, to submit to her arbitraiy and despotic 
measures. But the principle of liberty was lodged deep in the 
hearts of the Colonists, and they could not tamely acquiesce in 
British misrule and oppression. 

The first act of the British Parliament to tax the ColonieSj, 
passed that body in Beptembery 1764 ; the avowed object of 
which was to raise a revenue for the better protection of his 
Majesty's Colonies in New England^ by a duty paid the British 
Crown, on certain articles of commerce sold in the Colonies. 
This was to test the fidelity of their subjects, and to open the 
way for bolder developments. Accordingly, by the next springs 
the famous^ or rather iN-famous Stamp Act, passed both House& 
of Parhament. 

This Act reGjuired that all deeds, notes, bonds, &c., in the 
Colonies, should be null and void, unless executed on stamp 
paper^ for which a duty must be paid the Crown. The former 
Act the Colonies could not approve, because it was arbitrary 
and unjust,, levying a tax without their consent, not being repre- 
sented in that body. But such was their attachment to the 
honor of their fathers, that they acquiesced in the measure,, 
however oppressive and unjust. 

On the subject of the right of the British Parliament to tax 
the Colonies, it was asserted, in the Mother Country, '^ to be 
essential to the unity, and of course prosperity^ of the Empire^ 
that the British Parliament should have right of taxation over 
every part of the Eoyal dominions."" In the Colonies it was 
contended, ^' that taxation and representatioti were inseparable^ 
and that they could not be safe, if their property might be 
taken from them without their consent.'^ This claim of the 
right of taxation on the one side, and the denial of it on the 
other, was the very hinge on which the Pevolution turned. 

Mr. Pitt, the invariable friend of the Colonies, delivered his 
famous speech on American Liberty, in which he declared it tc 
be his opinion,, that the kingdom has no right tO' tax the 

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Colonies ; that he rejoiced that they had resisted, and he hoped 
that they would resist to the last drop of their blood." 

These sentiments proved Mr. Pitt to have been a man of 
principle, and the sworn enemy to oppression. 

When this bill was brought in, the Ministers, and particu- 
larly Charles Townshild, exclaimed : 

" These Americans, our own children, planted by our care, 
nourished by our indulgence, &c., will they now turn their backs 
upon us, and grudge to contribute their mite to reheve ub from 
the heavy load which overwhelms us ?" 

Ool. Barre caught the words, and with a vehemency becom- 
ing a soldier, rose and said : 

" Planted by your care ! No ! Your oppression planted 
them in America 1 They fled from your tyranny into a then 
uncultivated land, where they were exposed to almost all the 
hardships to which human nature is hable ; and among others, 
to the savage cruelty of the enemy of the country — a people 
the most subtle, and I take upon me to say, the most truly ter- 
rible of any people that ever inhabited any part of God's earth. 
And yet, actuated by principles of true English liberty, they 
met all these hardships with pleasure, compared with those they 
suffered in their own country, from the hands of those that 
should have been their friends.'' 

The night after this Act passed, Dr. Franklin, who was then 
in London, wrote to Charles Thompson, afterwards Secretary 
of the Continental Congress : ''The sun of liberty is set ; the 
Americans must light the lamps of industry and economy." To 
which Mn Thompson answered : " Be assured, ive shall light 
torches^ quite of another sort^ Thus predicting the convulsions 
which were about to follow. 

On the arrival of the news of the Stamp Act, in America, a 
general indignation spread through the country, and resolutions 
were passed against the Act, by most of the Colonial Assem- 

It will not be necessary, in a history hke this, to go into a 
recapitulation of all the preUminary steps which occurred, before 
actual hostilities commenced ; but merely to show that a cause 
existed, of vital importance to the interest of the Colonies, why 
they should oppose British aggressions. They could not con- 
scientiously succumb to the unjust laws, attempted to be exer- 

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cised over tbem by a foreign power, without fearlessly showing 
a spirit of resistance toward such high-handed measures. The 
spirit of liberty which burnt brightly on the altar of the hearty, 
could not tamely brook such outrages, without showing that in- 
dependence of character which had invariably characterized 
their history. 

No people had greater cause to fear a rupture between the 
Colonies and Great Britain^ than those of Newport. Her com- 
mercial prosperity was identified with her union with the mother 
country. Her exposed situation was fraught with imminent 
peril, and without the means of defence, she must be rendered 
desolate ; but no selfish consideration could for a moment deter 
her from embarking in the glorious struggle for liberty and in- 
dependence. They never flinched, as we shall have occasion to 
notice as w^e proceed to show the events of the American Revo- 
lution. Some have been heard to say^ that the causes which 
brought about the struggle^ were not of sufficient magnitude to 
have involved the nation in all the horrors of war. But such 
reasoning is highly preposterous and absurd. Had the Colonies 
tamely submitted to the first attempt of aggression, it would 
have been followed up^ and like Eehoboam, they would have 
" put men to the yoke," and attempted to chastise us with 
*' scorpions." Had no resistance been m-ade to British misrule^ 
the condition of this Western Continent would have been equally 
as distressing as that of England^ where the many would have 
been the slaves of the few ; and those who opposed the action 
of the Colonies, and cast in their influence on the side of tyranny^ 
were unworthy of the name of freemen, and their names have- 
been justly handed down as traitors to their country^ and the 
stigma of reproach has rested upon them. 

Associations were formed, and resolutions were passed, into 
the spirit of which, the female sex entered with patriotic ardor, 
not to import or use goods imported from Great Britain^ until 
this obnoxious and oppressive Act be repealed. So universal 
and determined were the Colonies in their opposition to this 
Act, that Parhament had no alternative but to repeal it. ThiSj. 
however, was followed by another infamous Act, which struck 
at the last hope of freedom, and assumed the right and power^ 
*4n all cases whatsoever, to bind the Colonies." Accordingly,, 
a new tax was laid on glass, paper^ tea, &c.^ &g. This^ in addi- 

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tion with other acts equally arbitrary and oppressive, kindled up 
anew the spirit of opposition to the British ministry, which had 
in some degree subsided on the repeal of the Stamp Act. 

On the meeting of Parhament in February, 1769, both Houses 
of that body, in an address to the King, recommended that the 
Eoyal Governor of Massachusetts, be directed to notice all such 
as manifested a spirit of disloyalty to His Majesty's edicts, that 
they might be sent to England and tried as traitors. 

Such intolerance and oppression could not any longer be en- 
dured, it would have evinced a weak and pusilaniraous spirit, 
unbecoming freemen, and they came forward in their majesty, 
and on the altar of liberty pledged their Hves, their fortunes, 
and sacred honor, in defence of the Colonies. 

The first overt act in the great drama which separated the 
Colonies from Great Britain, and which finally resulted in the 
American Independence, although claimed by, and awarded to 
others, was made at Newport, in 1769, in the destruction of his 
Britannic Majesty's armed sloop. Liberty. And when it is con- 
sidered that the principle of liberty had been more generally 
difi*used among the inhabitants of the Island, it should be no 
surprise that they were the first to strike the blow^ in the cause 
of freedom. And however unwilling other sections of the coun- 
try may be to award to them the praise, we shall claim it as an 
act of justice of which they are deserving. 

The sloop was fitted out by the King's officers at Boston, to 
enforce the revenue laws on the inhabitants of this Colony ; and 
were directed to examine and detain all vessels suspected of 
evading or violating these laws. Two vessels, a sloop and a 
brig, belonging to Connecticut, had been seized and brought into 
Newport. A few days subsequently, the captain of the brig 
went on board his vessel, when on inquiring for his wearing 
apparel, he was informed they had been removed on board of 
His Majesty's sloop Liberty. Missing also his sword, he made 
inquiry for that, when he was told that a man belonging to the 
Liberty was lying on it in the cabin. As he descended the 
cabin, he was met with a volley of savage and cowardly 
oaths. He seized his sword, which the men of the Liberty en- 
deavored in vain to wrest from his hands, sprang into his boat 
with two of his men, and made for the shore ; on which the offi- 
cer of the Liberty ordered his men to fire on the captain of the 
brig, and a musket and brace of pistols were fired at the boat. 

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This unprovoked attack upon the life of Captain Packwood., 
so enraged the populace of Newport, that the following evening 
a large number of citizens met Captain Eeid, of the sloop 
Liberty, on the Long "Wharf, and demanded that the man 
should be sent on shore, who fired on Captain Packwood. Ac- 
cordingly^ a man was sent for, but they asserted he was not the 
man, and another, and another, until all the men on board, ex- 
cept the mate, were on shore. A number then went on board 
the Liberty and cut away her cables, when she drifted over to 
a wharf on the Point,vwhere she grounded. 

Here they cut away her mast, and threw overboard all her 
armament and stores of war, scuttled her, and left her to the 
mercy of the elements. Her boats were dragged by the insulted 
and enthusiastic multitude, up the Long Wharf, thence up the 
Parade, through Broad-street, at the head of which, on the Com- 
mon, they were burned. 

Tradition says, that owing to the keel of the boats being shod 
with iron, such was the velocity of their locomotion, as they 
passed up the Parade, that a stream of fire was left in the rear 
of several feet in length. 

The fate of His Majesty's sloop Liberty, may be learned 
from the Newport Mercury^ July 31st, of that year : 

" Last Saturday the sloop Liberty was floated by a high 
tide, and drifted over to G-oat Island, and is grounded at the 
north end, near the place where the pirates were buried. What 
this prognosticates we leave to the determination of astrologers." 

August 7th, the same paper observes : 

" Last Monday evening, just after the storm of rain, hail, and 
lightning, the sloop Liberty, which we mentioned in our last as 
having drifted to G-oat Island, was discovered to be on fire, and 
continued burning several days, until almost entirely consumed." 

This was the first motion given to the Eevolutionary ball, 
which continued to roll until independence was acquired by 
the Colonies. The Gasper was destroyed three years after, and 
the people of Boston destroyed the cargo of tea, in 1773. These 
popular resistances to British oppression was taking the hull by 
the horns, and showed plainly what would be the final result in 
the great struggle. 

In consequence of the associations and resolutions of the Colo- 
nies to suspend the importation and use of tea, a vast quantity of 

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nearly twenty mplion pounds, accumulated on the hands of the 
East India Company, when Parliament granted them permis 
si on to export the same to any part of the world, free from duty. 
Confident that under these circumstances, they should find a 
ready market in America, they shipped large quantities to the 
Colonies. But it w^as too late. The resolutions of the Ameri- 
cans were fixed, and the market for tea w' as closed. That des- 
tined for Boston was consigned to the friends and relatives of 
the Eoyal Governor ; but the populace was so enraged, that in- 
stead of its being landed on the wharf, it was thrown into the 
sea as an oblation to " the watery god." 

On the first inteUigence of this in England, the Boston Port 
Bill was passed by the British Parhament, by which its com- 
merce was entirely destroyed, and many of its inhabitants re- 
duced to the greatest distress. Expressions of sympathy, and 
resolutions of united resistance to these arbitrary and unjust 
nieasures of the British throne, were forwarded from every part 
of the country, to the suffering inhabitants of Boston. 

The people of Newport, in Town Meeting, Jan. 12, 1774, 
passed the following resolutions : 

'' Whereas^ The East India Company, notwithstanding the 
resolutions of the Colonies not to import tea while it remains 
subject to a duty in America, have attempted to force large 
quantities thereof, into some of our sister Colonies, without their 
consent, in order to be sold in this country ; and Whereas, they 
may attempt to introduce it into this Colony, we, the inhabi- 
tants of Newport, legally convened in Town Meeting, do firmly 
resolve : 

'• I. That the disposal of their own property is the inherent 
right of freemen ; that there can be no property in that which 
another can, of right, take from them without their consent ; 
that the claim of Parhament to tax America, is a claim of right 
to levy contributions upon us at their pleasure. 

" 2. That the duty imposed by Parhament on tea, is taxing 
the Americans*, or levying contributions on them, without their 

"' 3. That a virtuous and inflexible opposition to the minis- 
terial plan of governing America, is absolutely necessary, to 
preserve even the shadow of liberty, — and is a duty which every 

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freeman in America owes to his country, to himself, and to his 

'' 4. That the resolution lately entered into by the East-India 
Company, to send out their tea to America, subject to the pay- 
ment of a duty on being landed here, is an open attempt to 
force the ministerial plan, and a violent attack upon the liberties 
of the Americans. 

^'5. That it is the duty of every American to oppose this 
attempt. That whoever shall, directly or indirectly, counte- 
nance this attempt, or in any wise aid or abet in unloading, 
receiving, or vending the tea sent out by the East-India Com- 
pany, or by any other person, while it remains subject to the 
payment of a duty in America, is an enemy to his country." 

At a subsequent Town Meeting, they passed the following 
expression of sympathy, for the suffering inhabitants of Boston : 

'^ Eesolved, — That we have the deepest sense of the injuries 
done the town of Boston, by the Act of Parliament latel}^ 
passed, for putting an end to their trade, and destroying their 
port : And that we consider this attack upon them, as utterly 
subversive of American liberty ; for the same powxr may, at 
pleasure, destroy the trade, and shut up the ports of every other 
Colony, so that there will be a total end of all prosperity. 

'' Eesolved, — That we will heartily unite with the other 
Colonies, in all reasonable and proper measures to procure the 
establishment of the rights of the Colonies ; and particularly in 
case the other Colonies shall, upon this most alarming occa- 
sion, put a stop to their trade with Great Britain and the West 
Indies, we will heartily join with them in the measure." 

An exciting and animated paper was circulated in Newport, 
with this motto, '' Join or Die." The state of Boston w^as 
represented as a regular siegCj and this was a direct and hostile 
invasion of all the Colonies. '' The Generals of despotism," it 
says, " are now drawing the lines of circumvallation around 
our bulwarks of liberty, and nothing but unity, resolution, and 
perseverance, can save ourselves and posterity, from what is 
worse than death, slavery." 

In 1769, the manifestation of liberty in Newport, exceeded 
that of many places, which laid claim to great patriotism. 

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The country were resolved, with the Virginia orator, on 
" liberty or death." The boldness of Patrick Henry, and the 
great influence which he exerted, caused him to be presented 
to the British Grovernment in a bill of attainder. His narae^ 
with that of Thomas Jefferson, Peyton Eandolph, John Adams, 
Samuel Adams, John Hancock, and several others, were on 
the black list, and had the Colonies not succeeded, they would 
undoubtedly have been hung on the gibbet, as the most promi- 
nent rebels. 

At this day we find a class of apologists for G-reat BritaiUy 
who contend, that her feelings towards America is purely 
pacific, and disposed to rejoice at our prosperity. Such falla- 
cious reasoning will never be countenanced by the patriot who 
has learnt experience by the past. The mind has evidently 
deteriorated under the light and culture of science ; it has lost 
its elasticity and force, by being cradled in the lap of ease, 
secure from the rude storms which spent its fury against the 
veterans of the Eevolution, whose towering heads received the 
shock undismayed. They were men of iron frame, and giant 
intellect, and not to be diverted from their purpose by threats 
or flattery. 

The harbor of Newport was occupied by his Majesty's ships^ 
for several years previous to actual hostilities, for the purpose 
of enforcing the revenue laws, and sustaining the authority of 
the King over his rebelUous subjects. But after the destruc- 
tion of the sloop Liberty, in the harbor of Newport, and as the 
the hostility of the Colonies to the acts of the British ministry, 
began manfully to develope itself, their number was increased 
until a whole squadron of ships of war, under the command of 
Admiral "Wallace, were stationed in the bay, to watch over his 
Majesty's subjects in Ehode Island. This Admiral, (Wallace,) 
was a most miserable poltroon, and incurred the hatred of the 
people of the island, for his mean ajid despicable acts. 

On the 19th of April, 1775, the dark elements of strife, which 
had been so long gathering, portentous of the storm of blood 
and carnage, burst upon the Colonies in the battle of Lexing- 
ton, where eight Americans were shot by the wanton cruelty 
of the British commander. Major Pitcairn, without the least 
provocation. This fired the Americans with indignation, and 
the battle of Bunker Hill, and the surrender of Ticonderoga to 

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the American arms, under the command of Col. Ethan Allen, 
followed each other in quick succession. 

Ticonderoga, on Lake Ghamplain, was the key to the northern 
entrance into Canada, and was under the command of La Place, 
an old friend of Allen's. Colonel Ethan Allen, with only 
eighty-three men, approached the fortress in the grey of the 
morning, being conducted by a boy whom he met in the neigh- 
borhood, to the door of La Place's bed-chamber, who, at the 
moment, appeared half dressed, and demanded the cause of the 
tumult. The rough and well-known voice of Col. Allen bade 
him surrender the fort, '' By what authority do you make 
the demand ?" asked La Place. " By the Great Jehovah, and 
the Continental Congress," thundered Allen. The commander 
found it useless to parley, and at once surrendered. 

They secured one hundred and twenty brass cannon, twenty- 
four pounders, several howitzers, balls, bombs, and ammunition. 
A party was immediately sent to sieze Crown-Point, which was 
easily effected, and more than a hundred pieces of artillery 
were secured. 

Such were the master spirits which achieved our glorious 

" Long years have pass'd away, and all dismantled and alone, 
Thou standest there, thy blacken'd walls with weeds and grass o'ergrown; 
Amid thy trenched bound, which once the clang of war could wake, 
Is heard no sound, save insects' hum, or bugle's from the lake," 


In May, of this year, a regiment was raised in the county of 
Newport, commanded by Col. Church, of Little Compton. 
Newport raised three companies of sixty men each, commanded 
by John Topham, "Wilham Tew, and Ebenezer Elagg. One 
company was raised in Portsmouth, commanded by Jonathan 
Browning. This regiment marched to Boston, and joined the 
American army at that place, during this and the following 
month, when this island was guarded by the militia and minute- 

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Sept.— Admiral Wallace^ who commanded the British fleet 
in the harbor at this time, exciting the suspicions of the inhabi- 
tants, that he intended to remove from the south part of the 
Island (called the Neck) a quantity of stock, several persons 
during the night went down, and brought off about fifty head 
of cattle, and one thousand sheep. A few days after this, Wal- 
lace removed some stock from the two lower farms on the 
Island, where it was supposed they had been collected for sup- 
plying his Majesty's troops at Boston. But the arrival of three 
hundred minute-men, who marched to the place and drove off 
the remaining cattle, prevented any more from being removed 
by the enemy. But this so enraged the British hon, that he 
threatened destruction to everything around him, both by sea 
and land. Pie laid the town under contribution to supply the 
fleet with provisions, and urged his rigorous demands by cut- 
ting off all supplies of fuel and provisions from the main, and 
by continued threats of cannonading the town. The menacing 
attitude of Wallace against the place, threw the inhabitants 
into the greatest agitation and distress, and about one-half of 
the inhabitants left the town, and many the Island. It is stated 
that '' Wallace would place lanterns in the shrouds of the ship- 
ping, as the signal for firing on the town," which so alarmed and 
terrified the female portion of the inhabitants, that many died 
through fright. It cannot well be conceived, at this late period, 
the sufferings which were endured by the inhabitants of New- 
port. And it has been said that many who sought shelter on 
the main did not improve their condition, owing to the want of 
the friend m thej^focket. Nearly all the principal merchants left, 
with their families and effects. 

A treaty was finally concluded between Wallace and the 
town of Newport, by consent of the State government, . and 
concurrence of the Continental Congress, then in session; who 
unanimously recommended that, in the present exigency, New- 
port should supply the fleet with beer and fresh provisions, as 
usual, and also the removal of the troops from the town. Such 
being the condition of the treaty, Wallace agreed to remove his 

Many were of the opinion that Wallace dared not burn the 
town, and that his only object was to awe the inhabitants into 
a compliance with his demands. But there was no other alter- 

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native in tlie tiaen present position of affairs, but to acquiesce in 
his requirements. On the 7th of October, he sailed up the 
river to Bristol, where he demanded three hundred sheep in 
sacrifice to his sacred Majesty, King George III. But the in- 
habitants of that tow^n, not being satisfied of the divine right 
of his Majesty to make the demand, refused the sacrifice. 
That evening, about eight o'clock, Wallace commenced a heavy 
cannonading of the town, and Governor Bradford's house, with 
seventeen others, was burnt ; also the Episcopal church, and 
Congregational meeting-house. The inhabitants were plun- 
dered of everything valuable they could lay their hands on. 
^^ The females, even, had their clothes taken, all that were deem- 
ed of sufficient value to carry away, and their rings forced from 
their fingers." 

Nothing could surpass the consternation of Bristol, when 
surprised by the entrance of the British, "Whether they did 
not expect their return at all, or whether they expected them to 
reembark at Papoose Squaw Neck, is not known ; but they 
seemed to be taken by surprise, and women and children were 
flying in every direction. Erom Bristol, they proceeded to 
Warren, burning a windmill on their way, and plundering and 
destroying at every step. 

Wallace captured all American vessels that came into port, 
and sent them to Boston with their crews, and many of them 
never returned. About the last of November he sailed out of 
the harbor, passed over to Connanicut, landing about two hun- 
dred marines, and burnt all the buildings at and in the neighbor- 
hood of the ferry. This wanton outrage in the destruction of 
property, was aggravated by the death of one of the inhabi- 
tants, a Mr. Martin, grandfather of T. Prescott Hall, Esq., the 
owner of the Malborn garden seat, who was shot while stand- 
ing at his own door. He was a loyalist^ and it was supposed to 
have been done through mistake. 

It is a well known fact in the history of those times, that lit- 
tle was effected by the blockading squadron of Wallace, except 
keeping the inhabitants in constant alarm, by threats and petty 
depredations on the adjacent islands and neighborhoods. He 
effected the landing of three hundred troops on Prudence 
Island, and laid in ruins every building,, with their contents. 
One of the inhabitants of the island was shot by a British sol- 

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dier, in attempting to escape. Mr. Pierce, the father of the late 
Hon. Dexter T. Pierce, received a letter from Governor "Wan- 
ton, of Nev^port, w^hose tenant he was, informing him the fleet 
would appear off Prudence next day, and that he would be 
able to dispose of his stock at good prices. But he, being a 
patriot of the first water, was determined not to gratify Wan- 
ton, or the British for whom he appeared so deeply interested. 
As the wind did not favor the ships, he was able to get off his 
stock and provisions before they took possession of the Island. 
A glance at the Wanton family may be interesting to the 

" Edward Wanton emigrated from London to Boston, before 
1658. He assisted in the execution of the Quakers in 1659. 
Convinced of the injustice of their persecution, and won by the 
fortitude and resignation with which they suffered, he became 
a convert to them. He removed to Scituate, Mass., in 1661, 
where he had previously purchased an estate. He became a 
Quaker preacher, and was a popular propagator of their doc- 
trines. He died at Scituate, aged 85. 

His eldest son, Joseph, settled at Tiverton, E. I., in 1688, 
and both he and his wife were speakers in the Society of 
Priends. Wilham Wanton (son of Edward) left Scituate and 
settled in Newport. Before his removal, he married Ruth, the 
daughter of Deacon Bryant ; she was a Congregationahst, and 
he a Quaker. Religious objections were made against the 
match on both sides. He said : ' Priend Ruth, let us break 
from this unreasonable bondage — I will give up my religion, 
and thou shalt thine^ and we will go over to the Church of Eng- 
land, and go to the Devil together.'' They fulfilled this resolu- 
tion so far as to go to the Church of England, and marrying, 
and adhering to the Church of England during Hfe. He sus- 
tained many oflSces. In 1732, he was elected Governor of the 
State, and was reelected in 1733. He died in December of 
that year. John Wanton, brother of William, from success in 
trade, had become one of the most wealthy citizens of New- 
port. He adhered to the faith of the Quakers. To heal party 
divisions, which ran high at this period, he was induced to per- 
mit himself to be voted for, and was elected Governor in 1734, 
and was successively reelected for six years. He died in office, 
July 5th, 1740. Gideon Wanton, son of PhiUp, and nephew 

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ofWilliam and John, was an enterprising merchant of New- 
port, and in addition to other offices, was elected Governor of 
Ehode Island in 1745, and 1747. He died in September, 1767, 
aged 74. 

Joseph Wanton was the son of WilHam, who died governor 
in 1733, and grand-son of the first Edward. He was an opu- 
lent merchant in Newport, and connected by blood and affinity 
with the wealthiest and most popular families in the Colony. In 
1764 and 1767, he was elected Lieutenant-Governor through the 
Hopkins' influence. In 1769 he succeeded Governor Lyndon 
as Governor of the Colony, and was annually reelected, until 
the pohtical troubles of 1775, when the office was declared va- 
cant." — Updike. 

American blood had been shed at Lexington, and the Colony 
of Ehode Island was aroused. The Legislature then in ses- 
sion, April 1775, passed a resolution to raise and embody 1,500 
men, to repel any insult or violence that may be offered to the 
inhabitants. &c. Governor Wanton sent in his protest against 
the measures of that body, which, in the present excited state 
of the pubhc mind, rendered his conduct highly obnoxious to 
the people. The General Assembly declared the seat vacant, 
and Nicholas Cook, then Lieutenant-Governor, w^as elected to 
fill his place. 

Extract of a letter addressed to the northern part of the Co- 
lony, by Stephen Hopkins, in 1764, in justification of the 
character of Mr, Wanton, who was Deputy- Governor under 
him : 

" I hear it said he is but a boy, is a proud, foppish fellow, 
w^ears ruffles and laced clothes, and will not take any notice of 
or speak to a poor man. As to the first, he is about thirty-four 
years old. He has been genteelly bred, and received a liberal 
education, which was matured and pofished, a sound under- 
standing and enterprising genius. His haughty carriage and 
despising of the poor, is nothing more than an unworthy cal- 
umny of his enemies ; and this I can safely affirm, that in Gen- 
eral Assembly, where I have been chiefly acquainted with him, 
he remarkably and invariably appeared to be the poor man's 
friend, as all can testify who have served there with him. Per- 
haps many of you are desirous that the northern part of the 

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Colony should have its equal share in the administration of gov- 
ernment. If this be the case, you may be fully assured that no- 
thing can tend so directly to weaken and destroy that intention, 
as the placing both Governor and Deputy- Grovernor in one town 
in the northern part of the Colony. 

Stephen Hopkins. 
Providence, April 16thj 1764" 

The family of "Wantons, from having occupied a high position 
in the Colony, by their subsequent conduct, in opposing all 
measures of resistance against the invaders of their country, 
and also in favoring the British interest at the expense of the 
rights and liberties of the Colonics, died a political death. Gov- 
ernor Wanton is said to have been a man '' of amiable disposi- 
tion, elegant manners, handsome person, and splendid appear- 
ance. He dressed in the finest style of the times, with a large 
white wig, with three curls, one falling down his back, and one 
forward of each shoulder." His likeness is placed in the Bed- 
wood Library. He died at Newport, July 19, 1780, aged 75 
years, and was interred in the family vault in the Clifton burial 
place. The name has become extinct in Newport. His former 
residence in Thames-street, is now owned by the heirs of the 
late Captain Robert Lawton. 

" We hear from Newport that Joseph Wanton, Esq., finding 
the British were about to evacuate that place, loaded a vessel 
with his effects, in order to take his departure with them, but 
the master being on shore, and the mate having a fair gale for 
putting off, slipped out of the harbor, and instead of taking the 
desired course, carried the vessel and effects to Providence,* 
where they were cheerfully received." 

It would have been far more gratifying could we have en- 
rolled his name as a patriot in the war of the Eevolution, instead 
of favoring the enemies of his country. 

About this period a regiment was raised for this station, 
commanded by Col. Babcock. General Lee was also sent from 
Boston, to our assistance, by General Washington, with several 
companies of riflemen. He arrested all the Tories he could 
find, imposed upon them the most severe restrictions, and -soon 
after returned to Boston. 

In the autumn of this year, a large nii\nber of the Ehoda 

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Island troops stationed at Boston, embarked in Montgomery^ 
expedition against Quebec, under command of General Arnold. 
No expedition during the war, was attended with greater diffi- 
culties, or displayed a more unconquerable spirit of persever- 
ance, than this. Their march through a trackless, unexplored 
wilderness, for more than three hundred miles, rendered their 
progress slow and difficult. To support life, they were compel- 
led to eat their dogs, shoes, &c., and when at one hundred miles 
from a human habitation, they divided their last morsel of bread. 
And yet such was their unconquerable spirit of patriotism, that 
their fortitude remained unshaken. On the 1st of December, a 
siege was commenced upon Quebec, by the united forces of Arnold 
and Montgomery. The atteinpt proved unsuccessful, and fatal 
to the brave Montgomery, who fell at the onset, with two distin- 
guished officers at his side. 

General Arnold was wounded in the action, and carried from 
the field, when the command devolved on, and the fort was 
taken by Ool. Morgan, a gallant and intrepid officer. 

General Arnold remained encamped during the winter, a few 
miles from Quebec, but the following spring, not being rein- 
forced, and his own forces being insufficient to attempt the re- 
duction of the place, he retired, and by the middle of June, the 
Americans had wholly evacuated Canada. We could almost 
have wished the wound of Arnold had proved mortal, and he 
not have been left to disgrace his country, and involve a valu- 
able officer in obloquy and ruin. 

The fate of Major Andre, who was a most highly accomplished 
and meritorious officer, has continued to be a subject of univer- 
sal regret ; and could Washington, consistently with the usages 
of war, have pardoned the unfortunate man, it would most cheer- 
fully have been done. But ihe decision of the Court Martial, 
of which Gen. Greene was President, adjudged him worthy of 
death^ and it was not within the province of the Commander-in- 
Chief to reverse that decision, without subjecting himself to 
censure and reproach. 

Major Andre, it is said, was strongly attached to a lady in 
England, and while in prison^ penned the following striking and 
significant lines ; 

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'■' Keturn, enraptured hours, 

When Delia's heart was mine. 
When she with wreaths of flowers 
My temples did entwine, 

1^0 jealousy or care 

Corroded o'er my breast? 
^0 visions, light qs air. 

Presided o'er my rest. 

Since I'm removed from state. 

And bid adieu to time, 
At my unha,ppy fate 

Let Delia not repine. 

•0h, may the mighty Jove 

Crown her with happiness ; 
Grant ! grant ! ye powers above. 

To take her home to rest." 

"Wallace maintained the possession of the harbor until the 
spring of 1776. 

A newspaper called " The Neivport Gazette^'^ was established 
tmder the patronage of the British authorities at Newport. It 
was pubhshed by John Howe, in 1777. 

On the 6th of April, troops having arrived from Providence 
to our assistance, with two row galleys of two eighteen pound- 
ers each, and while the fleet lay at anchor about a mile from 
Newport, Col. Babcock directed that two eighteen pounders 
be placed on an eminence near the shore, in open view of the 
•enemy, and without any works to protect them. Here the in- 
trepid Ool, Elliot, together with the galleys, under command of 
Commodore Grimes, soon rendered the situation of the cow- 
ardly Wallace extremely uncomfortable, and he abandoned the 
harbor with the whole squadron. The G-lasgow, of twenty guns, 
commanded by Cuptain Snow, returned to Newport, and came 
to anchor near Port Island, having fallen in with, and received 
a severe chastisement from, Admiral Hopkins, off Block Island. 
The same evening, Col. Eichmond ordered several pieces of 
heavy artillery to be brought and placed on Brenton's Pointy 
w^here a shght breastwork was thrown up during the night. 
The following morning he opened so vigorous and well directed 
a fire upon ber and the transport ship Snow, that they hastily 
cut their cables and went out to sea. A few days subsequently 

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the British ship of war Scarborough, of twenty guns, and two 
hundred and twenty-five men, with the Cimetar, of eighteen 
guns and one hundred and forty men, having with them two 
prize ships^ put into Newport harbor, and came to anchor a 
little to the south of Eose Island. A resolution was at once 
formed to attempt the rescue of the prizes. The plan adopted 
was for Captain Hyers, of the Washington galley, to attack and 
hold the Scarborough at bay^ while Captain Grimes, of the 
Spitfire galley, was to board and bring off the prizes. Col. 
Babcock had also made preparations, in case either of the ships 
should approach sufficiently near the North Battery at Bren- 
ton^s Point, to^ give them at these places a warm reception. 
About 11 o'clock at night, Capt. Grimes came along-side, and 
boarded and took the prize brig from under the stern of the 
man-of-war. The Scarborough immediately prepared to give 
chase, but was so annoyed and embarrassed in her course by 
Oaptain:;Hyers,, that the brig was brought safely to harbor,, and 
the Scarborough brought within reach of the North Battery, 
when Col. Babcock poured upon her such an incessant shower 
of balls,, together with the well-directed and galling fire of the 
Washington galley, as entirely to arrest her progress and pre- 
vent further pursuit. At that moment the prize sloop was sail- 
ing with the intention of getting under the protecting wing of 
the Scarborough, but was disappointed by the intrepidity of 
Capt. Grimes, who cut her off, boarded^, and sent her to Pro- 

The British ships having both received a severe-chastisement,, 
the Scarborough from the North Battery,, and the^ Washington 
galley, and the Cimetar from the battery at Bren ton's Point 
and the Spitfire galley, Capt.. Grimes,, came to anchor between 
Connanicut and Eose Island. But this position was asunpropi- 
tious^ as the former, for a battery was opened and the storm of 
death soon came down upon them from the shores of Connani' 
cut, so that finding no safety in the harbor, and danger threat, 
eningthem whichever way they fiew^ they deemed it the better part 
of valor to abandon their position, by a hasty and inglorious re- 
treat. But in leaving the harbor they had another fiery ordeal 
to pass, both at Brenton's Point and Castle Hill, where they re- 
ceived a severe and vie^orous cannonade from the American bat- 
t^ries at these places.. The ships returned the fire with 'greati^ 

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rage, and departed in mortification and disgrace. During these 
eight or ten days of almost incessant and successful struggles, 
the Americans had only one man shghtly wounded. 

During this season a number of privateers were fitted out at 
Newport and Providence, which captured from fifty to one 
hundred valuable prizes, which were sent to Providence, New- 
London, &c. 

Early in the fall, intelligence w^as received that a large Bri- 
tish fleet and army were soon expected to arrive, to take pos- 
session of the Island. All the cattle the American commander 
could collect, probably one-half on the Island, were driven to 
Howland's Ferry, and swam over the river, to prevent their 
falling into the hands of the enemy. 

In December the British fleet and army arrived, under the 
command of Sir Peter Parker. The American force being alto- 
gether insuflicient to make any efl'ectual resistance, retreated 
from the Island, and many of the inhabitants left at the same 

The consternation is said to have been dreadful. Many of 
the inhabitants could not procure vehicles, as everything of the 
kind was in requisition, and they were obhged to travel on foot 
to Howland's Ferry, and on arriving there, were compelled to 
wait before they could be ferried over, as the crowd assembled 
was so numerous. The fleet ran up the west side of Connanicut, 
crossed over from the north point of that Island, and landed 
their troops in Middletown, about four and a half miles from 

The British army consisted of about eight or ten thousand 
men, Enghsh and Hessians, of each about an equal number, 
commanded by General Clinton and Lord Percy. They marched 
up and encamped on Gould's and Weaver's Hill, except a few" 
who landed at Coddington's Cove, and marched into Newport. 
The Hessians who accompanied the British, were hired for a 
small sum, and were made to beheve that the people they were 
about: to subdue were weak and inefficient. And so sanguine 
were they of success, that it is said many had prepared them- 
selves with milking pails and other apparatus to cultivate the 

Wh^n the fleet arrived here, there were two new Khodo 
Island frigates, called the "Warren, and the Providence, lying 

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in the harbor of Newport^ with eight or ten privateers, whicb 
all got nnder weigh^ and ran np the river. Both frigates and 
privateers, however, during the winter, taking advantage of the 
north-east wind, made their escape and went to sea, notwith- 
standing the utmost vigilance and care with which each passage 
was guarded by the British fleet ; demonstrating the import- 
ance of the bay, and proving the impossibility of its being 

In 1778, in the month of November, there was collected in 
the harbor of Newport, twelve British ships of the line, and 
two frigates. 

As soon as the army landed; they commenced plundering the 
inhabitants ; sheep, fowls, stacks of hay, and every thing else 
they could lay their hands on, went off as by magic, the first 
night- This was their intention at the outset, and as they 
could not unjustly tax the Colonies, and rob them of their 
earnings with impunity, they had recourse to powder and ball, 
in order more effectually to carry out their diabolical plans, and 
compel them to yield obedience to their arbitrary mandates. 

After having remained in camp for one week, the barrack 
officer went through the neighborhood, surveying every house^ 
and unceremoniously quartering in each^ from ten to forty, and 
even forty-five men, according to the size and convenience of 
the house. They remained quartered on the inhabitants until 
the following May, when they again returned to camp. The 
female portion of the inhabitants of the town, who were accus- 
tomed to the needle, made clothing for the soldiers, and in this 
way obtained a living, while the place was a British garrison. 
It has been said^ that the people who remained at Newport, 
fared much better than many who left, and went on the main. 
It was undoubtedly a time of trial, and no place suffered more 
severely than did Newport. 

About this time, several thousands of the British troops left 
Ehode Island for New-York, under the command of General 
ChntoUy and Lord Percy. The command then devolved upon 
General Prescott. This officer was a haughty, tyrannical, and 
despicable character ; and actuated by principles and habits 
purely aristocratical, founded on his position as commander, he 
was poorly qualified to gain the friendship and esteem of hi& 
enemiesy or strengthen the confidence of his friends. 

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His constant habit while walking the streets, if he saw any 
of the inhabitants conversing together, was to shake his cane at 
them, and say, " Disperse, ye rebels." During one of his 
perambulations about the streets, he chanced to meet with one 
EHsha Anthony, a member of the Society of Friends, and one 
asking Friend Anthony, in passing, " why he did not take his 
hat off ?" Anthony said, '' It was against his principles to shew 
those signs of respect to man." Prescott hearing the observa- 
tion, ordered his servant to knock off his hat, which he did ; 
and they passed on, leaving the Friend, who very coolly picked 
up his broad-brim, and passed on. 

This Mr. Anthony's residence was on the corner of King and 
Thames-street, formerly the old Crown Coffee-house. He 
possessed a span of the finest horses on the island, and he at- 
tended and caressed them with almost as much tenderness as 
he would have bestowed upon human beings, and the very next 
day after the hat transaction, Prescott sent for these horses, 
saying he wanted them to carry an express to Boston. 

What he did with one of them is not known ; but Mr. An- 
thony, having occasion to go out on the island next day, found 
one of them rode to death, on the road side. The poor horse 
was dying, and as his master came up to him, he recognized 
him, and Hfting his head from the ground, gave him such a 
pitiful and reproachful look as penetrated his heart. He said 
he could never get over the feeling it gave him. Warned by 
this instance of malice, Mr. Anthony secreted his cow, and 
other domestic animals, in his kitchen. 

No wonder Prescott was sent back to Newport, after his 
exchange. He was a worthy minion of arbitrary power, though 
if he had had the feelings of a man, he would rather have been 
hanged than have appeared there again. 

July 10, 1777, Colonel Barton, of Providence, conceived and 
executed one of the most bold and hazardous enterprises 
recorded in the history of the Eevolution. General Prescott 
was quartered at this time about five miles from Newport, on 
the west road, leading to the ferry, at the seat of Mr. Overing. 
Barton's design was to pass over to Ehode Island from the 
main, seize Prescott at his quarters, and carry him to the 
American camp. 

This enterprise, though hazardous in the extreme, was plan- 

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Bed with cool deliberation and consummate prudence. Having 
chosen several officers in whom he could repose unlimited con- 
fidence, he selected about forty men, whom he knew well under- 
stood rowing, and on wdiose tried valor he could rely in the most 
perilous exigency. 

David P. Hall, Esq., of New-York, stated, 'Hhat Quako 
Honyman, formerly a servant of the Eev. James Honyman, who 
was at this time a waiter of General Prescott, communicated 
to Gol. Barton his exact position, and accompanied him on the 

At this time there were three British frigates, the Lark, the 
Diamond, and the Juno, lying with their guard-boats out, on 
the east side of Prudence. On the 10th of the month, at about 
nine o'clock in the evening, the Colonel, with his company, 
embarked on board their boats, from Warwick Neck, and with 
muffled oars passed over to Ehode Island, between Prudence 
and Patience. As they passed the south end of Prudence, 
they heard from the guard-boats of the enemy, the sentinel's 
cry, '' All's w^ell." As they landed. Barton divided his men 
into several divisions, assigning to each their station, when they 
advanced toward the house, preserving the strictest order, and 
the most profound silence. They passed the British guard- 
house from eighty to one hundred rods on the left, and a 
company of light horse at about an equal distance on the right, 
and a little left of that was the Pedwood seat, where General 
Smith, second in command, was stationed. (The house is now 
the property of Elbert J. Anderson, Esq., of New-York, who 
married a descendant of Mr. Eedwood.) 

One of the divisions was directed by a circuitous course to 
advance upon the house in the rear, and secure the doors, 
while Barton, with the other division, was to advance up in 
front of the house, through the gate. As they approached the 
gate, the sentinel, w^ho stood a few yards from them, cried out, 
" "Who comes there ?" Not readily receiving an answer, he 
hailed the second time, and demanded the countersign, w^hen 
Barton sternly i:eplied, " We have no countersign to give ; have 
you seen any deserters to-night ?" This had the intended 
effect. They continued to advance upon him, Barton still 
demanding wnth greater vehemence, " Have you seen any de- 
serters ?" so that he never suspected them as foes, until his 

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musket was seized, and he was told that if he made the least 
noise, he was a dead man. 

The other division had already taken possession of, and 
secured the doors, so that egress from it by its inmates was 
impossible. ' General Prescott was not alarmed, till his captors 
were at the door of his bed-chamber, which was fast closed. 
The negro before mentioned, Quako Honyman, instantly thrust 
his beetle-head through the panel-door and secured his victim. 

In the mean time, Major Barrington, aid-de-camp to General 
Prescott, finding the house attacked, leaped out of a window, 
intending to seek security in flight ; but when he reached the 
ground, was secured a prisoner. 

Colonel Barton, placing his hand on Prescott's shoulder, 
told him. he was his prisoner, and that silence was his only 
safety. General Prescott requested permission to dress, but 
was told by Barton that their business required haste, and that 
he could only have time to wrap his cloak around him. 

For security, and in order that the General might keep time 
with the light hearts and quick step of the OolonePs party, he 
w^as compelled to walk between two officers, one arm resting 
on the shoulder of each, while Major Barrington and the sen- 
tinel, were stationed in the centre of the party. 

They passed through a barley-field, a few rods north of where 
Mr. Peleg Ooggeshall's barn now stands, and but a short dis- 
tance from the guard-house. When they arrived at the boats, 
General Prescott w^as permitted to dress ; when he was seated 
in the boat commanded by Gol. Barton, Gen. Prescott implicitly 
obeyed the injunction of silence, until they had passed for 
some distance the British ships. As they landed at Warwick 
Neck, hex turned to Colonel Barton, and said, " Sir, you have 
made a bold push to-night." Barton replied, " We have been 
fortunate." Colonel Elhot was found waiting there, with a 
coach, to receive and convey him to Providence, where himself, 
with Col. Barton and prisoner, arrived early in the morning. 

Prescott was subsequently taken to Pomfret, in Connecticut, 
where he remained a short time. It is said that the landlord 
of the house where he stopped, brought him a dish of beans 
and corn, at which he was so highly exasperated, that he threw 
them into the face of the landlord, who very deliberately wiped 
his face with his shirt sleeve, and left the room. He, however, 

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soon returned, with a cow-hide, and the manner in which he 
appHed it to his back, was a striking caution. 

Quako, the black, who piloted the enterprise, and who was 
rewarded for his services, lived for many years in Pomfret 
Connecticut ; he afterwards removed to Munson, Massachusetts^ 
where he died. It is stated that the British w^ere so incensed 
against him, that if they could have caught him, he would 
have been hung, drawn, and quartered. 

General Prescott was afterwards exchanged for General 
Lee, who had fallen into the hands of the enemy, and, at the 
close of the same year, or the beginning of the next, he again 
took command of the British forces on Rhode Island, where he 
remained until its final evacuation. 

The imprisonment of Colonel Barton, for the term of four- 
teen years, in Vermont, was a blot on the national escutcheon. 
A man who had rendered such essential service to his country 
should have received the aid of the nation. But not until 
General La Fayette came to this country on a visit, was his 
liberation elBfected. He, like a noble patriot, enquired after his 
old friend and companion in arms, and on beiiig informed of his 
imprisonment, went out of his way to meet him, (and it was 
a joyful meeting,) the prison doors were opened instanter, and 
the captive set at liberty. , 

On the 27th, Congress voted Colonel Barton an elegant 
sword, in acknowledgment of his capture of General Prescott, 
and sent him a vote of thanks, for that important service. 
Important it was on many accounts. It had a tendency to 
excite in a high degree the enthusiasm of the people, to con- 
vince them that their foes in this quarter were not invincible, 
and to humble the arrogance of the enemy. 

Colonel Barton was quite an amusing man, and whether the 
countenance is the true index of the heart or not, he had the 
happy faculty of always appearing pleasant. It was a familiar 
saying of his — 

" To die and bo forgot, is the lot of all mankind, 
But to be forgot before you are dead is hard." 

He would then break forth from his reverie, and sing most 
amusingly these words, — 

*' But while we're here, with friends so dear. 
Let's drive dull care awaj." 

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In September, 1777, a secret expedition against Ehode 
Island was concerted by G-eneral Spencer, the commander-in- 
chief of the American forces in Ehode Island. The Americans 
were stationed at Tiverton, near where the stone bridge now 
is. By some means, however, the British commander was 
apprised of Spencer's intention, and made preparations for 
his reception. He directed several dams to be thrown across 
the brook, running from the north, through the land of the late 
WilHam Bailey, southward to Easton's Pond, which raised the 
water to the depth of three or four feet, all through that valley. 
It is said, the British intended to permit them to land, and 
march up without opposition, then destroy their boats, and cut 
off their retreat. 

The expedition was, however, abandoned, even after the 
troops had embarked on board their boats. The certain cause 
of its failure is yet unknown. It has been suggested, that it 
was designed as a feint, to divert the attention of the enemy, 
and thereby succeed in dislodging them from other and more 
important points. 

General Burgoyne's surrender immediately followed this 
event, and but httle regard was paid to the course of pohcy 
adopted by G-eneral Spencer, while in command of the troops 
on the Island. 

General Spencer, on leaving his quarters one morning, found 
the following doggerel verse, written in large letters, placed in 
full view of the public : 

" Israel wanted bread, 

The Lord sent them manna ; 
Rhode Island wants a head, 
And Congress sends— a granny '" 

After this, the Major-General was called by the sobriquet 
of " Granny Spencer," as long as he remained in Ehode 

On October 17, 1777, a flag arrived at Newport from Provi- 
dence, bearing intelligence of the surrender of General Burgoyne 
and army to the American forces. A knowledge of this event had 
reached the Island, and was known by certain individuals two 
days previous to its public announcement by the arrival of the 

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flag. During the whole time the British had possession of the 
island, a correspondence was maintained between certain indi- 
viduals of the island and the main, at Little Oompton, so that 
the American officers were constantly apprized of the general 
movements of the enemy, while in possession of Ehode Island. 
The correspondence was maintained by signals given on the 
Island, indicating a clear coast, and that a messenger could pass 
over in safety, after dark. The first signal was the leaving 
down of a certain pair of bars, which, with the spy-glass, could 
be distinctly seen from the main. Afterward, for fear of excit- 
ing the suspicion of the enemy, the signal was changed — when 
an open window of Mr. Peleg Peckham's barn answered the 
same purpose. 

A small vault in the ground, near the shore, and at no great 
distance from Mr. Peckham's, covered with a flat stone, served 
as a depository of communication: There, letters and papers 
were regularly deposited and removed, by the respective indi- 
viduals engaged in the correspondence. It was through this 
medium of communication that the intelligence of Burgoyne's 
surrender first reached the Island. It is said that the papers 
bringing this intelhgence, and which were found safely deposit- 
ed in the vault, are still preserved in the family of a Mr. Barker, 
on the Island. This noted spot is in Middletown, on the east 
side of the Island, in sight of Little Oompton. 

That part of the British army now in possession of the Island, 
consisted of the 22d regiment, commanded by Colonel Camp- 
bell ; the 43d, by Colonel Marsh ; the 54th, by Col. Bruce; and 
the 63d, by Major Bill. The artillery was commanded by Col- 
onel Ennis. The Hessian regiments were, the Heno, the Beno, 
the Bedford, and Lanscraft, deriving their names from their 
respective commanders. There was also a company of hght 
horse attached to the army, with a regiment of refugees, com- 
manded by Colonel Panning. There were also a few compa- 
nies attached to the army, called Boushears and Anspaks ; 
these were G-ermans. 

In the spring of 1778, General Sulhvan having been appoint- 
ed to the command of the American troops in Ehode Island, 
the British commander at Newport, anticipating an attempt 
upon the Island by the Americans, sent a detachment of five 
hundred men up the river to destroy their boats, and by this 

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means frustrate the anticipated expedition. They landed on the 
nlorningof May 25, at daylight, between Warren and Bristol, and 
proceeded in two divisions, one for Warren, and the other for tl^e 
head of Kickemuet river, ^^ when they destroyed about seventy 
flat-bottom one of the State galleys." They 
also burnt a large quantity of pitch, tar, plank, and ^otber pro- 
perty belonging to the Americans at that place.. The party. 
which proceeded to Warren, after having, burnt the .meeting- 
house and a number of dwelhng houses, plundered and robbed 
the inhabitants, not even, the females excepted, who were robbed 
of their shoe buckles, gold rings^ handkerchiefs, &c. A few 
days subsequently,, a body of one hundred and fifty men were 
sent to burn the mill, and. other buildings around it, at Tiverton. 
They burnt the old mill, and another building at the landing; 
but; in proceeding tp. the town, the place of their intended plun- 
der, their progress was arrested at the bridge by a Spartan band 
of twenty -five meUy who. had planted, themselves there^ and dis- 
puted their passage. ; Nor were they able to carry the bridge, 
although frequently attempted, and were compelled to return 
without effecting the object of their expedition. 

In. July, 1778, the French fleet of eleven sail of fine ships, be- 
sides frigates and transports, under the command of Count 
D'Estaing, appeared off the harbor,, to the great joy of the in- 
habitants, and anchored near to Brent on 's Beef. One of the 
ships of the fleet ran up the west side of Connanicutj and an- 
chored at the north point of the Island. The three British 
frigates above mentioned, lay at anchor on the east side of .Pru- 
dence. A few mornings after, they weighed anchor and sailed^ 
with the design af getting under protection of the battery at 
Tammany HilL The French ship, aware of their intention, got 
under way at the same time, and cut them off. 

The frigates then stood in for the shore, and were run aground 
about five or, six miles from Newport, on the west sideof Ebode 
Island. Before they grounded, they cut away the masts,, for 
the purpose of driving them nearer the shore; and as soon as 
they struck, they set them on fire, and made for the shore in 
their boats. During this time, the French ship was sufliciently 
Bear to have thrown grape shot over them, yet when she saw 
them fire and abandon their vessels, she retired and took her 
former position, without firing a gun. A number of Brltisb 

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vessels, lying at Ooddington Covej were also set on fire as soon 
as the burning of the frigates was discovered. The Grand 
Duke, lying a little to the north of Long Wharf, with several 
other vessels, was burnt. The Falcon and the Flora, frigates, 
were sunk ; the latter at Fort "Walcott Wharf, and they were 
never afterward able to float her. About a year after the Bri- 
tish evacuated the Island, and the Americans took possession, 
the Flora was floated, fitted for sea, and sent to France. About 
the same time the frigates were burnt in the harbor and along 
the shore, the King Fisher, a man-of war, was burnt in the East 

The French fleet, after lying at anchor for several days, ran 
up the middle passage, and anchored under Gould Island. 
They ran up under three topsails, and received the fire of the 
British batteries as they passed, but returned it with such 
warmth that they soon silenced the forts. Several shots from 
the French fleet were unintentionally thrown into the town. As 
soon as the fleet approached the harbor, the British troops coni- 
menced burning the houses about two miles from Newport, 
commencing at the house formerly owned by the late G-eo. 
Irish, Esq, ; they burnt every house on the West road, for the 
distance of a mile ; on the East road about half that distance ; 
and from the West road to the shore. At the same time a 
party, principally refugees, was employed and sent out through 
the Island, headed by one William Crosson, who cut and de- 
stroyed cart-wheels, wagons, and carriages of all descriptions, 
grindstones, scythes, axes, hatchets, and every other edged tool 
they could find, and filled up many of the wells. Crosson's 
deeds of darkness were perpetrated during the night, and were 
not confined to the limits of the Island, but often extended as 
far as Swanzey Neck, Little Oompton, and Fall Eiver, plunder- 
ing the inhabitants of everything he could bring off" in his 
boats, and frequently not even sparing the citizens themselves. 
In one of his midnight excursions, he seized and brought off a 
worthy and respectable citizen of Swanzey Neck, by the name 
of Blade, who died of the small pox on board of the British 
prison ship in the harbor of Newport. Many others, who had 
the misfortune to fall into his hands, were never after permitted 
to return. 

Crosson's character had become so notorious, and pubhc in- 

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dignation so excited, that measures were taken for his appre- 
hension. But securely sheltered under the protecting wing of 
British power by day, no prospect of his capture appeared, 
unless it could be effected when engaged in his depredations 
at night. Accordingly a boat was fitted out at Little Oompton 
called a shaving mill, commanded by Lemuel Bayley of that 
town, for hi*s capture. Nor was it long before he found him- 
self a prisoner. He wa^ conveyed to Providence under a 
strong guard, but w^hen he arrived there, such was the pubhc 
feeling of indignation against him, that with great difl&culty 
the guard could protect him from popular violence. After hav- 
ing been in prison for several months in that town, by some 
means, supposed to be by the influence of a hrihe^ he escaped from 
jail and appeared again in Newport. "When the British evacu- 
ated the Island, Crossons went off with them, and probably 
considered it safe to remain with them, as he never afterward 
returned to Newport. Dollars and cents, it seems, have always 
had an unbounded influence with some in the Plantations. — 
Among the reckless associates of Orosson, was a man by the 
name of Gouldsborough. He landed his party at Little Oomp- 
ton one evening, near the place where a lad by the name of 
Taggart, son of Judge WilHam Taggart, senior, and brother 
of the late Judge Taggart, of Middletown, was stationed as a 
sentinel. The inhuman G-ouldsborough seized and murdered 
young Taggart on the spot. 

A few days previous to this, the British commander had 
seized and drove within the lines all the stock, cows, oxen, &c., 
he could find on the Island. Sheep there were none, having all 
been previously stolen. 

The same day (at night) on which the Prench fleet came in, 
the British withdrew their troops from the north end of the 
island, and took up their position on the heights, about two 
miles from Newport. Their fine extended from Ooddington's 
Cove to Easton's Beach ; the whole distance being defended by 
breastworks and redoubts ; besides which, they had a Hne still 
nearer the town, running from the West of the north mill down 
to the Gills' farm, formerly the property of Nicholas Easton. 
On the following morning, the American army landed on the 
north end of the Island, without opposition, and took posses- 
sion of the neighboring heights. The army was composed of 

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224 msTOEY OF rhode island. 

militia, continental troops, and volunteers, commanded by Gen- 
erals Bullivan, G^reen, Grlover, and the Marquis de Lafayette, 
supposed to number from ten to fifteen thousand men. 

On the-afternoon of the same day that the Americans landed 
on the Island, the British fleet of twenty-five sail was discovered 
standing in for Newport. They came too off Point Judith for 
the night, but a sudden change of wind favoring the Count the 
following morning, he stood out to sea with his whole squad- 
ron. Lord Howe, after some unsuccessful manoeuvering to get 
the weather gu age of the French fleet, put to sea, followed by 
Count D'Estaing, and both fleets were soon lost sight of in th^ 
distance. The storm which had already commenced, continued 
to rage with increasing violence for several days, so that no 
general action was obtained between the fleets. Both, how- 
ever, were greatly damaged by the storm. 

The Languedoc, of ninety guns, commanded by Count 
D'Estaing, had neither mast nor bowsprit standing, and several 
others were in a similar situation. The American troops en- 
camped on the north part of the Island, sufferred not less than 
the ships. . Such was the violence of the tempest, attended with 
a^powerfulrain, that by the night of the 12th, not a tent or 
marquee remained standing. Many horses and several of the 
soldiers perished by the severity of the storm, and the whole 
army was in the most wTetched and deplorable condition. And 
in addition to their own personal sufierings, the greater part of 
their ammunition was either destroyed or greatly damaged by the 
storm. The 14th, the storm having subsided, and the day be- 
ing serene and warm, the American army spent in drying their 
clothes, &c., and in making ready for their future operations. 
On the following morning, they took up their fine of march in 
three several divisions ; one on the East road, one on the 
West, and the third through the centre of the Island, and pos- 
sessed themselves of the heights, about one and a half miles 
from the British lines. General Sullivan quartered about five 
miles from Newport,^ at what is now called the G-ibbs Earm. 
General Lafayette quartered on the East side of the Island, at 
what was then called the Bowler Garden Earm, about the same 
distance from Newport. General Green quartered on the farm 
now owned by the heirs of the late Colonel Eichard K. Kan 
dolph, of Newport. 

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The British had thrown up a large fort, the remains of which 
are still visible, a little to the north and east of the residence of 
the late George Irish, Esq., and directly opposite on Hofiyman's 
Hill. At a distance of httle more than a mile, the Americans 
had thrown up a fort and other works, and by the 20th, they 
had opened two four-gun batteries, and by the 23d had mounted 
seventeen pieces of heavy artillery, two ten-inch mortars, and 
three five and a half inch howitzers. 

From these works, on either side, was kept up a continual 
cannonading by day, and throwing of bombs by night, by which 
many were killed on both sides. An amusing circumstance is 
related of the discharge of a cannon from the battery at Hony- 
man's Hill. A large dinner party had assembled at the Dudley 
Farm, now occupied by Edward Van Zandt, Esq., when just as 
the guests were about to seat themselves at the table, a ball 
passed through the hall, and the company fled precipitately out 
of the house, with the loss of their dinner. 


On the night of the 22d of December, 1778, a snow storm com- 
menced with a severity never before experienced by the oldest 
inhabitants, for the quantity of snow which fell, as also for the 
severity of the cold. 

In Newport, all the sentinels of the British army who were 
stationed in the exterior hues, that were not called in before 
night, were found after the storm, frozen to death at their 
posts ; many soldiers perished in buildings where they had no 
fire, and many perished in endeavoring to find their quarters 
during the snow storm. The storm was afterwards known as 
the " Hessian storm," from the great number of soldiers of that 
nation who perished. 

No tidings were received, and nothing was known of the dis- 
abled and wrecked condition of the fleets, until about a week 
after the storm, when the French fleet were seen at a distance, 
standing for Newport. 

At 7 o'clock, R M... the Marquis de Lafayette, and other 

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officers, went on board to consult with the French officers, on 
measures for the vigorous and successful prosecution of the ex- 
pedition, and prevail with them immediately to enter the har- 
bor. But their efforts were without success, and about 12 at 
night they left the ships and returned on shore. The conduct 
of the Count, in refusing a compliance with the request of the 
American officers, when conquest appeared so easy, and victory 
^0 sure, was most severely censured. But when it is considered 
that his instructions were positive from the Court of France, in 
case of disaster, and that his officers unanimously signed a pro- 
test against entering the harbor in their disabled condition, this 
censure at least in a very great degree, must appear to be un- 
merited and severe. 

"We never been able to discover that any very important 
aid was furnished by the French fleet, while in the waters of 
Newport. There was, we grant, a shoiv of resistance, but the 
efficiency in prosecuting the line of defence, failed. Far be it from 
us, however, to undervalue the aid received from the French. 
It decided the contest. ^' It cost her more than three hundred 
millions of dollars," and hurried her into a revolution, more ex° 
hausting than any other state in the tide of time. 

The chief object of the treaties of 1778, was the establisment 
of the Liberty, Sovereignty, and Independence of the United 
States in the war of the Eevolution. It was a dark and gloomy 
period with the Colonies, when France offered her assistance. 
The hopes which had been kindled by early successes, were 
almost extinguished by recent and successive disasters. It was at 
this painful moment that allied armies, fresh, vigoroup, and well- 
appointed, cooperating with a gallant fleet, met the invader, and 
his surrender at Yorktown, opened the way to peace, sover- 
eignty, and independence. 

The mihtia raised for this expedition, were drafted only for 
three weeks ; one-half of which were on service, and the re- 
mainder were to hold themselves in readiness, to succeed them 
at the expiration of that time, if called for. Within twenty-four 
hours after the French fleet sailed for Boston, between two and 
three thousand volunteers from Boston and other parts of New- 
England, left the army and returned home. And many of the 
militia whose term of service had now expired, returned, while 
those who were to succeed them, came on with reluctance, and 

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Slot more than half their number \^''as ever supplied, so that the 
American army was greatly reduced. 

In this situation, without a naval force to protect or succor 
them, the possibility of a successful retreat was the only alterna- 
tive. But it was deemed prudent not hastily to abandon their 
present position, kst they should thus encourage the pursuit of 
their foes, and hazard the honor of a successful retreat They 
still maintained their post until the night of the 28th., when 
about 12tb o'clock., the army began to move toward the nortk 
end of the Island, secure a communication with the main, and 
wait until information should be received from the Erench fleet 
in Boston. 

Gen. de Lafayette was despatched with a message to Count 
D'Estaing, to ascertain whether the assistance and cooperation 
'of the fleet couid be expected^ and to Bolicit its speedy return. 
The Count could not consent that the fleet should return, but 
promptly oflered to march his troops from Boston, to the assist- 
ance of the American forces on E-hode Island, if requested. At 
daylight, the retreat having been discovered by the British, 
they took up their march in pursuit. 

The French have never been distinguished on the ocean ; in 
the battle-field they have never had their superiors. If the fleet 
liad been possessed of sufficient nerve they might at this exi- 
gency have rendered essential service to our troops, but as it 
was, they displayed a very great weakness, and gave the enemy 
the advantage. About six miles from Newport, the ^regiment 
In advance, commanded by Col. Campbell, was separated in two 
divisions, and pressed forward in pursuit ; one division retaining 
the road., the other the open field to the left They advanced 
without opposition or obstruction, until they approached a wall 
running from the west a little to the north of Sampson Sher- 
man's house. Here the Americans had lying in ambush, under 
the wall, a piquet guard of between three and four hundred men, 
who were not discovered by the enemy, and who were ordered 
not to fire until the word was given by the commander; again 
to load and fire, and then continue their retreat. 

The orders were strictly obeyed, and the command to fire 
was not given until the enemy were within half gun shot, when 
they poured upon them such a flood of death, as not only to 
check the advancing foe^ but throw them into the greatest con- 

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fusion, giving tlie guard sufficient time again to fire and make? 
good their retreat, with but very little loss. 

Col. Campbell had several balls pass through his clothes, and 
his horse killed under him. At one of the field pieces every 
man was shot down at the first fire. In the rear^ and at a dis- 
tance of not more than half a mile, the Fifty-fourth and two Hes- 
sian regiments were advancing,- but so unexpected and fatal had 
been the work of that mom.ent, and so rapid the retreat of the 
assailants^ that they arrived too late to render their dying com- 
panions the least assistance. 

The main body of the American army had gained and taken 
possession of Butt's Hill, on the northern part of the Island.. It 
bas generally been supposed, even at this time, had G-eneral 
Green's advice been taken,, a most signal victory might have 
been gained over the pursuing enemy. His advice was over- 
ruled, however, and the enemy pressed onward toward the 
American lines. They advanced near the left wing of the Ameri- 
can army,, but were repulsed and driven back by General Glover^ 
when they retired and took possession of Quaker Hill, about a 
mile from the position occupied by the Americans. A contin- 
ued skirmishing was kept up between the two armies,, during 
this and the following day, and frequently whole regiments wer© 
engaged in the deadly strife at once^ and the same spot of 
ground was taken possession of and abandoned by both the bel- 
ligerent parties-. The last and most severe skirmish during the 
action, was an attempt made by the British on a redoubt in pos- 
isession of the Americans, A reinforcement was sent to its re- 
lief, who arrived just in time to prevent the success of the enemy ^ 
and just^ as they were making a third and desperate effort to 
carry the- redoubt ; they were repulsed witli considerable loss^ 
and in great confusion precipitately retreated, leaving many of 
their slain and wounded on the field of battle. After this action^ 
the firing of the musketry ceased, but the roar of the artillery 
still continued on both sides. 

One grand object of the American commander in planting 
himself on these heights, and maintaining so long the san« 
guinary conflict, was to secure the removal of the bag- 
gage and heavy artillery with the stores of war, which was 
briskly going on in the rear, while the roar of cannon and the 
storm of death were raging in the front. The sentinels of both 

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i^riiiitts were stationed at a distance of not more than seventy 
rods from each other, so that it reqmredno small degree of gen- 
eralship to cover the design of retreat from the suspicion of a 
watchful enemy^ and render that retreat triumphant and success- 
ful. On the 30th of the month, a number of tents were erected 
in full view of the enemy^ and the whole army were apparently 
engaged in fortifying and strengthening their present position ; 
after the going down of the sun, they built a large number of 
fires, extending nearly across the Island, to lull the enemy into 
security, and cover from suspicion their intended retreat. 

As soon as the surrounding darkness favored the design, the 
tents were struck, and the troops with the artillery and baggage^ 
moved to the north, .embarked in then* flat-bottomed boats, and 
were all safely landed on the main before the dawn of day. The 
brave and generous de Lafayette, who returned from Boston 
at the moment our troops were landing, was very greatly disap- 
pointed in not having been permitted to share in the perils of 
the action. Anticipating such an event, he had rode the dis- 
tance of seventy miles in about six hours. Nor could he be 
prevented from passing over to bring off the piquet and other 
parties who covered the American retreat. This he effected 
with such consummate prudence and self-possession, that not a 
man was kft behind, nor the slightest loss sustained. This re- 
treat, notwithstanding the failure of the expedition, reflected the 
highest honor on the American commanders, and the wisdom 
and skill by which it was executed, was applauded even by the 
British ofiicers themselves. 

The loss of the Americans, as stated by General Sullivan^ 

Killed ......... 30 

Wounded ...... . 137 

Missing ....... 44 

Total , . . 211 

Nearly 12t)0 Americans were engaged in the action, and they 
nre said to have shown great firmness. The day after the 
action, a cannonade was kept up by both armies. 

A letter was received from General Washington, informing 
laim (General SmlUvaaj) that a large body ^f troops had sailed 

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from New-York, most probably for the relief of Newport ; and 
a resolution was immediatelj formed to evacmate the island. 
The delay of a single day would,, probably,, have been fatal to- 
the Americans ;. for Sir Henry Clinton, who had been delayed 
by adverse winds, arrived with a reinforcement of 4000 men^, 
on the very next day,, when a retreat,, it is presumed, would 
have been impracticable. 

The troops on Rhode Island,, under the command of General 
Bmllivan,. on the 4th of August, were arranged as follows :r— 

Yarnum's brigade,, including officers ,. 1,037 

Glover's do. 


. . 1,131 

Cornell's do.. 


. . 1,719 

Green's da 


». . 1,626 

Lovell's do. 


. . 1,158 

Titcomb's do. 


. . 959 

Livingstone'^s advance,. 


. . 659 

West's reserve. 


, . 1,025 

Artillery .. o. » 

iount o , 

. . 810 

Total air 

, . 10,124 

On HovembeF 28th,. 1776,, the day of General "W"a&hington% 
retreat over the Delaware, th© British took possession of Rhode 

The scenes which have been enacted on the island,, invests it 
with peculiar interest, and should remind us, of the present 
day, of the sufferings which our fathers endured, to- bequeath 
to their children the. rich legacy of liberty and independence., 
The island has been consecrated by the blood of our patriot 
sires ; and when we walk over the fields of caFnage^may we be 
reminded of the value of the American Union,, and discounten- 
ance every attempt made by fanatics, to weaken the ties whicb 
liold us together as one people. 

The British held position of the island, until the autumn of 
1779, when Bir Henry OHnton, at New- York,, anticipating an 
attack upon that place by the combined forces of America anci 
France, dispatched a number of transports to bring off the 
troops from Rhode Island, to strengthen his forces at New- 
York ;. they embarked on the 25th of October, at the south end 
of the i,aland3> an,d arrived at New-York on the 2.7 tlL. 

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On tbe day the island was evacuated, orders were issued by 
the British commander, that the inhabitants of Newport should 
keep within their houses during the time the royal troops were 
passing through Thames-street, the route which they took to 
the ISTeck, the place of their embarkation, on pain of death. 
This injunction was strictly compUed with, so that those who 
had the curiosity to see the invaders of their peaceful shores 
march through their streets, stole a glance at them through the 
crevices of their windows and doors. 

The British burnt all the barracks at Port Adams, and the 
hght-house at Beaver Tail, and carried off with them the Town 
Eecords, consisting of the books of Eegistry of Deeds, the 
Eecords of the Town Council, the Court of Probate, &c., which, 
in their passage to New- York, were unfortunately sunk with 
the vessel which carried them away, near Hell G-ate, and were 
under water for several hours before they were recovered. 
They were detained in New- York about three years, and when 
they were afterwards returned to Newport, they were in a 
damaged condition. Had they been copied immediately on 
their recovery, many valuable documents might have been pre- 
served, but having been neglected so long, they are now in a 
dilapidated state, and of Uttle use. 

On the arrival of Sir Henry Chnton, the last "William Ood- 
dington, an aged and respectable gentleman, who held the 
office of Town Clerk, not wilUng to remain in prison, left the 
island, and went to Providence, there to reside until the army 
had abandoned the enterprise, and left the State. It is to be 
regretted that he had not taken with him the Eecords of the 
town, instead of placing them in the hands of his friend, Walter 
Chaloner, .who took them to New- York, and their fate has been 
described above. 

In 1782, the Town Council of Newport, having made apphca- 
tion to General Carlton, the British Commander at New-York, 
for the return of the Town Eecords, which had been taken 
away at the evacuation of the town ; they, in December, 
received by a flag of truce, the books and- papers, General 
Carlton expressing his sorrow, '' for the damage the}^ had sus- 
tained, from the sinking of the transport in Hell Gate, and the 
long time they had lain (three years,) without examination." 
The possession of the island for three years, by a strong and 

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powerful foe, who treated its inhabitants as rebels against the 
authority of their King, and consequently claiming the divine 
right of his Majesty to whatever the royal troops should please 
to possess, reduced the inhabitants to the greatest poverty and 
distress. At this distant period, it is impossible to form the 
least conception of the wretchedness and misery endured by 
the inhabitants of the island at that trying period ; and nothing 
but the providence of Grod sustained them in the hour of 
peril ; they were, however, delivered from their enemies, and 
ultimately achieved their freedom from the galhng yoke of 
Eritish tyranny. 

During the period of their stay, they had cut down and 
consumed all the flourishing groves of forest trees, with many 
of the most valuable orchards, and numerous ornamental trees, 
which beautified and adorned the island, so that the inhabitants 
w^cre entirely destitute of 'fuel. The wells at Portsmouth were 
filled up, the houses on the heights of Middletown w^ere set on 
fire by the General's order, and even the wharves, in Newport, 
which at that period were built of timber, were torn up for fuel, 
as the weather was so extremely severe in 1779-80. 

It is estimated that nine hundred dwelhngs, besides ware- 
houses, were destroyed, w^hile the British had possession of 
Newport. The town presented a wide scene of desolation after 
the evacuation, and it should be no surprise to the reader that 
Newport has never recovered her former prosperity, when the 
ravages committed by a lawless and infuriated nation are duly 

Ehode Island was one of the principal points, and her spacious 
harbor, capable of containing the whole British fleet, rendered 
it a key of great importance, in pushing forward theiy schemes, 
in the subjugation of the rebellious Colonies. 

During the possession of the island by the British, the free- 
men of Newport had held their Town Meetings, for choice of 
representatives in the General Assembly in Providence, the 
"'hornet's nest," as the British called it, agreeably to an Act 
of that body, granting tbem permission to do so. 

Middletown and Portsmouth held Town Meetings in Tiverton, 
for the election of repTCsentatives to the General Assembly ; 
but after the evacuation of the island by the enemy, that body 
passed an act, empowering the town of Newport to resume 

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their corporate powers, and choose Town officers, providing 
every person should be excluded from voting, who had in any- 
wise aided the enemy. The first meeting of the freemen for 
the choice of officers, was held at the Eriends' Meeting-House, 
in November, 1779. 

In January, 1779, the sum of five hundred pounds of lawful 
money, was granted by the Greneral Assembly, for the relief of 
the distressed inhabitants of Newport ; and large contribu- 
tions continued to be made for the same object, in this, and the 
adjoining States. 

The Greneral Assembly, at their June session, in 1780, 
banished thirty-six persons from the State, and confiscated 
their estates, for adhering to the enemy. 

On the 10th July, 1780, .the French fleet, of seven sail of the 
line and five frigates, with a large number of transports, and an 
army of six thousand men, arrived at Newport, to the great 
joy of the inhabitants. The fleet was commanded by the 
Chevalier de Tournay, and the army by Count de Rochambeau. 
The town was illuminated, and the arrival of the fleet and army 
greeted with the fullest demonstrations of gratitude and joy. 
Complimentary addresses were made by a committee of the 
General Assembly, then in session, both to Admiral de Tour- 
ney and Count de Rochambeau, to which they gave the most 
spirited and patriotic replies. 

In July, it having been ascertained that a large naval and 
land force were destined against Newport, the inhabitants 
associated, and formed themselves into companies, both for 
the common defence, and also that the disaffected might be 
known. The town was divided into four districts, and by a 
vote of the freemen, the inhabitants were required to meet, and 
sign articles of association ; and those who should not appear 
at the place designated in the several districts, were to be 
deemed as enemies of their country ; and all persons refusing 
to take up arms against the enemy, were to be banished from 
the place. It was voted that a copy of the list of disaffected 
persons, ordered to be forwarded to the Council of War, be 
also sent to General Heath, that if the British fleet and army 
arrive, before any return is received from the Council, he may 
know what persons the town requests should be removed from 
the island. The fist sent to the Council of War, was called the 

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234 HISTORY OF e.hode island. 

•^ black list," embracing the votes of the town, that such persons 
be sent instanter from the island, as inimical to the IJnited 

The militia from Connecticut and Massachusetts, were ordered 
to the defence of Ehode Island. The expedition was, however, 
abandoned by Sir Henry Clinton, even after having sailed from 
New- York with a large fleet, and an army of eight thousand 
men, as far as Huntington Bay, on Long Island, much to the 
disappointment and grief of our magnanimous alhes, who were 
prepared to give him a most warm and hearty reception. 

It is painful to be called upon to notice a class of men, who 
rendered themselves so obnoxious in the war of the Bevolution. 
They were traitors to their country, and had no just claim on 
the sympathies of the people ; they had flattered themselves 
with the idea of the final triumph of the British arms, and, 
consequently, sided in with what they conceived to be the 
strongest party. But they were deceived, and highly disap- 
pointed, and the name of traitor was affixed to their character, 
and by that appellation they have ever been known. The 
course pursued towards them by the town was just, and highly 
commendatory. As patriots, warring for liberty, they could 
give no quarter to traitors. 

On the 20th of August, nineteen warriors of the Oneida 
Indians, arrived in Newport, and dined with General Eocham- 
beau and Admiral de Tourney ; they also dined with General 
Heath, from all of whom they received presents. 

Admiral de Tourney died soon after his arrival at Newport, 
and was buried with military honors, in Trinity church -yard, 
where a slab was afterwards erected to his memory, on the 
north side of the church. The funeral procession is said to 
have been grand and imposing, extending from his residence on 
the Point, at the Hunter House, to the church-yard, one dense 
mass of living beings, with the bands of music from the fleet, 
playing the most solemn strains, was a scene of deep interest 
to contemplate. 

In March, 1781, General Washington, the saviour of his 
country, arrived at Newport. He passed over from ihe main 
by Con anient Ferry, and landed from his barge at the head of 
Long Wharf As he passed, the French fleet, lying at the 
back of the fort, fired a salute, and the army was drawn up in 

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order for his reception at the Long "Wharf. Washington, the 
immortal commander-in-chief of the French and American 
armies, never appeared to greater advantage than when he 
passed over to Newport to review the French forces under 
Count Eochambeau. He was received at the head of Long 
Wharf by the French officers, at the head of 7,000 men,, who 
lined the streets from thence to the State House. 

" I never/' says a bystander now living, '' felt the sohd earth 
tremble under me before. The iiring from the French ships 
that lined the harbor, was tremendous ; it was one continued 
roar, and looked as though the very Bay was -on fire. Wash- 
ington, as you know, was a Marshal of France ; he could not 
command the French army without being invested with that 
title. He wore, on this day, the insignia of his office, and w^as 
received with all the honors due to one in that capacity. It is 
known that many of the flower of the French nobihty were 
numbered in the army that acted in our defence. Never," said 
the aged narrator, " will that scene be erased from my memory. 
The attitudes of the nobles, their deep obeisance, the Mfting of 
hats and caps, the waving of standards, the sea of plumes, the 
long line of French soldiers and the general disposition of their 
arms, unique to us, separating to the right and left, the Chief, 
with Count Eochambeau on his left, unbonneted, walked 
through. The French nobles^ commanders, and their under 
officers, followed in the rear. Count Eochambeau was a small^ 
keen looking man, not handsome as was his son, afterwards 
Grovernor of Martinique. Count Noailles looked like what he 
was— a great man. But the resplendent beauty of the two Vios- 
minels echpsed all the rest. They were brothers, and one of 
them a General in the army, who bore the title of Count too. 
Newport never saw anything so handsome as these two young 

" But we, the populace, were the only ones that looked at 
them, for the eye of every Frenchman was directed to Wash- 
ington. Calm and unmoved by all the honors that surrounded 
him, the voice of adulation nor the din of battle had ever dis- 
turbed the equanimity of his deportment. Ever dignified, he 
wore on this day the same saint-like expression that always 
characterized him. They proceeded from the State House to 
the lodgings of Count Eochambeau, the present residence of 

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the heirs of the late Samuel Yerner, corner of Clark and Mary 
streets. It was a proud day for Newport, to be honored with 
the presence of Washington, a name dear to every American 

A committee of citizens waited upon him on his arrival, and 
presented him with an address, to which he politely rephed. 

Committee's Address to his Excellency, George "Washington, 
Esq., G-eneral and Commander-in-Chief of the Armies of the 
Thirteen United States of America, 

Sir — The inhabitants of the ancietit town of Newport, 
warmed with the purest sentiments of esteem and respect, beg 
leave, through their Committee, to congratulate your Excel- 
lency upon your arrival at this town, the capital of the State 
of Ehode Island and Providence Plantations ; permit us to 
assure your Excellency that words are inadequate to express 
the joy which your presence has infused into the hearts of our 
fellow-citizens. Happily guided by the Supreme Director of 
the American Councils, your Excellency was placed at the 
head of the armies ; our gratitude is greatly due to Heaven for 
the protection of your Excellency^'s person through all those 
scenes of danger and enterprise incident to war, and which 
your Excellency has sustained with patriotism and fortitude un- 
paralleled in the page of history. 

We will not' cloud the festivity of this day by enumerating 
the scenes of lawless rapine and devastation, which have so pe- 
cuharly marked the steps of a tyrannical and rapacious enemy 
in this town. The thought merely occurs, as it deprives us of 
affording your Excellency some further manifestations of our 
sincere regard. 

Suffer us here, Sir, because we know it m.ust give your Ex- 
cellency a most sensible pleasure, to express the happiness this 
town has enjoyed with the army and fleet of our illustrious ally, 
who have, by the wisdom and prudence of their commanders, 
as well as their own most zealous inchnations, allied themselves 
to us, not as soldiers only, but as friends and citizens ; armed 
with a most righteous cause, engaged for all that men hold most 
dear, what blessings may not America, under the auspices of a 
kind and overruhng Providence, be led to expect from tb@ 
future exertions of your Excellency, the military ardor of the 

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American troops, and an army and fleet of a most generous 
and magnanimous alljj thirsting for glory, and eager to bleed 
in the cause of hberty and mankind. 

We congratulate your Excellency upon the late signal suc- 
cesses of the American arms by land, and those of our alhes 
by sea. May the succeeding campaign be productive of the 
end of all our efforts— hberty, peace, and independence to the 
United States of America, and happiness to all mankind. 





> Committee. 

To which Gren. Washington returned the following answer: 

To Christopher Ellery, Wilham Channing, William Taggart^ 

and Solomon Southwick, Esqrs. : 

GrENTLEMEN — Among the distinguished honors which have a 
claim to my gratitude since my arrival, I have seen with pe- 
culiar satisfaction those expressions of esteem and attachment 
which have manifested themselves in the citizens of this ancient 

My happiness is complete in the moment that unites the ex- 
pressions of their sentiments for me with their suffrages in 
favor of our alHes. The conduct of the Erench army and fleet, 
of which the inhabitants testify in so grateful and so affection- 
ate a sense, at the same time that it evinces the wisdom of the 
commanders and the discipline of the troops, is a new proof of 
the magnanimity of the nation. It is a further demonstration 
of that generous zeal and concern for the happiness of America 
which brought them to our assistance, a happy presage of 
future harmony — a pleasing evidence that an intercourse be- 
tween the two nations will more and more cement the union by 
the solid and lasting ties of mutual affection. 

I sincerely sympathize with you, gentlemen, in lamenting the 
depredations suffered by the town while in possession of the 
enemy, and heartily join you in those liberal wishes, the accora- 
pKshment of which would soon more than restore it to its for- 
mer flourishing condition. 

Accept my acknowledgments for the polite and obliging 
manner in which you have been pleased to communicate to me 

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the sentimente of your fellow-citizens, and the assurance of my 
warmest esteem for them and for you personally. 

Newport, March 8th, 178L G-. 'WASHIN'G-TON. 

The town was illuminated, the evening after his arrival at 
Newport. Count de Eochambeau gave a splendid ball to Gen. 
Washington, w^hich was attended by the most fashionable fami- 
lies in Newport. This was the first interview Washington en- 
joyed with the Erench officers, and it is said that he and the 
Count de Eochambeau laid their plans for an attack upon New 
York, which was disconcerted by the arrival of a large fleet 
and army to the assistance of Sir Henry Clinton, under the 
command of Admiral Eodney, About this time, Admiral 
D'Barras arrived at Boston, and succeeded to the command of 
the French squadron at Newport It was soon after decided 
in a council of war, held at Wethersfield, Conn., by General 
Washington, Count de Eochambeau, and other distinguished 
officers, that the troops on Ehode Island (with the exception of 
about five hundred to guard the works), should immediately 
march to the North Eiver, to join the American army. Dur- 
ing the whole period the French army was quartered in New- 
port, such was their strict regard to the rights and property 
of the inhabitants, that the whole amount of damage done by 
them would not exceed one hundred dollars. 

The pleasure which the French officers derived in mingling 
with the pohshed society of Newport, has been already alluded 
to, in the description given by Count Seguin in relation to the 
fancy ball, which was given on the 3d of January, by the offi- 
cers of the regiments of Eoyal Duex Fonts. In was an elegant 
fete^ composed of the first rank in the society of the ancient 


On the 1st of June, 1781, a sergeant of the French artillery 
was executed at the south part of Newport, a httle back from what 
was then called Huddy's Lane, now the Bowery near the Ocean 
House, in presence of the whole army, who were drawn up in a hol- 
low square for the occasion. The criminal on being brought to the 

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place of execution, had his right hand cut off and burnt by the 
executioner, and he was then hanged. His crime was attempt- 
ing to murder his officer. It appeared that in a fit of jealousy 
he had in the night waylaid the Captain of his Company, and 
after stabbing him repeatedly, had thrown him into an old cellar 
at the corner of Denison and Spring-streets, where the Barker 
House now stands. The officer was found in his wounded state 
and conveyed to his quarters, and afterwards recovered. 

The Frenchmen were very much smitten by the Newport 
ladies, and many of them, it is said, lost their hearts. It is not 
to be wondered at when we consider the elegance of person, and 
the refinement of manners whicji preeminently distinguished the 
fair sex in the past. Many romantic events have transpired on 
the island, which if we should allude to them all, would increase 
our volume beyond the ordinary limit which was designed. 

The Chevalier de Fayelle, Aid-de Camp to the Marquis de 
Lafayette, died very suddenly at Newport, as he was going on 
board the French frigate Hermoine. He was buried with mili- 
tary honors in Trinity church -yard. 

The surrender of Lord Cornw^allis and army, to the united 
forces of America and France, on the 19th of October, 1781, 
decided the fate of the Eevolution, and was virtually the termi- 
nation of the war ; for although several places of importance 
were still in possession of the enemy, yet their days were num- 
bered, and their destiny sealed. 

On the 4th of March, 1782, the British ParHament, in the 
House of Commons, passed a resolution declaring all as enemies 
to His Majesty, and His Majesty's Kingdom, who should advise 
to the longer continuance of the war in America. Preliminaries 
of peace were entered into at Paris, in November, 1782, and a 
definite treaty, in which Great Britain acknowledged the Sover- 
eignty and Independence of the United States, was signed in 
September, 1783. 

In 1783, the British frigate Mercy, Capt. Stanhope, arrived 
at Newport, on the 19th of July, from Hahfax. While at New- 
port he married Miss Peggy Malborn, daughter of Francis 
Malborn, sen., Esq. Capt. Stanhope was afterward Admiral, 
and Knight of the Bath, and one of the Lords of Admiralty. 
"We again shall have occasion to allude to this distinguished 

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Francis Malborn, senior, was a native of Prince Anna county, 
Virginia, and came to Ehode Island about 1758. He was a 
ship-master in the employ of Godfrey Malborn ; he then en- 
gaged in mercantile pursuits, and was a partner of the house of 
E. & F. Malborn, well known as enterprising and successful 
merchants in Newport, previous to the Eevolution. He left 
two sons and three daughters ; one of his sons was the Hon. 
Francis Malborn, who was representative and subsequently a 
Senator in the Congress of the United States. He was a fin- 
ished gentleman of the old school, and universally respected by 
all classes of the community. 

During the war of the Eevolution, although Newport, being 
in possession of the enemy, had but few privateers engaged in 
the deadly strife, still she furnished a number of distinguished 
naval commanders, and a greater number of marines, perhaps, 
than any other town in New-England, in proportion to her size 
and population. It is supposed by those who lived in times 
that ^'' tried men's souls," that Newport probably furnished a 
thousand men for the naval service in that war, and that one- 
half of these fell into the hands of the enemy, and died on board 
a man-of-war, theForton prison, in England, or the old Jersey 
prison-ship, which for the loathsomeness and terror of its dun- 
geons, compared with the Black Hole of Calcutta. 

A certain elegant writer, has said : " H^appy, indeed, and 
thrice happy, were "Warren, Montgomery, and Mercer ; happy 
those other gallant spirits who fell with glory in the heat of 
battle, distinguished by their country and covered with her 
applause. Every soul sensible to honor, envies rather than com- 
passionates their fates. It was in the dungeons of our inhuman 
invaders — it was in their pestiferous prison-ships that the 
wretchedness of our countrymen still makes the heart bleed. 
It.was there that hunger, and thirst, and disease, and all the 
contumely cold-hearted cruelty could bestow, sharpened every 
pang of death. Misery there rung every fibre that could 
feel, before she gave the blow of grace which sent the sufferer to 
eternity. It is said that poison was employed ! No ! there was 
no such mercy there. There nothing was employed which could 
blunt the susceptibility to anguish, or which, by hastening death, 
could rob its agonies of a single pang. On board one only 
of these floating hells, above eleve?t thousand of our brave coun- 

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trymen are said to have perished ! 'She was called the Jersey- 
Deep and dreadful as the coloring of this picture may appear, 
it is but a faint and imperfect sketch of the original. You must 
remember a thousand unutterable calamities^ a thousand in- 
stances of domestic as well as national anxiety and distress, 
which mock description. You ought to remember them ; you 
ought to hand them down in tradition to your posterity, that 
they may know the awful price their fathers paid for freedom." 
The naval commanders in that war were John Qrimes, Benj. 
Pierce, Joseph Gardiner, William Dennis, James Godfrey, 
Eemembrance Simmons, Thomas Stacy, GUver Eead, Capt. 
Bently, Samuel Jeffers, John Coggeshall, William Finch, Capt. 
Jaquays, James PhiUips, Ezekiel Burroughs, Isaac Preeborn, 
William Ladd, Joseph Sheffield, Capt. Gazzee, and John. Mur- 
phy. These either sailed from Newport previous to its posses- 
sion by the enemy, or subsequently from other ports of New- ~ 
England, West Indies, &c. The privateers, though small in 
numerical power and force, yet they constantly annoyed the 
enemy, took many valuable prizes, and achieved some splendid 

An anecdote is related of John Murphy, one of the command- 
ers, which is too good to be lost. A Mrs. Webber, who kept 
a boarding-house at the head of Stephens' Wharf, was a re- 
markable neat woman, which was one of the characteristics of 
the females of Newport in the past. It was her constant prac- 
tice to scour her floor every week, and sand it in diamond form. 
Paint w^as not generally in vogue at that period- She had on 
that very day completed her task, w^hich proved to be rainy, 
and the streets of course muddy. Murphy, knowing the fact, 
and designing to play off a joke, salhed forth to the lower 
market, and announced with much earnestness to the country- 
men who had collected there, that there was a great curiosity to 
be seen at Mrs. Webber's, viz., a ^' Whisthng Pig;" the crowed 
instanter rushed to her house, and bolted into the room, inquir- 
ing at the top of their voices, for the '' pig>" which brought for- 
ward the lady, who on discovering the condition of her floor, 
covered with mud, as may well be imagined, threw her into the 
greatest rage, and the green-horns had to make their exit with 
all possible haste, while Murphy amused himself with the joke,. 
which he had so adroitly played off. He was the father/ of 

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the late Capt. John Murphy, long an enterprising shipmaster 
from Newport. 

Capt. Oliver Eead of Newport, jus^tly deserves a place in the 
history of these times. No sooner was inteUigence received that 
the invaders of his country had commenced the work of destruc- 
tion in the environs of Boston, than he left the quiet retirement of 
home, and hastened to the rescue. He offered his services to his 
country as a volunteer, and joined the American troops in the 
vicinity of Boston. But the dull monotony of the camp was neither 
suited to the character or habits of Capt. Eead. He soon left 
the army and sailed as the commander of a privateer. His bold, 
adventurous spirit exposed him to great dangers, and during 
the continuance of the war, he was often in the power of his 
foes; but the same merciful Providence which watched over 
and directed the destiny of that event, watched over and pre- 
served this bold and fearless patriot. After having been several 
times taken prisoner, and suffered some ungentlemanly treat- 
ment from his enemies, he .solemnly protested, if ever he com- 
manded another vessel, to make atonement for the insults re- 
ceived. He was no sooner released from his confinement, than 
his friends purchased and fitted for him a new and well-built brig, 
called the Eochambeau. In this brig Capt. Eead achieved several 
victories, and took many rich and valuable prizes ; but he was 
destined to see his favorite brig in the possession of his foes, and 
himself again a prisoner of war, by the chicanery of one of his 
youthful companions, who was a Loyahst, or, in common 'par- 
lance of that age, a Tory. Gapt. Eead and his companions were 
taken to New- York, and from thence transferred to the Jersey 
prison-ship. He resolved, however, not to remain without 
attempting his escape, if he perished in the attempt. He com- 
municated his design to several of his companions, Capt. Isaiah 
Cahoone, and Gapt. John Tower, of Providence, with one or two 
others, who, with the same bold, daring intrepidity, resolved to 
share the fate of Gapt. Eead. The only plan of escape which 
afforded the least hope of success, was to seize the boat of the 
prison-ship, and effect their escape under the guns of the vessel. 
This plan, hazardous in the extreme, and full of danger, was 
finally agreed upon, and they waited only for a fit opportunity 
to present itself, when, at a concerted signal, they were to at- 
tempt its execution. After waiting with impatience for several 

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days., Providerice seemed to favor tlieir design, and to grant 
them a favorable opportunity for attempting their escape. Just 
before night, the boat of the prison-ship returned from shore, 
wad discharged her stores of provisions, when, at the given sig- 
nal of Captain Eead^ his companions leaped after him into the 
boat, cut away her painter, and made for the shore, amidst a 
volley of balls. The darkness of the night, accompa.nied with 
a driving snow-storm., which at that moment commenced, pre- 
vented the pursuit of their enemies, and they fortunately landed 
on Long Island during the night Captain Bead soon returned 
to Newport, with a heart burning with revenge, especially 
against his old schoohfellow, Crandall, the notorious tory. It 
is said that when Eead was delivered up by Crandall, to the 
officers of the Jersey prison-ship, he cast a withering look at 
that reckless being, and said, '^ A short Kfe to one of us ! If 
we meet again, and meet again we shall, one of us dies." 

Capt, Eead was soon in command of another vessel, of about 
an equal force with the Eochambeau, which was now com- 
manded by the infamous Crandall It was not long before she 
was descried, although newly painted, and disguised. Eead 
prepared for action, and, as he approached her, hoisted Ameri- 
can colors ; being hailed, he answered by a broadside, and at 
the same time showed himself to the astonished Crandall, who 
supposed him safely lodged in the Jersey prison-ship. The 
conflict lasted for several hours, until almost every man on 
board the Eochambeau was either slain or wounded. And 
when taken possession of, the lion heart of even Captain Eead 
was deeply affected. There lay the headless trunk of the 
treacherous Crandall, surrounded by his fallen companions, 
wdiile the deck was literaly covered with human gore. Cap- 
tain Eead again entered his native port, accompanied by his 
favorite Eochambeau. The brig was immediately repaired and 
fitted for sea, when her bold commander again sailed on another 
cruise. Captain Eead, having learnt off Sandy Hook that the 
brig Spy of Providence had been taken by his Majesty's ship 
Lyon, of sixty -four guns, and ordered to New York, resolved 
if possible to recapture her. Accordingly, he moored his ves- 
sel in safety, and kept on the look out, near the Hook. The. 
Spy soon came in sight under British colors, cast anchor, and 
waited for a pilot. Captain Eead, ^vith a few brave fellows txj 

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man his boat, came alongside and offered his services as a pilotj 
to take her to 'New York. His services were readily accepted, 
and he took his position at the helm. 

The wind favoring his design, he put her head for his native 
town, and let her drive ; nor was the trick discovered until it 
was too late. For as they were approaching near the place of 
destination, the prize-master said to the pilot, '' Sir, we are go- 
ing to New York, are we ?" The pilot, bowing very rv^'^pect- 
fully, answered laconically, " No, Sir ; no. "We are going to 

George W. Babcock, of Narragansett, who sailed from New- 
port, was another distinguished hero, and was engaged in some 
of the most obstinate battles during the war. In the spring of 
1779, he sailed from Boston, and on the 16th of May he fell in 
with, and succeeded in capturing afler an obstinate engagement, 
a British privateer called the Tartar, a few days from Cork. 
The Tartar mounted twenty-six guns, with a complement of one 
hundred and fifty men ; but having previously taken and 
manned several prizes, the actual number in the engagement 
could not have exceeded one hundred and twenty men. The 
crew of the Mifflin were principally from Newport and Narra- 
gansett. Her first lieutenant, Mr. Timothy Coggeshall, was an 
inhabitant of the Island. The battle raged with increasing viO' 
lence for several hours, at a very short distance, and before the 
deadly conflict was hushed, the vessels w^ere so near each other 
that they could readily leap from one to the other. But the 
British flag finally came down,, and Oapt. Babcock took pos- 
session of the Tartar.. 

Two days previous to this engagement, he had fallen in with 
and captured the British store-ship Elephant, which was con- 
veying to England a large number of invalids, both officers and 
piivates.. When Captain Babcock approached the Elephant, 
and demanded that her colors be struck to an American priva- 
teer, her proud' and haughty commander, although he knew he 
could make no effectual resistance, refused to comply. 

It is said that Babcock reasoned with him, and rernonstrated 
against the unnecessary eff'usion of blood his obstinacy would 
inevitably involve, for several minutes before he ordered his 
men to fire. The engagement lasted but a feW' moments, before 
the flag of the Elephant was struck; but those moments proved 

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fatal to her commander, who fell, with six of his crew by his 
side. The success of Captain Babcpck and his brave crew 
had nearly proved fatal to th^m. The number of their prison- 
ers had now so increased, as to render their situation far more 
hazardous than the roar of the British cannon. The only alter- 
native of safety that presented itself, was the dismissal of a 
large number of them. Accordingly, after having received a 
bill from the British officer, acknowledging the receipt of so 
many prisoners of war, Captain Babcock put them on board a 
prize-ship, and left them to pursue their voyage. The Mifflin, 
after the engagement, sailed for France, and - the Tartar was 
sent to Boston, where she subsequently arrived in safety. 

It was not Newport and the Island merely, that suffered from 
the British depredators ; but Tiverton, and Seconnet river, also 
experienced the horrors of war. The English vessels that 
guarded the entrance of the Seconnet river, and occasionally 
came up nearly where the Stone Bridge now is, were a great 
annoyance. Sometimes, however, they would get aground on the 
Tiverton or Little Corapton side, where the water is very shoal, 
and occasion much trouble to themselves; and, at one time, a 
large privateer of the enemy was run aground on the shore at 
Little Compton, just below^ the fi^irm. of Deacon Brownell, when 
the enemy were obhged to burn her and make their escape. 
Tiverton witnessed much suffering of a domestic nature during 
the time the enemy were in possession of Rhode Island. The 
people were often called to share their morsel with the suffer- 
ing inhabitants, who from time to time came over, and who 
came off at the surrender of the town of Newport, and hngered 
about the opposite shore in hopes their stay might be short, and 
they be permitted to go back and collect the remnant of their 
property. A venerable and respected citizen of Portsmouth, 
w^ho had held many important offices., remarked, '' I was but 
seven years old when the British entered Newport; yet I dis- 
tinctly recollect the state of alarm and constant excitement dur- 
ing that period. My father occupied a small house, built on 
his own land, about three miles equal distance from Bristol and 
Howland's ferry. I have but httle recollection of what took 
place, particularly, until one day when the Americans under 
Sullivan were retreating from Ehode Island. A party of the 
enemy came up to the house of an aged man, and commanded 

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Mm to draw water for them ; and while the venerable man. tot- 
tered to the well, thej barbarously shot him in the back." 

The Cory family seemed peculiarly a patriotic one ; two of 
the brothers, Samuel and Parelon, were among the capturers 
of Prescott. His son, Thomas Corey, m^arried a daughter of 
Lieutenant Yf ilcox, one of those who went ahead in the enter- 
prise of taking Prescott. 

Fogland Ferry, at the period of the Pevolution, had a house 
of entertainment near the end of the point, kept by Mrs. Sarah 
Gray. Exposed as they were, the house was often the resort 
of the British officers and soldiers, and their insolence was such 
that Mrs. Gray often had occasion to exercise her authority to 
keep them in subjection. She was a woman of uncommon 
nerve, and sever daunted by the threats of the enemy. A Hes- 
sisiU soldier, on one occasion, inauired for West India rum. 
He was told they had none, but they could -furnish him with 
some East Lidia. He rephed that he would have a glass. 

The East Piver was often the scene of conflict. The Amer- 
can troops stationed at Little Compton brought two cannon to 
bear, one twelve and one eighteen-pounder, and poured so de- 
structive a fire on the British frigate Cerberus,, which was then: 
at anchor there^ as to compel her to slip her cables and to make 
her escape. 

On the return of peace^ the town of Newport was in ruins. 
The storm of war had beat heavily upon her, and in the lan- 
guage of Br. "Waterhouse, ^' she resembled an old battered 
shield, long held up against the common enemy." According tO' 
the estimate of a committee appointed by the General Assem- 
bly for that purpose, it appears that the loss sustained by the^ 
inhabitants of Newport^ in the destruction of dwelling houses^ 
warehouses, &c.j. amounted to £124,798 13s. 5d.., silver moneyo 
This estimate includes only the loss of private property sus- 
tained by individuals. By an estimate of the number of inhab- 
itants in Newport, taken by order of the General Assembly in 
1782, there were at that time 4,912 whites, and 618 colored, in- 
cluding 69 Indians— making the Avhole population 5,530. 

This estimate, compared with that made by order of the 
General Government in 1774, shows a decrease during the war 
of 3,679. That estimate gave to Newport a population of 
7;917 whites^ 1,246 blacks; and 46 Indians — m-.aking the suffix 

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total of 9,209. And this was supposed to fall considerably 
below the actual numberj being underrated for the purpose of 
escaping greater requisitions for men and money. If, as is sup- 
posed, Newport once numbered 12,000 inhabitants, about one- 
half that number was dispersed by the Bevolution. 

No town had greater occasion of indignation towards the 
British Government, than Newport. When she surveyed the 
desolations brought on her once prosperous town by modern 
vandals, it was not to be supposed that she should give the least 
countenance to a class of men who had deserted her in the hour 
of peril, and given their influence in support of the enemy. It 
is a matter of pain to the patriot, that so many traitors to the 
cause of liberty were found in Newport. They had vainly in- 
dulged the idea that victory would yet dawn on the British 
arms, and their prosperity follow as a necessary consequence. 
But happily, they were disappointed, and their names cast out 
as evil. After the peace, and when business began to resume 
its former prospects, these refugees, who had fled their country 
when their services were required, manifested an anxiety to re- 
turn to Newport and resume their former position in societ}^ 
John Goodrich, sen., an American refugee, arrived at Newport 
soon after the peace, and solicited hberty to settle there with 
his family, and become an inhabitant of the town — offering, in 
case permission was granted, to bring twenty sail of vessels, 
and establish himself in mercantile business. But Goodrich 
having taken an active part during the war, by fitting out priva- 
teers, and other obnoxious acts against his countrymen, the town 
voted by a large majority, that he should not be allowed to set- 
tle in the place. He afterwards settled in Bermuda. 

Many at this day would be ready to condemn the action of 
the freemen of Newport, when the principle which governs 
man in all his acts is founded on dollars and cents. But higher 
and weightier considerations influenced their conduct ; they 
had been engaged in a righteous cause, in defending their fire- 
sides from the ruthless invaders of their peace, and they could 
not readily forget the aid and comfort which had been furnished 
the enemy, by a band of traitors, w^ho were legally and consti- 
tutionally bound to put forth their efforts in the cause of liberty 
and human rights. 

It was no trifling matter which urged our fathers forward, in 

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resisting British oppression, as every one must be sensible, who 
has taken pains to investigate the subject. An able writer 
has well remarked, " But these were not the beggarly and 
servile conflicts between a red rose and a white one; not 
whether a weak and inglorious bigot, or a wanton and aban- 
doned debauchee, should be king ; they were not these tem- 
porary bursts of misery, which now and then agitate the 
WTetched inhabitants of Constantinople, and which an execution 
will allay without exhibiting any evidence of its justice. They 
sprung from that unbroken spirit, that wild and unfettered 
boldness, that restless, that uncontrollable, that sublime love of 
liberty, which sometimes, indeed, mistakes its means, but never 
loses sight of its object, which, while it seems to endanger, 
often secures that object, and which burns with undiminished 
force, while one generous sentiment lingers in the human breast 
to support it." 

The part which the inhabitants of Newport took in the great 
struggle for liberty and independence, renders their character 
worthy of all praise. They had been early instructed in the 
principles of liberty ; the minds that had colonized this island, 
were imbued with the spirit of freedom, and labored to impress 
it indehbly on the hearts of the people. They could not 
passively submit to pohtical outrages ; they felt that they pos- 
sessed inherent rights, which could not be trampled on with 
impunity, and in the majesty of their strength they resolved to 
conquer or to die. It was a noble resolution, worthy the name 
of Ehode Islanders ; and by their zeal and devotion, aided by 
Omnipotent power, they triumphed. And it is now the '' land 
of the free, and the home of the brave." 

The return of peace, once more, gave promise of prosperity ; 
the inhabitants of Newport had the satisfaction of knowing that 
they were free and independent, and that a motive now existed 
for them to put forth their energies in endeavoring to recover 
their former prosperity. Commerce once more resumed its 
former activity, and the wharfs, which had been deserted, were 
again in requisition; the sound of the hammer was now heard, 
giving encouragement to labor. But so heavy had been the 
blow which had fallen on the ancient town, that £he inhabitants 
could not well flatter themselves of being able to arrive to that 
commercial distinction, which she had once enjoyed. 

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^Common Council. 


In 1784, Newport was incorporated as a city, and on the 
first day of June, of that year, the first choice of city officers 
was had ; the following gentlemen having been chosen on that 
occasion, viz. : — 

George Hazard, for Mayor. 

George Champlin, 
Samuel Fowler, 
Peleg Clarke, 
Ohver King Warner, 

Henry BHss, 
Samuel Freebody, 
John Slocum, 
Eobert Stephens, 
George Sears, 
Nich.P. Tininghast,J 

Peleg Barker, City Clerk. 

This form of government being found more expensive, was 
soon abandoned, and the old form of town government again 
resumed, in March, 1787, which w^as a highly sensible and 
judicious move. 

An attempt was made a few years since, to revive the 
charter form of government, but the freemen of the towm, in 
Towm Meeting assembled, settled the quecvtion, and w^e would 
hope, for ever. 

It now became necessary to form a system of government, 
embracing the great interest and common welfare of the several 
Colonies. But in order to this, it became requisite for each 
State to surrender a portion of their powder to the general 
government ; and this must ever be the case, in a confederated 
form of government. 

In conformity to a resolution of the General Congress, all 
the Colonies, except Ehode Island, chose delegates, to meet in 
Philadelphia, in General Convention, for the purpose of 
dehberating upon, and framing a Constitution. 

It w^as owing to the state .of party feeUng in Ehode Island, 
that she was not represented in that body. The motion made 
in the General Assembly, for the appointment of delegates to 
meet in Geiteral Convention, having been lost, by a majority 

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of twenty-three against it. The opposition lay principally in 
the northern part of the State. 

The course pursued by Ehode Island, in her refusing to come 
into the Union, is a gross reflection on her character ; and we 
would hope, for the honor of Newport, that none of her citizens 
aided in so rebellious an act, having given such convincing- 
evidence of her patriotism and love of country. 

Unhappily for the State, a certain class have been found, 
opposing liberal principles, setting up a standard of their own, 
which was in direct conflict with the spirit of republican insli- 
tutions, and which, they flattered themselves, would ultimately 
triumph. Hence, a want of co-operation has been remarkably 
illustrated, in the various attempts at political reform, which 
have so highly distinguished the age, and which God grant 
may never cease, until the rights and liberties of every Ameri- 
can citizen are secured. 

At a meeting of the freemen of Newport, held agreeably to 
the Act of the Assembly, on the fourth Monday in March, 
1778, the day appointed for the several towns in the State to 
hold town meetings, to consider the proposed Constitution, the 
business of the meeting was prefaced by the Moderator, by 
reciting the Acts of Government which were referred to the 
decision of the people. 

The Constitution was then read ; and the Moderator stated 
the proceedings of the General Assembly upon it, since it had 
been transmitted to them. He also informed the town of the 
uniform conduct of their representatives, in endeavoring to 
obtain the appointment of a Convention. 

Several gentlemen entered into an investigation of the Act 
of Assembly ; altering the mode of decision from that recom- 
mended by the General Convention to Congress, and wdiile they 
paid all possible respect to the Legislature who passed the act, 
most unqualified terms. The meeting appointed a Committee 
to draft instructions to our representatives, to endeavor to 
have a Convention called. The meeting was composed of be- 
the principle on w^hich it w^as founded was reprobated in the 
tween three and four hundred freemen, yet eleven persons only 
voted on the question, ten against, and only one in favor of the 

In Providence, duly one person voted, and he in the negative. 

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la "Warwick, and Greenwich^ the Federalists, or friends of the 
Constitution,' entered a protest against the alteration of the 
mode of decision, as illegal and unprecedented. In Bristol and 
Little Compton, there was a majority in favor of the Constitu- 
tion. The other towns generally gave their voice against it ; 
and not until compelled by the action of the G-eneral Grovern- 
ment, did Ehode Island come into the Union. 

The union w^as not effected until 1790, and until, by Acts of 
Congress, the commercial relations of Ehode Island w^ere placed 
on a footing with foreign commerce, exacting foreign duties and 
tonnage from our vessels. 

In January, 1790, an Act passed in General Assembly, for 
calling a Convention of the State, w^hich met in ]S"ewport the 
following March, when the Constitution was agreed to, and the 
State came into the Confederacy. 

The paper money system w^as formerly, if not now, a matter 
of party controversy. Governors were elected or turned out 
of office, as the different interests happened to prevail. The 
commercial interest was invariably opposed to the system, as 
it tended greatly to embarrass trade, and by its depreciation, 
and constant fluctuation, great injustice grew out of the sys- 
tem. Many took advantage of the laws, making it a tender at 
par, to pay debts in depreciated money ; and creditors, who 
had parted with their gold and silver, were compelled to 
receive these shin-plasters, in return for their debts. 

In 1710, the Colony of Ehode Island commenced the issue 
of paper money, to defray the public expenditure of the war, 
for that year, and after that period, new emissions were made 
from time to time, as circumstances required. Sometimes 
paper was issued to replenish the treasury, sometimes to loan 
the people on mortgage, until the increasing amount issued ^ 
caused it almost constantly to depreciate in current value ; and 
as the money depreciated in value, the emissions w^ere increased, 
until about 1749, when the General Assembly were restricted 
by Parhament from making any more, except under certain 

The various emissions, from time to time, were, at the time for 
which they were issued expired, called in and sunk, they gene- 
rally being made redeemable in some given time. It has been 
estimated that in 1748, there was in circulation in this State, in. 

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what was called old tenor, £500,000. By a report of a Com- 
mittee to the General Assembly, in 1749, they made the out- 
standing bills, at that time, £320,444 2s. 3 l-2d. By a report 
of a Committee to the General Assembly, in 1764, in answer to 
the inquiry of the Lords Commissioners of Trade, it appears 
there was then in circulation, £30,000, in bills issued to carry 
on the war, equal to £30,000 sterHng ; about two-thirds of 
which sum must be called in and sunk in a j^ear from that time, 
after which, they say, £13,000 only of the bills issued to defray 
the expense of the war, will be in circulation, and these, with 
the small remainder of old tenor bills that shall be outstanding, 
will come to a final end in 1767. 

By an Act of Assembly, Sept. 1770, the circulation of the old 
tenor bills was prohibited. They were to be brought into the 
treasury and exchanged for treasury notes, at the rate of £8, 
old tenor, for one dollar. In May, 1775, the State having voted 
to raise troops, issued £20,000, in bills, on interest, at two-and- 
a-half per cent, and made them a tender for all debts, 6s. 9d, to 
the silver ounce. 

In August of this year, the continental bills, of which there 
were beginning to be large emissions by Congress, were made 
a tender at 6s. per dollar. Emissions of paper were now fre- 
quently made by the Colony, and those persons who should 
undervalue the bills, were declared enemies to the pubhc weal, 
and every possible exertion was made during the Revolutionary 
war, to sustain their credit and keep up their value. 

In 1776, a Committee of the New-England States recom- 
mended them to emit no more bills of credit, unless absolutely 
necessary ; but to tax or borrow, and if they did emit money, to 
issue bills on interest at four per cent. The General Assembly 
approved this plan, and ordered £40,000 to be hired, in notes 
payable in two years. In 1777, they ordered £50,000 lawful 
money to be hired, and notes given on interest for the same at 
four per cent. 

These notes were at first made a legal tender, but was subse- 
quently repealed, and all contracts were to be made in specie. In 
1778 and 1782, acts were passed for consolidating the paper money, 
and ordering all notes and bills to be brought into the treasury, 
and interest calculated at six per cent from June, 1778, when they 
were struck out of circulation, and new notes given on interest. 

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On tb^ return of peace in 1783, there was very little gold and sil- 
ver in circulation, and nothing to supply its place as a circulating 
medium. It was customary for the merchants to pay the mechan- 
ics and laborers in their employ, in tea, sugar, coffee, &c., which 
they were obliged to take to market, and exchange with the 
farmers for provisions. And so difficult was it to raise money, 
that the farmers suffered greatly in having cattle taken from 
them and sold for payment of taxes- 

This State, from its local situation, was exposed, during the 
war, to the frequent incursions of the enemy. These incursions 
were repelled chiefly by the military of Ehode Island, under the 
direction, and at the expense, (in the first instance,) of the State ; 
by reason of which, Ehode Island incurred a much larger- debt 
than perhaps any of her sister States, in proportion to her esti- 
mated rate in the valuation of the United States. 

A Committee appointed by the General Assembly, to inquire 
into the state of the public securities, due from the State, re- 
ported a debtof£153,047 15s.9id.,of which£106,976 lis. Skd., 
was on interest at 6 per cent., for treasury notes issued for sol- 
diers' wages, depreciation of soldiers' wages, debts due for con- 
fiscated estates, for money loaned, &c., &c. ; £46,071 4s. 6d. of 
which was on interest at 4 per cent., and was for debts due 
from Government, in 1777. 

In May, 1 786, the paper money party having prevailed, and 
chosen their candidate for Governor, &c., an act was passed for 
emitting £100,000, lawful money, in bills of credit, and making 
the same a legal tender at par, for the payment of debts. The 6 
per cent, debt was consohdated by a scale of depreciation to real 
money, at 6s. per dollar, and by an act of Assembly was to be 
paid in the paper emission of 1786, at its nominal value, although 
that had already depreciated to 48s. for a dollar. It was pro- 
posed to consolidate the 4 per cent, debt, at 40s. for one dollar, 
and payable in the same emission at its nominal value. 

In October, 1789, the value of bills emitted in 1786, was made 
fifteen paper dollars for one of silver. But gold and silver being 
very scarce, and considering the impracticability of discharging 
debts in specie, it was enacted that real estate of not less 
value than £40, and personal property within the State, might 
be substituted, in the payment of debts, under certain restric- 
tions. The Governor in his Message to the General Assembly^ 
in October, 1791, speaking of the State debt, says : 

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" This debt was wholly incurred during the late war, in the 
€ommon defence of the nation."'^ 

After peace took place, as it was found by experience imprac^- 
ticable to discharge it in the ordinary ijiode of taxes, in gold and 
silver, recourse was had to paper money ; this was issued in 
1786. The holders of State securities were required to receive 
it in payment on penalty of forfeiting the whole amount of their 
respective demands. Owing to the unhappy divisions that pre- 
vailed, it suffered an unusual depreciation, but payments in 
paper were made to nearly the amount of £79,000, and securi- 
ties to the amount of about £48,000, were lodged in the Gen- 
eral Treasury, in consequence of the requisition of the Legisla- 
ture from bringing them in for the paper money. The specie 
value of the payments thus made in paper, was only about one- 
sixth part, or perhaps less, of the nominal value, from the great 
depreciation of the paper money. And finally, at the rate of 
about 15 for 1, it became indispensably necessary for the Legis- 
lature to interpose • and as an appreciation of the paper at par, 
in the greatly depreciated state, would have been productive of 
as much, or perhaps more injustice, than its depreciation, the 
Legislature had no alternative but to arrest it as it was ; to re- 
peal the tender, and declare that it should finally be redeemed at 
the rate of 15 for 1. And an act for this purpose, was passed 
October, 1789. 

In August, last year, Congress assumed $21,500,000 of the 
debt of the several States, including in the assumption $200,000 
of the debt of this State ; and as the sum assumed is charged 
by the United States to the State from which it is assumed^ 
if the Legislature had not interposed, those who did not com- 
ply with the requisition for receiving the paper money, would 
have received the whole benefit of this assumption, and a reali- 
zation of the greatest part of their securities ; while those who 
did comply would not only lose five-sixths of their demands, 
but must have contributed their full proportion to the paying 
the whole amount of the securities, which had been confiscated 
as before mentioned. 

In obedience to acts of the General Assembly of this State, 
of January and June of 1795, making provision for the transfer 
of the stock of the United States, belonging to this State, to the 
individual creditors thereof, the General Treasurer reported as 

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due for certificates issued for various kinds of debts incurred 
during the revolution, and for consolidating the paper money, 
and securities issued for paper money, and for sinking the 4 per 
cent, notes, and including notes issued previous to the Revolu- 
tion, &c., the sum of £503,594 76, of which five-sixths, or 
$419,662 30, was issuable in certificates for funded stock of 
the United States, and one-sixth, or $83,932 46, in State cer- 
tificates unprovided for. 

In February, 1803, the General Treasurer reported the above 
$83,932 46, together with additional claims brought in, and 
allowed by the State from time to time, making in all a regis- 
tered. State debt of $163,163 71, which debt was afterward 
from time to time reduced, until June, 1804. By his report it 
appeared there was a balance of principal and interest then due 
of $120,949 04, and in a subsequent report in 1807, he reported 
$10,680 14 more of said balance as paid. But a large pro- 
portion of said balance remains to this day unpaid. 

The debt we conceive to be a just one, and the payment 
should no longer be delayed to lawful claimants. These securi- 
ties were received in good faith, and a portion of the demand 
paid, which was a virtual acknowledgment of the debt ; and no 
apology can be offered in thus withholding the balance from the 
heirs of those who labored and toiled in their country's service. 
The idea of repudiation, which in later years has become far too 
common, both with the General and State Governments, should 
receive the withering rebuke of every friend of his country. It 
is unjust and cruel, and has no other justification than that 
might overcomes right. 

In 1784, the General Assembly passed an act, authorizing the 
manumission of negroes, mulatto es, &c., and provided that no 
persons, negroes or mulattoes, born in the State after the 1st 
day of the year 1784, shall be slaves for life. The Assembly 
^also repealed the clause contained in an act passed in 1774, per- 
mitting slaves brought from Africa to the AYest Indies, on board 
any vessel belonging to this their Colony, and that could not be 
disposed of in the West Indies, to be brought to this State ; 
and provided that in future no negro or mulatto be brought into 
this State, to be sold or disposed of as a slave. 

In 1787, the Legislature of Rhode Island passed an act to 
prevent the slave-trade from being carried on from this State, 

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and for the encouragement of the abolition of slavery altogether 
within its jurisdiction. 

"We have already alluded to this subject in another part of 
this work, and have shown that the motive for manumitting 
the slaves of Rhode Island, was simply that their owners had 
become convinced that they were no longer profitable, but a bur- 
den upon them. It was not that there existed more moral purity 
in Rhode Island, a greater disregard of pecuniary advantage, 
than was to be found in slaveholding States, that influenced 
them to this course, but rather that it would be for their inter- 
est to do away with a system which entailed far more misery 
than good. 

To the honor of TsTew^port, it has never joined in a crusade 
against the South, but admitted that the institutions of the 
South \vas a matter which belonged exclusively to themselves ; 
and any interference with their domestic concerns, was illegal, 
unconstitutional, and subversive of that Union, which it should 
be the bounden duty of every American to sustain and to per- 

A class of men have lately sprung up who have made the dis- 
covery, . that the law^s of Congress conflict with the '^ higher 
law^'^ and that this being the case the former should be trampled 
under foot, while the latter should govern man, (only, however, 
in this particular.) Now, who are these '' Simon-pures ?" Will 
it be found on examination that their general conduct is shaped 
after the moral law of God ? In this one point they make use of 
the " higher law," to effect their owm selfish purposes, without 
the least regard to the principles involved in that law, which if 
rightfully understood and faithfully executed, would afford 
scope sufficient for the exercise of their philanthropy, in reliev- 
ing the wretched and the oppressed at their own doors, without 
turning aside to hunt out evils existing in slaveholding States. 
That is a question which exclusively belongs to themselves, and 
with which we of the North have no right to interfere. 

The prophetic warning of the " Pather of his Country,'' the 
immortal Washington, should be regarded with the deepest in- 
terest by every true patriot at the present critical moment, 
when attempts are making by a class of reckless, unprincipled 
men, to distract, and divide the Union, the labor of ages : 
" The unity of government, which constitutes you one people, 

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is also dear to you. It is justly so ; for it is a main pillar in the 
edifice of your real independence — the support of your tran- 
quillity at home, your peace abroad, of your prosperity, of that 
very liberty which you so highly prize. But as it is easy to 
foresee that, from different causes and from different quarters, 
much pains will be taken, many artifices employed, to weaken 
in your minds the conviction of this truth, as this is the point 
in your political fortress against which the batteries of internal 
and external enemies, will be most constantly and actively, 
though often covertly and insidiously directed, it is of infinite 
moment that you should properly estimate the immense value 
of your National Union, to your collective and individual hap- 
piness ; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immove- 
able attachment to it ; accustoming yourselves id think and 
speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and pros- 
perity, watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety, dis- 
countenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it 
can in any event be abandoned ; and indignantly frowning upon 
the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of 
our country from the rest, and to enfeeble the sacred ties which 
now link together the various parts." 

After the reader has reflected calmly on the sentiments so 
feelingly uttered by the sainted Washington, he must be horror- 
struck on witnessing the gross outrages, the intrigue, and the 
duphcity which is practised by political demagogues to effect 
some sinister purpose. With a self complacency '' from the sub- 
lime to the ridiculous," they will justify their acts of abomina- 
tion, and still boast of their patriotism and love of country, even 
while the blush of conscious guilt should mantle their cheek 
But with an effrontery which defies any appeal to reason or jus- 
tice, they will arrogantly lay claim to honesty of intention, when 
it is self evident that not a particle of generosity, nobleness, or 
patriotism, is to be found in the elements which go to make up 
their character. When such sentiments are unblushingly made. 
so repugnant to liberty and the rights of the Confederacy, viz., 
let the Union be dissolved, they should meet with a simulta- 
neous burst of indignation from every patriot's bosom. 

Newport, after having recovered in some degree from the 
losses incurred in the Eevolution, began to push her foreign and 
domestic commerce. She still bad many enterprising merchants 

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left, of whom were Gibbs & Channingj who were large ship- 
owners. The Mount Hope, of 600 tons, which at that day was 
one of the largest class of ships, followed the East India, trade, 
and made many successful voyages. 

The East India, West India, and Russia trade, were prose- 
cuted with vigor, and the docks and wharves indicated a de- 
gree of commercial prosperity highly gratifying to the inhabi- 
tants. Now was again heard the music of the " ye-heave-ho," 
from the active tars who were loading and unloading the num- 
erous vessels at the wharves. 

Christopher and Qeorge Ohamplin, were merchants of dis- 
tinction, as were also Peleg Clarke, Caleb G-ardner, Thomas 
Dennis, on the Point, Stephen T. Northum, who at one period 
owned ten 'sail, Audley Clarke, Christopher Eowler, Price & 
Easton, Earle & Allston, Robert Robinson, Rhodes & Cahoone, 
Bowen & Ennis, Simon Newton, John Coggeshall, and Gov. 
Simeon Martin. These were all engaged in foreign commerce, 
with many others whom we have not enumerated. There was 
as much enterprise in Newport, at this period, considering her 
capital, as that of any commercial place in the country. In 
1820, the tonnage was estimated at 10,950 tons. 

There was also a sugar-refinery, and seven distilleries in full 
blast, which gave constant employment to mechanics and labor- 
ers, many of whom were enabled from their savings to build 
houses, and at the same time to live comfortable. 

There was also a line of New York packets, with splendid 
cabins, handsom.ely furnished for that day, which did a very 
profitable business. Commanders and owners — Edward Pe- 
terson, Nicholas Webster, Stephen Cahoone, two Blisses, Ad- 
ams, John Cahoone (afterwards commander of the Revenue 
Cutter Vigilant,) &c. Bannister's Wharf, which was then their 
depot, exhibited a degree of activity which some now living 
can remember with satisfaction and pleasure. 

There were some five or six packets which ran daily between 
Newport and Providence. Commanders — Gardner, Heath, 
Bliven, Northup, Pratt, &c. The honor of bringing the Gover- 
nor to election, when a Eederalist or Whig, devolved on Cap- 
tain James Gardner, who took great pride in rendering every 
attention to his passengers. Bannister's Wharf was also the 
head-quarters of these packets. At the head of the wharf was 

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Godfrey Wenwood^s bake-house, noted for the superior qual- 
ity of bread and butter-biscuit with which it supphed the nu- 
merous packets, and many of the families of th-e town. 

In Thames-street, fronting the wharf, was the OoffKse-House, 
then kept by " Uncle Tom Townsend," a^ he was famiharly 
called, which was liberally patronized. On the south side there 
was a brick walk, enclosed with a light fence, which was a fine 
promenade; here merchants, masters of vessels, &c., resorted 
to hear the news, and discuss the affairs of the nation. 

The Misses Duncan, from Scotland, kept a toy shop, the only 
one in the place. It was considered quite a curiosity at that 
day. It stood where Brownell's tin-shop now stands. Forts 
Adams, Wolcott, and Eose Island, were garrisoned, and the 
officers, when m town, assembled at Townsend's Corner, for by 
that cognomen was it known, until superseded by the name 
of Pelham-street. Then was heard from Fort Wolcott the beat 
of the reveille, warbling its sweetest notes along the shore, by 
those inimitable and graceful performers, the Hoopers, Mulli- 
gin, &c. 

The town at this period was on the increase;; many houses 
•were built on the hill and in other sections of the town ; and old 
English hospitahty seemed about to revive. The female por- 
tion, at this period, were highly beautiful and accomplished. 
The celebration of Washington's birth-day by a ball in the even- 
ing, was then got up in taste, and was graced by the elite and 
fashion of Newport, which exhibited traees of the elegance of 
person and the refinement of manners which preeminently char- 
acterized the past. But alas, those days of splendor have fled 
— ^fled. In olden time, one of the most pleasant and gratifying 
amusements was a ride on the Island to Congdon^s or Cornell's, 
«peak for coffee, take a turn round the Square or to the Bridge, 
and return back in time to enjoy the splendid repast furnished 
by " mine host. ^^ It was no unusual thing to meet there a 
<jompany of twenty or thirty carriages from Newport, including 
Sam Place's hack, which was in constant requisition in sum- 
mer ; and even at this kte period, we remember with delight 
Aunt Hannah Cornell's " shovel cakes," floating with new made 
butter, plum-cake, dried beef, etc., sufi^cient to satisfy the most 
•delicate appetite, all furnished for the small sum of twenty-five 
<}enta Mr. Congdo-n amassed a sufficiency to purchase him a 

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farm in Connecticut, where he afterwards removed. The house 
formerly kept by him has been taken down, and a new one now 
supplies its place. Moses Lawton, Esq., is the present proprie- 
tor, but the old associations have nearly vanished by the change. 

'^ Out early days • Haw often back 
"We turn on life's bewildering track, 
To where o'er hill and valley plays 
Tbe sunlight of our eayly day&." 

The Spanish brig Minerva, Angel Cifuenter master, bound 
to Bristol, E. I., was wrecked on Brenton's Eeef, on the night 
of the 24th of December, 1810. The vessel was totally lost 
Three pipes of rum and eight casks of Catalonia wine were 
saved, as appears from the Custom House entries. 

This event occurred in one of the most violent storms on re- 
cord. It blew a perfect hurricane, accompanied with a driving 
snovz-storm, which rendered it impossible to afford the brig and 
crew the least assistance. It was truly solemn to hear the min- 
ute guns, which continued their mournful sound as long as the 
brig held together. Soon, however, the sound ceased, and the 
crew w^ere submerged in the briny deep. Ten perished, includ- 
ing every officer, and nine were saved. The shore was covered 
with the fragments of the wreck, and its contents. There w^as 
a large amount of specie on board, which was never recovered, 
though attempts were made with the diving bell, but without 
success. Three of the bodies of those who perished were re- 
covered, viz.. Captain, mate, and cook, and were buried near 
by, on the Castle Hill farm. 

But no sooner had Newport begun to prosper than the politi 
cal horizon began to be darkened, and war with Great Britain 
seemed inevitable. Not being satisfied with having received 
some severe chastisement, she was determined to invade our 
rights by impressing x\.merican seamen, and by this and other 
acts of hostility to. drive us to take up arms in defence of our 
sacred liberties-, which our forefathers had fought, bled, and 
died to acquire.. These acts were done in violation of treaties 
entered into by the respective governments. Great Britain has 
been justly chargeable with aiming to subvert and to overthrow 
every government which was founded on the principles of lib- 

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erty and the rights of man. This country stood forth, a beacon 
light, to shame and confound the principles of monarchical forms 
of government, and she vainly flattered herself that b}^ dividing 
the North and South, she might yet effect the subjugation of 
these United States. But if, when we were short of three mil- 
lions of people, and without military resources, w^e could drive 
them from our shores, what possibihty existed of their success ? 
Only, as has been before observed, by dividing the Union. Let 
Great Britain not imagine, for a moment, that the elements of 
character which go to make up this confederacy can ever be 
divided, when a foreign enemy attempts to invade our shores. 
There may be differences of opinion among ourselves, but when 
the third party attempts to use their influence, it will be hke the 
quarrels of man and wife — ^both will fall upon her, and drive her 
to destruction- 
There are redeeming traits of character in this nation, which 
do not exist elsewhere ; and the nations of Europe do not per- 
fectly understand our political institutions. Hence, when coq- 
troversy — it may be, angry controversy — exists in our national 
councils, as has been the case of late, they stand ready to be- 
lieve that the speedy overthrow of this Union is at hand. 
When w^e consider, however, that the principles of our republic 
originated with men of sterling virtue, of noble patriotism, we 
have reason to believe that the God of heaven will preserve it 
from every unhallowed touch, and render this nation an instru- 
ment in His hands in the accomplishment of His purposes, in 
the redemption of the world from a despotism vs^hich now holds 
so large a portion of the great brotherhood of mankind, in its 
iron grasp. 

In 1812, the American government formally declared war 
with Great Britain, when Newport was again exposed to all the 
apprehensions of being visited by a hostile foe, whose ships of 
war were frequently seen during its continuance, hovering round 
her shores. A memorial was sent from Newport to the Gene- 
ral Government, setting forth her exposed and defenceless con- 
dition in case of an invasion. But little regard was paid to it 
for we had hardly a corporal's guard from the General Govern- 
ment. But fortunately, Newport was not much annoyed by 
the enemy. Our militia and independent companies were all 
that Newport had to depend upon for protection, for some time 

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after war was declared^ the Government having drawn away 
the United States troops stationed in the forts of her harbor. 
But notwithstanding this impolitic measure^ the inhabitants 
were resolved to repel any attempts made by the enemy, and 
their forces were ever ready to repair to their posts, on any 
alarm. One day, towards evenings the British fieet, which lay 
but a short distance south of the Island, made demonstrations 
as though it was their design to enter the harbor. The tele- 
graph, which was erected on high land in the neek, gave the 
concerted signal, and the inhabitants of the town were thrown 
into great consternation. The mihtary were instantly mustered^ 
and with beat of drum, and swords flourishing^ and bayonets 
glistening, they marched by the 2d Baptist Churchy who that 
evening had a lecture, which so terrified the congregation that 
they immediately broke up. It was quite a busy night, but 
nobody was hurt. The ships wore about,, and stood off to their 
usual place of rendezvous. The British ships obtained all the 
provisions they required froni the farmers who resided near the 
shore ; it was impossible for them, in their defenceless state, ta 
prevent it. And if they had not sold it to them,, they would 
have taken it by force. Fishing boats from Newport were 
compelled to sell their fi'sh, or have them taken from them by 
the enemy. It is said that they procured the newspapers wet 
from the press, by which they obtained the weekly intelligencCo. 
The principal seat of war lay South, while the North escaped 
the horrors of war in a great degree. 

On the 6th of December, the inhabitants of Nevv^port had 
the pleasure of seeing the British frigate Macedonian arrive in 
the harbor, a prize to the Ameiican ffigate United States, Cap- 
tain Stephen Decatur. Her wounded were landed at Coaster's 
Harbor, and conveyed to the hospital on the Island ; they re- 
ceived every attention their situation demanded. At the com- 
mencement of hostilities, the British blockaded the coast of 
America — at first the southern coast^ but afterwards it extend- 
ed as far north as the east end of Long Island Sound. This 
gave the ports of Massachusetts and Eh ode Island the advan- 
tage of the neutral trade, until the blockade of the whole Amer- 
ican coast. 

Newport for a while enjoyed a large share of the trade, and 
the arrival and clearances of the neutral vessels,, the sale of 

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their cargoes, &c., gave employment to many of her citizens. 
The inhabitants of Newport took the precaution to send from 
the Island the records of the town, made since the revolution. 
They were deposited with the town of South Kingston, for safe 
keeping, where they remained until peace was again proclaimed. 
The Banks of Newport also removed their specie from the 

The late Commodore Oliver H. Perry, was a descendant of 
Thomas Hazard, the first settler, in the sixth degree. Eay- 
mond, father of the Commodore, was the son of Judge Free- 
man Perry, who married the daughter of Oliver Hazard, of 
South Kingston. The Commodore was named after his mater- 
nal great-grandfather, Ohver Hazard. 

Commodore Perry had a most expressive and charming 
countenance, which, added to his graceful form, rendered him 
an object of admiration. He possessed a noble spirit, a gene- 
rous expansion of soul, and an understanding chaste and 
refined ; while liberality, gratitude, and generosity, were the 
aspiring virtues of his heart. He took the most lively interest 
in the welfare and prosperity of Newport, and through his in- 
fluence, many natives of the town were elevated to posts of 
honor and distinction. 

The present Commodore, M. C. Perry, brother of the late 
naval hero, was born in Newport, Phode Island. This gallant 
officer has distinguished himself in the Mexican w^ar, and he 
alone of the five brothers, Ohver PL, Eaymond, Alexander, and 
Nathaniel, all of the United States' navy, survives. 

We have alluded to the pedigree of Commodore Perry, before 
adverting to his naval career, which so highly distinguished 
him, and added fresh laurels to his country's glory. In 1813, 
he left New^port, with a detachment of seamen from the gun- 
boats in the harbor, to take the command of the American 
squadron on Lake Erie. On the arrival of Capt. Perr}^ at the 
lake, there was no squadron there, and it was found that 
measures must be immediately taken to construct a fleet, 
which should be able to grapple with the British lion. Capt. 
Perry had taken with him some ship carpenters from Newport, 
and such was the rapidity in feUing trees, and preparing the 
requisite materials, that the work was soon completed, and the 
vessels ready for service. 

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As this was a battle fought, and a victory won, principally 
by natives of Newport, it requires a more particular notice. 
It was on the 10th of September, 1813, when the struggle 
between the British and American squadrons for the victory, 
took place. It was a moment of painful anxiety, as, on the 
issue, very much depended. The American squadron consisted 
of nine vessels, carrying 54 guns; that of the British, of six 
vessels, and 63 guns. 

There was in all, five hundred and two men in the British 
squadron, and deducting those on the sick hst, we know for 
certainty that there were four hundred and fifty in health when 
it went into action. The Americans numbered by the muster- 
roll, four hundred and fifty, of whom one hundred and sixteen 
were sick on the morning of the action. Say that sixteen of 
these sick Americans came on deck and took part in the battle, 
it would leave us with one hundred fighting men less than the 

The circumstances under which the battle was fought, gave 
to the British the full benefit of their substitution of length of 
gun for calibre. 

Perry, before the battle commenced, went round the deck, 
carefully examining his battery gun by gun, to see that every 
thing was in order, stopping at each, and exchanging words 
with the captains. For all he had some pleasant joke, or some 
expression of encouragement. Seeing some of the Constitu- 
tion's, he said to them, " Well, boys ! are you ready ?" " All 
ready, your honor," was the brief reply, with a general touch 
of the hat. '' But I need not say anything to you," he added, 
'- you know how to beat those fellows !" Passing on, with a 
smile of recognition, he exclaimed, '' Ah, here are the Newport 
boys ! they will do their duty, I warrant.'' Having mounted 
on a gun slide, and caUing his crew^ about him, he thus briefly 
addressed them : " My brave lads," at the same time unfurl- 
ing a flag, '' this flag contains the last words of Capt. liawrence 1 
Shall I hoist it?" " Ay I ay 1 sir I" resounded from every 
voice in the ship, and the flag was briskly run up to the main- 
royal-mast-head of the Lawrence. 

The line of battle was formed at eleven, and at a quarter 
before twelve, the enemy's flag-ship, Queen Charlotte, opened 
a tremendous fire upon the liawrence, the flag-ship of Commo- 

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dore Perry, which was stationed by the latter full ten minutes 
before she could bring her carronades to bear. At length she 
bore up and engaged the enemy, making signals to the remain- 
der of the squadron, to hasten to her support. Unfortunately, 
the wind was too hght to admit of a comphance to the order, 
and she was compelled to contend, for two hours, with two 
ships of equal force. By this time the brig had become un- 
manageable, and her crew, excepting four or five, were either 
killed or wounded. 

While thus suiTOunded with death, and destruction still 
pouring in upon him, Perry left the brig, now only a wreck, in 
an open boat, and heroically waving his sword, passed unhurt to 
the Niagara, of twenty guns. The wind now rose, and order- 
ing every canvass to be spread, he bore down upon the enemy, 
passing the enemy's vessels, Detroit, Queen Charlotte, and 
Lady Prevost on the one side, and the Chippewa and Little 
Belt on the other, into each of which he poured a broadside ; 
he at length engaged the Lady Prevost, which received so 
heavy a fire, as to compel her men to retire below. The 
remainder of the American squadron, now, one after another, 
arrived, and following the example of their intrepid leader, 
now closed in with the enemy, and the battle became general. 
Three hours finished the contest, and enabled Perry to an- 
nounce to General Harrison the capture of the w^hole squadron, 
which he did in this modest, laconic, and emphatic style, '' We 
have met the enemy, and they are ours." The loss in the con- 
test was great, in proportion to the numbers engaged. The 
Americans had twenty-seven killed, and ninety-six wounded ; 
but the British loss was still greater, being about two hundred 
in killed and wounded. 

The following persons, belonging to Newport, were engaged 
in the battle, viz. : — 


Commodore Oliver H. Perry, 
A. Perry, 

Daniel Turner , 
William V. Taylor, 
Thomas Brownell, 

Thomas Almy, 
Thomas Breeze, 
Peleg Dunham, 
Stephen Champlin. 

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George Cornell, Carpenter, 

Wilson Mays, ditto's mate, 

Lemuel Palmer, 

George Southwick, 

Joseph Southwick, 

John Law ton, I 

And many others, not recollected at this distant period 

— Allen, 

John Coddington, 

Isaac Peckham, 

J. Phillips, 

Hannibal Cohns, colored, 

The above list was furnished the author by Capt. Thomas 
Brownell, w^ho, with the others, highly distinguished himself 
in that memorable battle. 

There was one individual who kept at a respectful distance 
in the battle, and that w^as Commodore Elliott. While Perry 
w^as engaged in the hottest of the fight, and had to abandon 
the Lawrence, she having become unmanageable, and all of the 
crew but four or five either killed- (5r w^ounded, Elliott labored 
to pluck the laurels from the victor's brow, to grace his own ; 
but his ungentlemanlike course of conduct, only tended to throw 
him further into the shade, and exalt Com^modore Perry in the 
estimation of his countrymen. 

To show that Commodore Perry w^as not deceived in the 
high opinion which he had formed of the '' Newport boys," w^e" 
will give an anecdote, taken from the '' Life of Commodore 0. 
H. Perry, by Alex. Shdell Mackenzie, U.S.N." *' There was 
a young man from New^port, named Wilson Mays, and rated a 
carpenter's mate. He was much reduced by the lake sickness, 
and entirely unfit for duty : but, while the crew were going to 
quarters he came on deck. He was directed to go below^, as 
being too sick to render service ; but he remarked, th at the 
vessel w^as short of men^ and that he could supply Mie place of 
a well-man, by sitting on the pumps, where he was stationed, 
and using the sounding rod. The poor fellow was killed in 
that situation." 

On the 4th of October, 1813, a small British privateer, called 
the Dart, which had been hovering about the harbor of New- 
port, was seen, having in company a ship, a brig, and schooner, 
which she had detained. The revenue cutter, Vigilant, Capt. 

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Jolin Cahoone, was manned with volunteers from lN"ewport, and 
seamen from the gun-boats, and went out in pursuit of her. 
They soon came up with and carried her, after a slight resist- 
ance, and brought her into Newport. The first heutenant of 
the Dart was killed. The capture of this privateer was un- 
questionably the means of saving a large amount of property 
from being captured. 

The sloop Providence, a privateer of eight guns, and manned 
principally by citizens from Newport, viz. : John Trevett^ 
lieutenant, Peleg Hull, saihng master, Edward Clanning, Henry 
Olanning, John Scranton, &c. In the course of the war, she 
captured many valuable prizes ; and, in one of her cruizes, she 
entered the harbor of New Providence, when a detachment of 
men, under the command of Lieutenant Trevett surprised the 
fort, and there being but few men in the garrison, resistance 
was useless. Scranton at once chmbed the fiag-stafi*, and flung 
out the American banner to the breeze. They then dispatched 
an order to the G-overnor, to furnish instanter a dinner for thirty 
officers, or, otherwise, they would turn the guns and batter 
down the town. The order was quickly complied with, and 
turtle-soup was one of the dishes provided for the occasion^ 
when the officers regaled themselves to their hearts' contenL 
After remaining in quiet possession of the fort three days, they 
then spiked the cannon, returned on board, and soon sailed out 
of the harbor. It was an adroit and gallant movement, con- 
sidering there were but twenty-eight men, all told, engaged in 
the enterprise. 

In the War of the Revolution, Ehode Island furnished more 
men, in proportion to her ability, than any of the thirteen 

A vessel, called the "Wampoa, loaded wHth Prench brandy, 
was driven on the Narragansett shore by a British armed ves- 
sel ; the inhabitants turned out to defend her from the British 
boats, who were attempting to destroy her. The militia of 
Narragansett succeeded in saving the cargo, which was brought 
round to Newport, and sold. 

A wealthy gentleman purchased a pipe of it, on account of 
its superior quahty. The society of which he was a member, 
had long considered that he was in the too frequent practice 
of using alcoholic drinks ; a committee was accordingly ap~ 

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pointed to wait on him, and labor to persuade him to cease 
from the evil and pernicious habit. He received them with all 
that courtesy which distinguished the gentleman, and as the 
day was unusually cold, and they had rode quite a distance, he 
very soon ordered his servant to bring in some of the '' Wam- 
poa." They partook of it very hghtly, but soon the effect was 
quite visible, and they forgot entirely the object of their mis- 
sion. At the next annual meeting there was a gift of $100, 
which acted as a quietus, and the gentleman died in full fellow- 
ship with the society. 

In December, the President of the United States, in a 
message to Congress, says, " The tendency of our commercial 
and navigation laws, in their present state, to favor the enemy, 
and thereby prolong the war, is more and more developed by 
experience. Supplies of the most essential kind find their way, 
not only to British ports and British armies at a distance, but 
the armies in our neighborhood, with which our own are 
contending, derive from our ports and outlets, a subsistence 
attainable with difficulty, if attainable at all from other sources. 
Even the fleets and troops infesting our coasts and waters, are 
by like supphes accommodated, and encouraged in their peda- 
tory and incursive warfare." 

Much of this was to be attributed to the want of action, on 
the part of the Federal Government, in not placing the coast 
in a proper state of defehce. It has been already remarked, 
that if the people had not disposed of their produce, for a 
proper equivalent, that the enemy would have taken it by 
force. An embargo was immediately laid by Congress on all 
vessels, except neutrals, which were permitted to depart, pro- 
vided they carried nothing with them but sea stores. 

The embargo at once suspended all business, and the streets 
of Newport wore a sad and gloomy appearance. 

On the 30th of May, 1814, a Swedish brig, from St. Barts, 
attempting to violate the blockade, Avas chased on shore by the 
British armed brig, Nimrod, in the East Passage, on Smith's 
Beach. The next morning the Nimrod came to anchor about 
a mile from the shore, and sent a barge to set fire to the brig, 
which they effectually accomplished. AVhether they sustained 
any loss of life, was not exactly known. Every exertion was 
made by the militia of Middletown, the artillery company of 

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Newport, under the command of Colonel Fry, and a detachment 
of seamen from the United States flotilla, to prevent it; but 
having nothing but small arms with them, their efforts were 
ineffectual. It would have been far more politic to have taken 
the brass field-piece belonging to the Artillery Company, the 
night previous, and thrown up a breast- work which would have 
prevented the success of the enemy. The Nimrod fired about 
200 cannon-balls, one of which killed Mr. John Smith of the 
Middletown militia, took ofi" the leg of Isaac Basset, a seaman 
belonging to the flotilla, and knocked down Oliver "Wood. 

The skill and nerve of Doctor William Turner, was displayed 
on this occasion, when the diicken-heart of another had failed. 
He in a very few^ moments amputated and dressed the leg of 
Basset, proving his superiority as a surgeon. The boys who 
had assembled on the beach would, the very moment the shot 
struck, commence digging them out of the sand, and some made 
a profitable day's work of it, for Greene Burroughs was ready 
to cash them. 

A few days previous to this, the barges of the Nimrod had 
chased two sloops on shore in the east passage ; but the militia 
of Little Compton having assembled in considerable numbers, 
they were prevented from taking possession of them. The 
sloops were got off, and proceeded up the river. 

In June, 1814, the G-eneral Assembly passed an act author- 
izing the Town Councils of the several seaport towns to cause 
the shipping to be removed from their wharves and harbors, 
whenever by them it should be thought advisable. The Town 
Council of Newport accordingly, ordered the shipping to be re- 
moved, lest it should be an inducement for the enemy to visit 

In July, 1814, the Artillery Company of the town of Now- 
port, under command of Col. Benjamin Fry, took possession of 
Fort G-reen, at the north end of Washington-street, on the 
Point, by order of the United States Government. The com- 
pany, rank and file, numbered about one hundred and fifty men. 
Col. Fry was to have the entire command of the fort, and the 
company to be under the control of the Governor of the State. 
While the company were in possession of the fort, they kept it 
in fine order; the parade ground was gravelled, &c., by the 
labor of the company, and they were ready to defend the town 
in case of invasion. 

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In the course of the war of 1812, one of the sons of Capt 
Evan Malborn, was taken prisoner by the British and confined 
in Dartmoor prison. He wished the keeper to take a note to 
Lord Stanhope ; the keeper seemed greatly surprised at his 
presumed acquaintance with so illustrious a personage ; without 
condescending to enter into particulars, he urged the forward- 
ing of the note, which was compHed with, and on its reception 
Lord Stanhope repaired to the prison with all possible haste, in 
his State carriage, attended by his servants in livery, when 
orders were instantly issued for the Hberation of Mr. Malborn 
from confinement. 

Having lost his all, he stood in need of pecuniary aid, which 
was quickly furnished by Lord Stanhope, who placed at his dis- 
posal fifty guineas, in order that he might clothe himself in a 
manner becoming his rank and as a relative of his wife. He 
was then taken to his princely mansion, where he tarried for 
a few weeks, enjoying the munificent hospitahty of the noble 
Lord. When the period for his leaving had arrived, funds 
were furnished, and a free passport granted him to America. 
They were chased by a British man-of-war, and in the confu- 
sion he forgot his passport, the vessel was run on shore, and he 
at last arrived home, having, however, again lost his all, which 
a moment's thought might have prevented. Lord Stanhope's 
bust still occupies a place over the mantle-piece in the Malborn 
bouse, now owned and occupied by James E. Newton, Esq. 

The entrance to the harbor was also garrisoned about this 
time, by the enlisted State Corps, under command of Col. John 
Wood, father of Dr. Wood of the U. S. Army. These posts 
were occupied until the proclamation of peace. 

Provisions, in the time of the war, were extravagantly high ; 
Hour sold for $15 00 per barrel, meal $2 00 per bushel, molas- 
ses $2 00 per gallon, sugar and coffee 2s. per lb., and so in pro- 
portion with all articles of merchandize. The difficulty of obtain- 
ing every kind of articles, owing to the coast being so completely 
blockaded, was one great cause of the high price of provi- 
sions. As there was little or nothing doing in Newport, during 

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a great part of the war, it rendered the condition of the laboring 
classes very trying. Newport had every reason to wish for the 
termination of a war so injurious to her commercial prosperity. 
On the 14th of February, 1815, the joyful news of peace was 
proclaimed by the merry peal of bells, the roar of cannon, and 
the display of the mihtary. In the evening, a most splendid 
and general illumination of the town took place, and a display 
of paper lanterns with emblematic devices, suspended in the 
streets, which, notwithstanding the great quantity of snow that 
had fallen, were thoroughly promenaded by nearly all the inhabi- 
tants of the place. 

This war, though of short duration, was signahzed by many 
splendid victories, both by land and sea, and proved that Great 
Britain was not invincible. Having been so long mistress of 
the ocean, she felt an assurance that she should be able to sweep 
the ocean of everything that floated, and capture our vessels 
of war, whenever fortune should throw them in her way. But 
in this she was most egregiously disappointed. The victories 
of Hull, Decatur, Porter, and Jones, on the ocean, and Perry 
and Lawrence on the lakes, evidenced to the British, that they 
had an- enemy to compete with, who proved themselves their 
superiors. The arrogance of the Enghsh nation has never been 
equalled ; assuming to control the destinies of the world^ she 
looked on this growing republic with jealousy, and flattered her- 
self that she might yet be able to humible her pride, and subject 
her to British domination. 

At a meeting of the merchants, manufacturers, ship-owners, 
and underwriters, in the city of Glasgow, in 1814, it was de- 
clared by them : '' There is reason to believe, in the short space 
of twenty -four months, above eight hundred vessels have been 
captured by a power whose maritime strength we have hitherto 
held in contempt. The number of privateers that infest our 
coast, and the audacity with which they approach our shores, 
and their success, is humiliating to our pride." And they fur- 
ther say : " Our nation have declared the whole coast of America 
in blockade, and it is mortifying that our ships cannot traverse 
our own channels in safety. Insurance cannot be eflected, but 
at an excessive premium." 

The war of 1812, demonstrated to the British Government 
our maritime power, and that it was a fruitless attempt to labor 

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to overcome us, and we trust that England will learn a wise les- 
son from the past, and never again attempt to come in collision 
with America, whose power is gigantic, and whose overthrow 
is impossible. 

Ehode Island can justly boast of having furnished a Greene 
for her country, in the w^ar of the Eevolution. who in rank and 
generalship, was second to none, save the immortal Washington 
himself And the war of 1812, brought forth and contributed 
to her country's glory, the mighty energies of her gallant Perry. 
Mr. Hunter, who was then Senator to Congress from Khode 
Island, in a speech in the Senate of the United States, on the 
resolutions comphmentary of Commodore Perry's victory, said : 
'^ While I hold in my hand this resolution expressive of a nation's 
gratitude toward this youthful Ehode Island hero, for his deliv- 
erance of the West, I can point the other to the hkeness of that 
illustrious Ehode Island veteran, (alluding to the likeness of 
Gen. Greene, in the Senate,) who in the sacred war of the Eevo- 
lution, saved the South, and accelerated and ascertained the in- 
dependence of his country." ' 

The sentiments expressed by Mr. Hunter were truly patri- 
otic, evincing his love of country, and that he gloried in the suc- 
cess of the American arms over a foreign enemy. 

The brilUant career of Commodore Perry was short. He died 
in the 34th year of his age, August 23d, A. D., 1819, on board 
the IT. S. schooner, Nonsuch, at the moment the schooner 
was entering the harbor of Port Spain, in the island of Trini- 
dad. He died of the yellow fever, contracted at Angostura, 
M^here he had been transacting business for our Government. 
His remains were interred on the 24th, at Port Spain, with 
every mark of respect from Sir Ealph Woodford, Governor of 
Trinidad, and the inhabitants of the place. 

The body was landed from the John Adams, where it had 
been removed from the schooner, under a salute of minute guns 
from that ship. When it reached the shore, the Port of St. 
Andrews continued the ceremony, until the long procession, ac- 
companied by the band of the 3d West India regiment, playing 
the dead march in Saul, reached the burial place. After the 
funeral, the following card was pubhshed by the American offi- 
cers : 

" The officers of the United States vessels, John Adams and 

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Nonsuch, tender their grateful acknowledgments to the inhabi- 
tants of Port Spain, for their kind and respectful attention to 
the funeral rites bestowed on the body of their late Commander, 
Commodore Perry." 

The disposition manifested by all classes, was highly in uni- 
son with their feelings, and merited their warmest thanks. 

Commodore Perry, at the time of his death, was engaged in 
executing the duties of a " highly flattering command, involv- 
ing diplomatic and naval functions of critical nicety and impor- 
tance." President Monroe, in his message to Congress in De- 
cember following, referring to several acts and orders for the 
protection of our commerce, and the suppression of the slave 
trade, says, '' In the execution of the duty imposed by these 
acts, and of high trust connected with it, it is with deep regret 
I have to state the loss which has been sustained by the death 
of Commodore Perry. His gallantry in a brilliant exploit in 
the late war, added to the renown of his country ; his death is 
deplored as a national misfortune." 

The remains of Commodore Perry arrived at Newport from 
Trinidad, in the sloop of war Lexington, and were landed on 
Overing's Wharf, on Monday, Nov, 27, 1826, and on the follow- 
ing Monday, Dec. 4th, were interred in the common burial 
place, with the honors due to his rank and character. The mil- 
itary companies of Providence, Pawtucket, and Bristol, attend- 
ed the procession with the companies of Newport. The Govr 
ernor, and other officers of the State, with several distinguished 
naval and military officers, were present, and the vast assem- 
blage of citizens testified their respect to the character of their 
fellow-townsman. The State of Phode Island has since erect- 
ed a monument in honor of the memory of this lamented and 
gallant officer. 

The 23d of September, 1815, was rendered memorable by a 
most awful and destructive gale, which swept away and laid 
prostrate almost everything in its course. The Newport Mer- 
cury says : "The gale commenced early in the morning, at north- 
east, and continued increasing in violence, the wind varying from 
northeast to southeast, and southwest, until about eleven o'clock, 
when it began to abate, and about one o'clock the danger from 
the wind and tide was over." At Newport, the tide rose three 
feet and a half hieher than it had ever been knowm before 

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Two dwelling houses, and nine stores and workshops, on the 
Long Wharf, were swept away by the violence of the wind and 
tumult of the waves ; and those that withstood the power of 
this desolating scourge, were rendered almost untenable, by 
vessels, lumber, &c., driving against them. Several of the 
stores carried away, contained a considerable amount of pro- 
perty, nearly the whole of which was lost. 

In one of the buildings carried away on the Long "Wharf, 
five persons perished. The wharves on the Point, and most of 
the stores with them, were swept away. The wharves in other 
parts of the town, also, with the stores on them, sustained con- 
siderable injury, and everything moveable on the wharves was 
swept away. In some of the stores, the water was four feet 

A large three-story store, containing hemp, flour, &c., was 
lifted from its foundation, and floated into the harbor. The 
steeples of the 1st and 2nd Congregational churches were par- 
tially blown down, and the roofs of the Episcopal and First Con- 
gregational churches were partly carried away. At the Beach, 
the storm was sublimely awful ; the sea broke sixty feet, extend- 
ing to Easton's pond. Mr. John Irish, who had repaired to the 
beach to secure his boats and seines, was swept away and per- 

The stone bridge, connecting the Island with Tiverton on the 
main, was damaged to the amount of $20,000, and rendered 
wholly impassable. The draw and toll-house were carried 
away; a new channel, about three hundred feet wide, was 
made at the West end of the bridge, and where the toll-house 
had stood, the water was thirty feet deep at low tide. The 
light-house on Point Judith was swept away, with several other 
houses in its vicinity. The Khode Island Republican says : 
^' So great and general has been the devastation of property, 
that it is found impossible to give a correct account of the ex- 
tent of the damage." 

After the storm, it was found that the outside of windows 
were covered with a fine salt, conveyed from the ocean through 
the air. This was also noticed for many miles inland, after the 
gale. The shipping in the harbor were driven from their an- 
chorage, and went ashore. Some lying at the wharves, were 
lifted on them by the violence of the wind and tide, and left 

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there. Four sloops were thrown on the Long Wharf, and a 
sloop loaded with wood went over the wharf into the cove. No 
one, unless they had been a spectator of the scene, could form 
an adequate conception of its wide-spread desolations. If the 
tide had not turned as it did, it would have swept everything 
before it. 


There have been many improvements made in and about 
Newport, of late years, and there are several flourishing insti- 
tutions, highly creditable to the town. Among them the Sav- 
ings' Bank, the Asylum for the Poor, and the Public Schools 
stand the most prominent. The Savings' Bank of Newport 
was incorporated by Charter granted by the Greneral Assembly 
at the June session, 1819, and went into operation soon after. 
It is a singular circumstance that the success of similar estab- 
lishments in other places, induced a philanthropic citizen to pro- 
cure every information necessary for the establishment of a 
Savings' Bank in Newport ; when, by an article pubhshed in 
one of the newspapers of the town, he invited those who were 
inclined to favor the undertaking, to meet at the State House, 
and take the subject into consideration. At this meeting, ten 
or twelve persons only assembled ; they chose a chairman and 
secretary, and the information that had been received was com- 
municated. A coro^mittee of correspondence was appointed to 
obtain further information from similar establishments, and the 
meeting adjourned. There were several subsequent meetings," 
at which not more than six or seven persons, including the 
chairman and clerk, attended. At these meetings, the commit- 
tee of correspondence reported progress, and the meeting was 
adjourned from time to time, until the charters, by-laws, &c., of 
several institutions of the kind had been received, and every 
necessary information obtained and reported by the committee 
of correspondence. A committee of three was then appointed 
to draft a charter for the Savings' Bank of Newport, and a pe- 
tition to the General Assembly to pass an act granting it, and a 
committee was appointed to obtain signatures to the petition. 

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and present it to Gleneral Assembly. Notice was given in tlie 
papers when the next meeting would be held, and the object of 
it ; and all who were favorable to the project w^ere invited to 
attend. This caused a meeting of a considerable number of 
citizens who were favorable to the undertaking, but who had 
not before attended the meetings. They w^ere pleased with 
the plan, and the progress made in the establishment, and 
joined heartily in its support. At this period, a number of the 
Directors of the Banks in Newport came forward, and used 
every argument in their power to persuade those who origina- 
ted the project, and those who had united with them, to aban- 
don it — assigning as a reason, that there would not be sufficient 
deposited to render it profitable. The charter was granted^ 
and at the first meeting of the Coi^oration, twenty-four Direc- 
tors were chosen, all of whom, except one, accepted the appoint- 
ment. At a subsequent meeting of the Directors, they elected 
a President, and appointed a Treasurer and Secretary, and the 
Savings' Bank of Newport went into operation. At the first 
meeting of the Board, more than $1,000 had been deposited. 
Since its estabhshment, hundreds of thousands of dollars have 
been deposited, and occasionally withdrawn with interest, by 
depositors. At this time, September, 1850, the number of de- 
posits are near one thousand (nine hundred and eighty-six), and 
the amount in deposits is $163,395. The depositors are chiefily 
minors, girls out at service, laborers, seamen, and operatives in 
the manufactories, saved from their earnings. The money de- 
posited is invested in bonds and mortgage on real estate, and in 
bank stock. The interest on the sum now in deposit amounts, 
at 6 per cent., to over $9,800 per year. The institution, since 
its establishment, has never paid less than 5 per cent, interest 
per annum, to the depositors. At this time, and for some time 
past, a semi-annual dividend is declared, of 3 per cent on all 
sums that have been in three months after a dividend has been 
declared ; that which is not called for is, at the end of three 
months, added to the sum deposited by each depositor. The 
institution is well managed, and has attained a high reputation 
The philanthropic citizen who first proposed its estabhshment^ 
is a descendant from one of the ancient families of Newport^ 
born before the Eevolution, being now near eighty years of age. 

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He was chosen as one of the first Directors of the Bank, and 
has been annually reelected from that time to the present. 


This is an estabhshment worthy of commendation and 
praise, as a humane institution, highly creditable to the town. 
The former Poor estabhshment was, for many years, an alms- 
house and work-house connected. It was located on the west 
side of the common burying ground, where the abject poor, the 
lame, the blind, and the insane were sent by the overseers of 
the poor. Those who were able to do something towards their 
support, were employed (by the keeper appointed by the town) 
in the work-house, in spinning, picking oakum, &c. To those 
w^hose feelings of humanity induced them occasionally to visit 
the estabhshment, the inmates always complained of ill fare, 
and of not having sufficient food. Be this as it may, they were 
meanly clad, and all who were sent there went stricken with the 
idea that their next removal would be to the adjacent burial 
ground. ^ A part of those who were able to hobble out, were 
allowed daily, except Sundays, to roam the streets in their rags, 
and the town was constantly, to its disgrace, infested with beg- 
gars, to the great annoyance of the citizens and visiting stran- 
gers. Those poor who could partly support themselves by 
their Jabor, were allowed pensions by the town, of from fifty 
cents to a dollar a week, to aid them in their support, which, 
together with the alms-house expenses, occasioned a heavy tax 
on the people, of which they complained, but knew not how to 
remedy. It was for many years in contemplation to alter and 
improve the plan of the establishment for the poor, and the 
mode of their support. Many plans were suggested from time 
to time, but none that met with general approbation ; they 
were generally objected to, as being more expensive in their 
erection and support than the town could afford. At length, 
the same philanthropic and humane citizen who first proposed 
the estabhshment of the Savings' Bank, and who by his perse- 
verance had got it into successful operation, encouraged by the 
fjivor with which it had been received by the public, after ob- 

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taining information in regard to the establishments for the poor, 
and the manner and expense of their support, in various places, 
communicated the information obtained to those acquaintances 
who were favorable to an improvement in the condition of the 
poor, and proposed a plan which was approved. It was pro- 
posed that a new house should be built for the accommodation 
of the poor, in a suitable location, with land attached, on which 
those who were able to work might be profitably employed ; 
to do away with the odious idea of an alms-house ; to call it 
" The Newport Asylum for the Poor" ; to abolish the pension 
system, and oblige all w^ho required aid from the town to go to 
the Asylum for their support. 

This plan being arranged, a Town Meeting was called, at 
which it was submitted for the consideration of the freemen ; 
the meeting was numerously attended, and the plan was gene- 
rally approved, and a committee appointed to visit several lots 
belonging to the town, and also Coaster's Harbor Island, and to 
recommend such a location as they should think most suitable 
for the establishment. 

The committee, at the suggestion of the projector of the plan, 
first visited Coaster's Harbor Island, and after considering the 
advantages and disadvantages of the place, unanimously recom- 
mended it, on every account, as the most suitable place for its 

At a subsequent Town Meeting, the report of the committee 
was received and approved, and a building committee appointed 
to draw a plan of said building, and estimate the expense. The 
edifice was to be built of stone, of which there w^as abundance 
on the spot. The projector of the plan was one of that com- 
mittee, and drew the plan and elevation of the Asylum, which 
the Town adopted, and according to which it W' as erected, with 
the exception of the cupola, which was objected to as an un- 
necessary expense, but has since been added. The plan of the 
building is considered admirably calculated for the purpose for 
which it was intended, containing every necessary apartment 
for the accommodation of the poor, as well as the family of the 
keeper, and ample room for the whole. 

Coaster's Harbor Island, on which the Newport Asylum is 
erected, belonged to the Towm ; it contains about ninety acres 
of upland, and the shore affords an abundance of sea manure. 

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Those who are able to labor are employed upon the farm, 
which is in a good state of cultivation, and the products go far 
towards the support of the estabhshment. 

The island is situated about one mile north of the compact 
part of the town, and separated from it by water, which is not 
fordable, about ten rods wide, which prevents the inmates of 
the Asylum from visiting the town without permission. 

The Asylum was completed, and ready for the reception of 
the poor in 1822 ; before their removal to their new habitation, 
they were well cleaned, and clad, and left their dirt at the old 
estabhshment. The pension system was abolished, and all 
those pensioners, who chose to avail themselves of the support 
offered them, were removed to the new estabhshment. The 
citizens of Newport have the pleasure to enjoy the complete 
success of the new system, as an amelioration of the condition 
of the poor, as well as a great saving of expense in their sup- 
port ; and to see them well supplied with wholesome food, 
comfortably lodged and clothed, and the town relieved from 
the disgrace of having the streets infested with beggars, as 
formerly, to the great scandal of the citizens and annoyance to 

No spot can be more charmingly situated than the one 
selected ; it rather resembles the country-seat of a gentleman, 
than an Asylum for the poor. Let the interior resemble the 

As this Asylum was estabhshed expressly for the improve- 
ment of the condition of the virtuous poor, the vicious and the 
unprincipled should be kept separate, and not suffered to asso- 
ciate with them, or to eat at the same table. Let the Com- 
missioners labor to make this institution a model, worthy of 
imitation by every city and town in the country. 

The whole establishment, including land, is worth about 
$15,000. The Overseer of the Poor distributes the rent of a 
lot of land, containing about seven acres, left by Mr. Ereebody, 
and also the interest of the " Derby Fund," to such persons as 
he may think proper. And, the Commissioners of the Asylum 
distribute, in the same way, the dividends of one share in the 
New England Commercial Bank, left by the late Mrs. Sarah 

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We have already alluded to the interest which was taken by 
the town of Newport, in the promotion of education, as early 
as 1640 ; and private schools have ranked as high in this place 
as that of any section of the country. 

The Newport Academy, Col. Levi Tower, Principal, had a 
very extensive popularity. Students from the South, as well 
as the New England States, were to be found under his instruc- 
tion and guidance. The higher, as well as the common 
branches of education were taught. In penmanship the pupils 
excelled. Many of them are occupying places in counting- 
houses, banks, &c., in the various cities in the Union. Once a 
week, the older male scholars engaged in declamation, at which 
their parents, and other spectators were present, and who were 
both highly amused and gratified. It is no flattery to say of 
Col. Tower, that the school under his supervision, has never 
been excelled, if equalled, by any other in the State. It was 
the ne plus ultra I 

In March, 1825, the freemen of Newport decided, by vote, 
to estabhsh free schools in the town ; and a Committee, in May 
following, recommended to erect two school houses, to obtain 
the Church school house, and thus estabhsh three free schools 
in the town. 

In 1820, a Committee of the town reported on a resolu- 
tion of the General Assembly of this State, calling on the 
several towns for information on the subject of free schools, 
and recommended that the town instruct their representatives 
in G-eneral Assembly, to unite their efforts, to procure an act 
for such a general system of public schools, as in their wisdom 
they may devise. 

On the 14th of July, 1826, the corner stone of the town 
school house, No. 1, was laid by Lieutenant-G-overnor Charles 
Colhns. The Eev. Mr. Grammeh offered an appropriate prayer 
on the occasion. 

A Committee was appointed in April, 1826, to investigate 
and enquire into money, said to be due from the town, for or 
on account of school lands. In their report they say, ''The 
undersigned, a Committee of said town, appointed on the 3d of 

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September, 1825, to inquire into the evidence of the title of the 
town of Newport to the Newtown, or school lands, on the sub- 
ject of which lands a former Committee reported on the 16th 
of May last, from which report, and other representations then 
made, some of the freemen were induced to beheve that the 
town received the aforesaid land as a gift, on condition to apply 
the whole income to the education of the youth of said town, 
and that the town was, in law and equity, bound for the faith- 
ful performance of the same ; and as the town had sold most 
of the lands in question soon after the Eevolutionary War, to 
pay the debts of the town, they must now make good by 
taxation the trust committed to them by the donor. It was 
also reported by that Committee, that the town was indebted 
to said education fund, in the sum of $51,283 34." The Com- 
mittee, after detailing sundry acts and resolutions of the town, 
relative to said Newtown or school lands, gleaned from the old 
mutilated records of the town, among which is a report of a 
Committee made to the town in 1763, which Committee say, 
" Upon examining the town records, we found that the said 
land was purchased by the town of one Bartholomew Hunt, 
the 17th day of December, 1661, for which they gave him in 
exchange a lot of one hundred acres, now lying in Middletown." 
They say, '^ Thus it appears that the town, in the year 1661, 
exchanged one hundred acres for the tract since called New- 
town, or school land, being the property in question. If your 
Committee were allowed in any conjecture respecting the 
hundred acres exchanged, they submit the subjoined extract, 
from ^ Callender's Centenary Sermon,' acknowledging at the 
same time, that it is but a connection of remote and detached 
circumstances, resting as much on possibilities as probabiUties." 
The extract from Callender's Sermon has been already noticed, 
in a former part of this work, showing that the town appro- 
priated one hundred acres of land, for a school, for the encou- 
ragement of the poorer sort to train up their youth in learning, 
&c., at an early period of the settlement. 

In March, 1827, the town passed an act to estabhsh a School 
Pund, and appointed three Commissioners of said fund ; one 
to go out every year, and a new one to be chosen in his place, 
who are to receive all donations and bequests thereafter given 
for public schools, as also the bequest of the late Constant 

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Taber ; likewise all moneys received for licenses, auction tax, 
and estates taken by the town for w-ant of known heirs ; and 
directed that the remainder of the said Newtown lot be sold, 
and the proceeds placed in the fund. 

During the January session of 1829, theGreneral Assembly of 
Ehode Island, appropriated $10,000 per ann., for the support of 
public schools, to be paid over to the several towns, according 
to their respective population, under the age of sixteen years ; 
and authorizing the several towns to raise by tax, in each year, 
as the majority of the freemen in Town Meeting shall judge 
proper, a sum not exceeding double the amount to be received 
out of the general Treasury. The number of schools have 
since been increased. 

On July 4th, 1826, Major John Handy read the Declaration 
of Independence, from the steps of the State House, in New- 
port, that being the place w^here, fifty years before, it was read 
to the people by the same gentleman. The steps were deco- 
rated with an arch of flowers. Major Handy addressed the 
multitude as follows : " My respected fellow-citizens, — at your 
united request, I appear before you in this public station, at an 
age when it would seem advisable that I should remain a silent 
spectator of the performances of this day, a day which, half a 
century past, secured to us our independence and prosperity ; 
and no nation more prosperous ! My own feelings on this 
occasion 1 have sacrificed, to gratify your wishes. The recol- 
lection of past scenes of the last fifty years, rushes in succession 
on my mind, with a hope and belief that the mantle of charity 
•will be throwm over my imperfections ; and under that impres- 
sion I shall proceed to the performance of the part required of 
me." After the Declaration was read, a hymn was sung in 
the tune of ^' Old Hundred," the whole multitude uniting 
their voices, with a fervency and zeal w^hich gave it a most 
sublime and happy effect. 

It is a most painful truth, and one from which the heart 
recoils with horror, that the course which has been pursued for 
a few years by a certain class, calling themselves Philanthro- 
pists, has had an indirect tendency to nearly, or quite, obhte- 
rate from the mind of the rising generation, all remembrance 
of the glorious events connected with Americtm Independence. 
Such profess to have the entire monopoly of all the benevolence. 

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but which is rather the product of ambition, a desire of self- 
aggrandizement even at the expense of the liberties of the 
"Union. The roar of cannon, accompanied with the soul-stirring 
sound of martial music, animating the heart of every true patriot, 
who loves liberty in preference to slavery, and the free exercise 
of his mind to all the vain honors and distinctions which wealth 
confers, if purchased by the relinquishment of his inalienable 
rights, dearer by far to him than even life itself — has no charms 
for such stoical minds. 

We have no hesitation in saying that the abolition of the 
Christian Sabbath, would not more effectively efface from the 
heart all regard to the precepts of Jesus Christ, and render the 
land a waste howhng wilderness, and the people mere heathens, 
than the forgetfulness and neglect of observing the national 
jubilee, would go to the overthrow of the liberties of this coun- 
try. It is by a recurrence to the event that the flame of liberty 
is fanned and made to burn more brightly on the^ altar of the 
heart. Auspicious day ! let the mind of every American ascend 
to heaven in triumphant songs of praise ! Let the bugle sound 
loud and long, through the valhes and reverberate over the hills 
of our dear native Isle : " Independence now 1 and Independ- 
ence forever !" 

No day in the calendar ever gave us such intense delight, as 
the Fourth of July, when party spirit becomes merged in the 
one glorious event. It was the social meeting of the American 
brotherhood on the broad platform of universal liberty and the 
rights of man. But in some sections how changed the scene 1 
Shall the pohtical horizon continue to be dimmed by one cloud 
to mar the festivities of the day ? Eather let us regard the 
views entertained by the elder Adams, the Colossus of Ameri- 
can hberty, and not suffer his prophetic language to fail of its 
accomphshment : 

*' When we are in our graves, our children will honor it. They 
will celebrate it with thanksgiving, with festivity, with bonfires, 
and illuminations. On its annual return they will shed tears, 
copious, gushing tears, not of subjection and slavery, not of 
agony and distress, but of exultation, of gratitude, and of joy." 
Let us prize this bulwark of constitutional liberty, and dis- 
countenance every attempt to undermine its foundation, in which 
consists our glory, our happiness and our independence. 

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Major John Handy was a merchant of Newport. He was 
the son of Charles Handy, Esq., a distinguished citizen of New- 
port. He entered the Eevolutionary army, to defend the honor 
of his country, and was promoted to the rank of Major. He 
died in Newport in 1828, aged 72 years. 

The late Thomas Handy, Esq., brother of the Major, was a 
gentleman of dignified and courteous manners. He married 
Mary, the daughter of John Henry Overing, an eminent mer- 
chant of Newport. Mrs. Handy was truly a most estimable 
lady, endowed with those rare virtues and accomplishments 
which rendered her an ornament to society. Of a large and 
highly interesting family of children, but four survive her. Mary, 
who married her cousin, James Overing, of Westchester, N. Y. ; 
Matilda, widow of Mr. Levi of Philadelphia; Eobert, of the H. 
S. Navy ; and Augustus, the wife of Mr. Sinclair of the city of 
New- York, a Counsellor at Law. 

* These reminiscences, though highly interesting in their char- 
acter, yet nevertheless recall to mind solemn and affecting 
thoughts on the ravages produced by time, in the domestic cir- 
cle, and should teach a salutary lesson of the fading and transi- 
tory nature of all earthly glory. As the Handy family held an 
important position in society, and was highly regarded, a mere 
glance at their history we view as important in a work of this 

General Charles T. James, whose recent election to the Sen- 
ate of the United States has created such an unusual degree of 
interest in the public mind, stands intimately and prominently 
connected with Newport, and we have felt called upon to notice 
his origin. 

His grandfather John James, and his maternal grandfather, 
Charles Tillinghast, settled in Newport at an early period. His 
grandfather Tillinghast, was a devoted patriot ; he was in Sulli- 
van's expedition on Ehode Island, and was subsequently seized 
in his house at night by a band of British soldiers, and carried 
off. His sad fate was never satisfactorily known ; it was, how- 
ever, reported that he had died of the small pox. 

Silas James, the father of the General, was born in Newport, 
and although a lad, was also in the expedition with his grand- 
father ; he afterwards removed to West Greenwich, where he 
improved a farm, alnd was repeatedly elected to represent that 

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town in General Assembly, and was also chosen Judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas, which office he held for many years. 

There were six of the name of James, engaged in Sullivan'a 
expedition, which proves them to have been men of the right 
stamp, aijid eminently fitted for that stormy period. 

In 1827, the Newport Association of Mechanics and Manu^ 
facturers, appointed a committee to receive donations in books, 
or otherwise, for the purpose of estabhshing a library for the 
use of the members, and the apprentices of members. For more 
than thirty years the funds of this Society, although never ex- 
tensive, have been invariably and zealously devoted to the most 
beneficial purposes. This Association, as far as its resource^? 
would permit, has clothed the naked, fed the hungry, and in- 
structed the ignorant. It has ever been rich in disposition to 
do good, given to hospitality, and distributing to the necessities 
of th-e indigent. 


The Asiatic Cholera made its first appearance in August, at 
Jessore, a considerable city about one hundred miles north 
of Calcutta. After desolating some of the fairest portions of 
Asia, it penetrated the northern part of Europe, and sweeping 
over a great part of that continent, reached the British Isles. 
It has mastered every variety of climate, has passed mountains 
and swept over seas, proving equally fatal amid the burning 
sands of Arabia, and on the frozen shores of the White sea ; 
and in the space of less than fifteen years has swept off more 
than fifty milhons of the human race 1 

This dreadful disorder, two or three years previous . to its 
appearance on this continent, was scarcely known to exist by a 
great portion of the American people. It first began to attract 
attention here, when it was known to have reached England, 
and its destructive ravages in Paris created alarm ; but the hope 
was entertained that the Atlantic would prove a barrier to its 
approach. But when that barrier was passed, and it was known 
that this destroying angel had begun its march of death on this 
continent, a general consternation prevailed through the land. 

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It soon reached Albany and New-York, from Canada, and 
shortly spread dismay and death among the inhabitants of many 
of our cities. 

At the June Session of the General Assembly of Ehode 
Island of that year, they recommended a pubhc fast. The pre- 
amble of the act says : 

" WhereaSj That scourge to the human race, the Asiatic 
Cholera, has made its appearance on this continent, and as no 
human exertions can effectually resist the approach of this threat- 
ening pestilence which ' walketh in darkness and wasteth at 
noon day,' it becometh us humbly and devoutly to acknowledge 
our dependence upon, and to implore the aid of Him in whose 
hand our breath is, and whose mercies endureth forever ; there- 

" Eesolved, that Thursday, the 5th day of July next, be, and is 
hereby set apart, as a day of humiUation and prayer to Almighty 
God, that he would stay this plague, and avert the appalling 
visitations of his judgments." 

Newport was remarkably favored ; but few^ deaths occurred, 
and those originated from imprudence. And it was remarked 
that the health of our cities, other than this disorder, was better 
than what is usually the case at the same season of the year. 

In 1 849, when this disease again made its appearance in this 
country, sweeping off very many in our larger cities, not one 
instance of death from the disease occurred at Newport. And 
when it is considered that there were some four thousand stran- 
gers visiting at Newport, which, added to her own population, 
made the aggregate of 13,000, it is most certainly an evidence 
of the remarkable healthiness of the climate. 

The present population of the Island, according to the census 
of 1850, is 12,228, viz. : Newport, 9,963; Middletown, 832, and 
Portsmouth, 1,833. The fertihty of the Island is, perhaps, un- 
exampled ] this is owing, in a great measure, to the facihties for 
obtaining manure, which consists of Menhaden fish and sea-weed, 
which are abundant, and which seem particularly adapted to the 
soil. The exports have consisted of potatoes, onions, apples, 
pork, &c. Farms distant from New-^ort, are usually from one 
hundred to one hundred and fifty dollars per acre, according to 
their location and the quality of the soil. 

The farms generally are small, having been cut up and 

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divided from time to time. This, however, is preferable, as a 
few acres, well cultivated, will yield far more than a larger 
quantity, partially cultivated. It was the saying of Virgil, 
" great farms to look at, and small farms for profit." As an 
illustration of this truth, it may be found in the proceeds of the 
model farm of the late Judge Child, of Portsmouth, which 
contains about forty acres of land. It was stated to the author, 
that he had realized $1000 per annum, independent of his living. 
Farming is a most honorable employment, and the most inde- 
pendent which can possibly be followed. It is said that when 
the early Romans praised a good man, they called him an agri- 
culturist and a good husbandman; and that on a certain occa- 
sion, when a distinguished citizen of Eome was visited by a for- 
eign ambassador, he was found cooking his repast of vegetables 
raised by his own hand from his seven acre farm. 

It must appear obvious to the mind which lias given the least 
attention to the subject, that more land is held in possession 
than is scientifically cultivated, and which is rather an expense 
than a profit to the owner. If the farms on the Island were 
still subdivided and parcelled out, it would not only increase 
the population, but also be far more productive, as there would 
be less land to manure, and a greater attention bestowed on the 

Those seeking a country- place, may take for their creed, that 

Man wants but little land below, 
Nor wants that little dear. 

The town of Portsmouth, a few years since, purchased a farm 
containing about sixty acres of land, as an Asylum for the Poor. 
It is most dehghtfully located, and every necessary comfort is 
furnished the inmates, which their condition requires. It was 
an act highly creditable to the town, as it went to amehorate 
the evils of poverty, to which all are exposed in this wprld of 
vicissitude and change. Dyre's Island lays nearly opposite the 

Since penning these thoughts, we have met with the Report 
of Thomas R. Hazard, Esq., on " The Condition of the Poor 
and Insane in Rhode Island," in which he has presented a most 
melancholy picture of the treatment of the poor in the Ports- 
mouth Asylum. Por the honor of the town, if such be the pain- 

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288 HISTORY oy rhode island. 

ful fact disclosed, we would indulge the hope that an ameliora- 
tion of their condition may at once be effected. 

Let it not be said, that in the nineteenth century, and more 
especially on the island of Ehode Island, where toleration has 
been so highly enjoyed, that a want of principle exists towards 
a class of unfortunate beings, who have such strong claims on 
our sympathy and compassion. All are liable to misfortune in 
this changing world, and the prosperous to-day may be in adver- 
sity to-morrow. This shows the necessity for those having the 
supervision of the poor, to treat them with that degree of kind- 
ness which they themselves would expect, were they in the same 
unhappy condition. And none can lay claim to the character 
of a Christian, who do not feel called upon to soothe and miti- 
gate the evils of poverty, so far as in them lie, which we con- 
ceive to be the test of Christian character, agreeable to the 
teachings of the Saviour, recorded in the 25th chapter of Mat- 

Mr. Hazard has shown a commendable spirit, in thus devot- 
ing his time and attention to the investigation of this most im- 
portant subject ; which has already led to an improvement in 
the condition of the poor, in many of the towns in our State. 
God speed the day, when Ehode Island shall be found foremost 
in every good work to advance the happiness of man. We take 
pleasure in being able to state that a marked improvement has 
taken place in the Portsmouth Asylum, since the publication of 
Mr. Hazard's Report, and to him belongs the credit. 

In 1808, a deposit of coal was discovered in Portsmouth, by 
Doct. Case, of Newport. It was worked for a time, and then 
abandoned. It was subsequently renewed by a company from 
Boston, but being impregnated with iron, it was found difficult 
to ignite. One of the proprietors called on a lawyer of New- 
York, who was rather of an eccentric character, to recommend 
the article, which he cordially did. But the certificate proved 
to be such a one as would not be likely to advance the sale of 
the article. It was as follows : " At the general conflagration 
of the universe, the m^ost secure place to be found, would be 
the coal mine at Portsmouth, R. I." 

More recently a company from Providence have taken it in 
hand, and have succeeded in finding a better quahty of coal. 
For manufacturing purposes it is said to answer as well as the 

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anthracite, and at far less expense. The excavations are very 
extensive. Many families in the neighborhood nov7 burn it. 
Since the mining operations were first commenced, a large 
amount of capital has been sunk in the enterprise. 


Heart Pire Glub was estabhshed about 1790. The number 
of members was limited to fifty ; one captain, one lieutenant, a 
treasurer, and clerk. The object of this x\ssociation was to 
aid in the preservation of property in time of fire. An annual 
dinner was provided for the Association, and the expenses were 
defrayed by an equal assessment upon the members. No mem- 
ber was to be excused, unless by a vote of the Club. The 
return of the anniversary was looked forward to with great 
interest, when all participated in the good things which a kind 
Providence had furnished. The evening was spent in the rela- 
tion of anecdotes and recitations, occasionally interspersed with 
songSj and was the means of strengthening the bond of union 
among the fraternity. 

Perhaps there is no town of equal size where the inhabitants 
are so careful of fire as ' Newport, and where the firemen are 
more vigilant and active in suppressing it, whenever it occurs. 
The estimate of losses for the last hundred years, is compara- 
tively trifling, and when it is considered that Newport has 
been settled for more than two hundred years, that not a 
building was ever consumed in Thames-street, may well be 
looked upon as almost miraculous. We question whether 
another such instance can be found on record. 

Insurance Companies may feel quite safe in taking riskes on 
property in Newport. We would suggest, that it would be 
good policy for the town to establish an Insurance Office, and 
hence retain the premiums, which now go to build up other 

John W. Davis, Esq., Poreman of Engine Company, No. 1, 
has kindly furnished the following valuable information, being a 
statement, from the books of the Company, of all the Pires, of 
any consequence, which have occurred in Newport, for one 
hundred years, viz. : — 

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FIRES FROM 1749 TO 1848. 

1749. December, Ellery house, on the Hill. 
1759. December, Goddard's house, on the Point. 

1762. February, Eire on Long Wharf. 

1763. September, Dillingham's shop. 

1764. October 26th, Dr. Stiles' Meeting House, (the Central 

now,) and Trinity Church, both struck by lightning. 
1766. June 7, Colonel Malborn's mansion, on the site of J. 
Prescott Hall's new house. 
October 1st, Green's sugar house. 

1769. June 28th, Malborn house. 

1770. June 21st, Green's sugar house. 
December 28th, Eodman and Dennis' houses. 

1771. January 18th, Lyon's coopers' shop, Green's sugar 

house, and sundry other buildings consumed. 
August 1st, Cole's tanyard. 
1763. Pebruary, Nicholas Easton's house. 
1774. January 9th, Moore and Anthony's shop consumed. 

1780. September 7th, Samuel Gardner's stock and fodder. 

1781. July 13th, House of John Handy, in New lane, (now 

1784. September 21st, Larken's barn, with five tons of hay 
and one horse burnt. 

1786. March 24th, M. Hookey's house, in Cannon-street. 

1787. December 11th, John Hadwin's store, on Long Wharf 
June 29th, David Melville's pewterer's shop, slight 


1788. October 15th, Ebenezer Richardson's house, shght dam- 

age to the roof 

1789. December 2d, Noah White's blacksmith's shop burnt 


1791. April 16th, John Hadwin's. and J. Eichardson's. 

1792. January 21st, Tanyard and bark-house of William Tripp, 

and store of Governor Collin's consumed. 
1795. November 17th, Jonathan Southwick's boat-builder's 
shop burnt down. 
November 24th, John Erazier's school house, shght 

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ilEOORD OF, 291 

1797. August 7tli, Francis Brinley's ropewalk. 

December 22d, Job Cahooiie's house, in Thames-streetj 
slight damage. 

1798. December 6th, Blacksmith's shop on I^ong "Wharf con- 

sumed, and a man named Lewis was burnt up ^ also 

houses owned by Capt G-eorge and John Shaw ; Mr. 

SouthwicFs boat builder's shop torn down. 
1800. October 25th, Mr, Delano's house and shed destroyed ] 

also a negro man, belonging to Mr. Delano. 
1803. April 22d, Nicholas Hart's barn burned down, corner 

of Church and Spring-streets. 

1810. March 11th, Captain Thomas Wkite^s house., in Churcb- 

street, damaged. 
October 14th, Jas. "Westgate^s bakehouse, slight damage. 
December 17th, Mr, "Wilson's hoiise on the Point, slight 


1811. April 13th, Stable in Broad-street, owned by Mrs, Pit- 

man, occupied by Edward Simmons, burnt down. 
1819. February 7th, W. S. N. Allan's bakehouse, on Long 
Wharf, slight damage, 
October 6th, Daniel W. Barker's house, in south part of 
Spring-street, burnt down. 
1822. April 7th, Peleg Battle's house, on the Point, slight 
August 16th, JohnC, Almy's barn and dwelling house, 
belonging to A, Bobbins, on Long Wharf, consumed. 

1826. November 2!st, Boat builder's shop, and house of Jon, 

Southwick, on Long Wharf, consumed. 

1827. July 7th., Henry Buggies' distillery, considerable damage. 
1829. January 3d, Joseph Joslen's school bouse, Church street, 

sligkt damage. 

1834. January 8th, Dr. B, W^. Case's house, foot of Parade, 

slight damage, 
March 22d, House belonging to the Seventh-day Baptist 
Society, in Thames-street, shght damage. 

1835, August 8th, Dry goods store, occupied by William P. 

Hall, and owned by heirs of William Langley, and 
now occupied by Anderson's barber's shop, shght 
October 1 st, Newport steam factory, slight damage. 

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1836. June 28tby Dry goods store of H. E. Brewster, (now 

occupied by W. H. Peek,) goods damaged. 
1838. February 2od, Carpenter's shop on Beach- street, owned 
by Josiab Tew, consumed. 
^February 28th, Dwelhng house in South Touro-street, 

owned by the heirs of Anthony Dixon, consumed. 
August 2d, Thomas E. Hazard's factory ; damage 
about $10,000. 

1840. January 1st, House in Elm-street,- occupied by T> illiam 

Greenman ; damage $350. 
February 17th, Store of D, S. Hallow ay, Ferry "Wharfy 
damage $100. 

1841. April 7th, Benjamin Chase's carpenter's &hop, damage 

November llthy Silas H. Cottrell's workshop^ Thames- 
street, damage $300. 

1842. February i7th, John H. GilUat's new house, Touro^ 

street, damage $1000. 
May 27th, E. "W. Lawton^s wood-house, nearly destroyed, 
September 2d, Elder Henry Burdick's stable destroyed. 
September 6thy Thomas Townsend's barn destroyed, 

damage $600. 
September 23d, Tower's school house, rear of Clarke- 

September 24th, Building near Bath road, destroyed. 
December 16th, John Bigley's house. Bridge-street^ 
damage^ $200. 
1'844. February 26th, Drying house, on "Woolen Mill "Wharfy 
damage $250. 
March 21st, Same building, damage $300. 
1845. March 13th, AYoolen factory, damage $600. 

August 3d, Ocean House destroyed ; loss $60,000. Ono 
hfe lost. 
1846; January 9th, Woolen factory, damage $200. 

1847. December 26th, First Baptist Meeting-house^ damaged 


1848. April 17th, Store on Ferry Wharf, owmed by Samuel 

Carr, damaged $250. 
May 19th, Store on Long Wharf, occupied as a boat- 
builder's shop, damaged $650. 

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1848. July 25th, Four boat builder's shops, and one dwelling- 
house, on Long Wharf, destroyed ; loss $5,500. 
October 4th, William A. Handy's house in Fair-street, 
damaged $200, 


We have in this v^ork labored to present the most interesting 
events connected with the history of this Island. Undoubt- 
edly the lapse of time has buried much of value in oblivion. 
This was to be expected ; but sufficient has been recorded to 
show the reader the distinguished position which Newport occu- 
pied in the past, and of which there are some traces still re- 
maining. When it is considered . that little more than two 
centuries have elapsed since this Island was the residence of the 
red man, when the war-whoop rang through the valleys and re- 
verberated over the hills, when he stood erect in his own native 
dignity, with the bow and arrow, the weapon of hiB defence, 
and felt himself to be the rightful owsier of the -soil ; we ask, 
where now are the origioal inhabitants, the native " lords of the 
soil ?" Is the feeble remnant of the Narragansetts, now^ under 
the protection of the State, all tlmt remains of this once noble 
race of men ? But where are ihey ? Where are the villages, 
and warriors, aud youths? the sachems, and the tribes? the 
Imnters and their famihes ? They have perished. They are 

The wasting pestilence has not alone done the mighty work 
No — nor famine, nor wan There has been a mightier pow^er^ 
a moral canker, w^hich has eaten into their hearts' cores — a 
plague, which the touch of the white man communicated — a 
poison, which betrayed them into a lingering ruin. They know 
•and feel that there is for them still one remove farther, not dis- 
tant, nor unseen. It is the general burial-ground of their race. 
The colonizing of America at the expense of the sufferings 
and final extermination of the aborigines of this country, is 
painful and humiliating to con-si der, and detracts from that 
pleasure and satisfaction which would otherwise be enjoyed. 

From the report of a committee on Indian affairs in Rhode 
Island, made to the General Assembly in 183.3., '' it appears that 

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the whole number of all grades and conditions of the once ko- 
■ merous and warhke tribes of Narragansetts (the only tribe now 
existing in the 8tate)> was one hundred and fifty-eight. Of this 
number, only seven were of genuine Narragansett blood, and 
several of these have since died ; fourteen were half blood, and 
one hundred and fifty -eight of different grades^ less than half- 
blood, with twenty foreigners, who have no connection with the 
tribe, except by marriage and other promiscuous intercourse." 
Three thousand acres of land in Oharlestown, now in their pos- 
session, is all that is left to them of their ancient domain. 

^' Canonicus, Miantonomu I friends and benefactors of the 
colony, thy nation is no more. Simple sons of the forest, the 
lands of thy fathers have passed into the possession of the de- 
scendants of those meUy whom, when weak, defenceless and 
distressed, ye clothed, fed, and protected. And thou too, 
mighty PhiHp, who fell fighting for thy native soil, the graves 
of thy fathers, thy w^ives and children, and thy own loved 
Mount Haup, — ^the white man^s foot now presses the soil once 
trodden by thee." 

The scene is too painful to dwell upon. "We turn away from 
it in sorrowy deeply regretting their sad fate. 

"We have already alluded to the principles which infiuenced 
the minds of the early settlers of the Island, As Mr. Callender 
properly observes, '^ they fled not from refigion, order, or good 
government, but to have hberty to worship God, and enjoy 
their own religious opinions and belief" Our fathers professed 
to believe that 

" There is in man an individual sovereignty, 
Which none created might unpunished bind or touch, 
A sovereignty unbound, save by the eternal laws of God, 
And unamenable to all below." 

And in matters relating to civil liberty, this great principle 
was recognized and practiced. They admitted in their State 
sovereignty, that the true and legitimate source of power, from 
whence those in authority and places of trust derived theirs, to 
legislate for the common good of all, was derived from the peo- 
ple ; and by people^ they understood not the mere appendagas 
of wealth, which are possessed but by few, as giving an exclu- 
sive privilege to act^ to the exclusion of the masses^ but rather 

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that moral and intellectual possessions were the true character- 
istics which went to make up the people. Incidental differ- 
ences in men's circumstances and conditions were not regarded 
as constituting a quahfication, or disqualification, to act in the 
concerns of the government ; and this view of the case ren- 
dered the form of government purely democratic. 

We are aware that the idea has become prevalent in the 
minds of a certain class, that the masses are unfit to govern ; 
but we apprehend no danger, where the people are intelligent, 
and educated to beheve that they are men — not merely in form, 
but intellectually and morally so — and bound to love the insti- 
tutions of their beloved country, and to aid in their preserva- 
tion. Deny to them this right, and you at once generate a 
band of villains, the counterparts of the Ishmaelites, '' who wdll 
be against every man, and every man against them." It be- 
hooves us, theHj to see to it that education is imparted to all, 
irrespective of rank or condition, and to be careful that honest 
poverty, where all the other requisite qualifications are pos- 
sessed, is not overlooked, and that wealth be not allowed a com- 
plete monopoly in all things. 

The notion of the incompetency of the people to govern them- 
selves, has bad its origin on the other side of the water ; and 
its baneful influence and demoralizing effects have been severely 
felt, sufficient to alarm every true patriot and friend of human 
rights, and should act as an incentive to vigilance in guarding 
our liberties — the birth-right of high heaven — and never, never 
suffer them to be wrested from us by the rapacious cruelty and 
injustice of designing men, who take delight in lording it over 
the consciences of men. 

Oppression is contrary to the very nature of man's being. God 
created the mind originally free ; and it is an act of usurpation 
which should be frowned down most indignantly, whenever our 
natural rights are invaded. 

The original settlers of the Island possessed, in a very high 
degree,. the principles of civil and religious liberty, and to their 
precept and example we may trace some of the same spiri*-; 
which exists among the people at the present day. Our fore- 
fathers had not only felt the hand of oppression in the mother 
country ; but they had also experienced it from their lordly breth- 
ren in Massachusetts, and hence they felt constrained to flee to 

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a spot where the standard of liberty could be imfurled, and 
under its broad shelter an asylum found for the persecuted and 
the oppressed of every clime. "We trust that we shall not be 
chargeable with vanity or prejudice, in reasserting that the peo- 
ple of the Island were the most truly republican in their man- 
ners; of any portion of the maritime towns of New England. 
In this, we have the concurrence of enhghtened minds, whose 
extensive observation of the world has given weight to their 

Among the earhest records of legislation in Ehode Island, 
we find an act guarding the right of private opinion, and free 
discussion. In the preamble, they say, " That to suffer the 
civil magistrate to intrude his power into the field of opinions, 
and restrain the profession or propagation of principles, on the 
supposition of their ill tendency, is a dangerous fallacy, which 
at once destroys all rehgious Hberty ; because he, being judge 
of that tendency, will make his own opinions the rule of judg- 
ment, and approve or condemn the sentiments of others, only as 
they shall square with or differ from his own ; that it is time 
enough for the rightful purposes of civil government, for its 
officers to interfere when principles break forth into overt acts 
against peace and good order ; and finally, that truth is great 
and will prevail, if left to herself; that she is the proper and 
sufficient antagonist of error, and has nothing to fear from the 
conflict, unless by human power disarmed of her natural weap- 
ons, free argument and debate." 

Such sentiments are worthy to be inscribed, in letters of gold, 
on our halls of legislation, showing the principles of liberty 
which were ingrained in the hearts of the earl}^ settlers of this 
Island. God grant that we, their descendants, may cherish and 
perpetuate the sam.e glorious principles, and never prove recre- 
ant to the sacred trust committed to our care. 

Nor were thesp rights, nor any part of them, relinquished by 
our venerable predecessors, when they entered the confederacy. 
They surrendered no inahenable rights ; they made no compro- 
mise of the liberty '' to know, utter, and argue freely," any of 
the great principles of civil and rehgious freedom on which the 
colony was founded. And when Ehode Island subscribed to 
and adopted the Constitution of the United States, the voice of 
freedom echoed from the halls of her convention, proclaiming, 

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■with trumpet tongue, '' that there are certain natural righrs of 
which menj when they form a social compact, cannot deprive 
their posterity, among which are the enjoyment of Hfe and Hb- 
erty, with the means of acquiring, possessing, and protecting 
property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety. 
That all men have an equal, natural, and inahenable right to 
the exercise of religion according to the dictates of their own 
consciences. That the people have a right to freedom of speech 
and of writing, and publishing their sentiments ; that freedom 
of the press is one of the great bulwarks of liberty, and ought 
not to be violated. 

" Under these impressions," say they, " and declaring that 
the rights aforesaid cannot be abridged, and that these declara- 
. tions are consistent with the Constitution, we, the said dele- 
■ gates, in the name and in the behalf of the people of the State 
of Ehode Island and Providence Plantations, do by these pres- 
ents assent to and ratify the said Constitution." 

Such sentiments as these are democratic in the highest sense 
of the term, and should admonish those who would seek to cur- 
tail in the least the liberties of the people, that they have for- 
gotten their sires, and the sacred principles which they promul- 
gated. Their names should be inscribed high on the roll of 
fame, to be admired and esteemed by their descendants. As so 
little has been said of Clark and Coddington, by writers who 
have undertaken to dwell on the history of E.hode Island, w^e 
have indulged more at length on their characters, in order to 
place their names in the front rank instead of in the rear. 

It is a most singular fact that the grave of Eoger Wilhams, 
the founder of the Plantations, is unknown to this day. 

In reviewing the past mercies of God towards our fathers, 
we have abundant cause of gratitude, thanksgiving, and praise. 
They came to this Island to rear the temple of civil and reli- 
gious liberty. No selfish purpose actuated them in leaving the 
fatherland ; it was not to increase their worldly honors that 
they sacrificed home, with all its endearments. Higher and no- 
bler considerations influenced them. It was to establish an 
asylum where liberty, the birth -right of man, might be more 
fully enjoyed than it was in the land of their birth. 

And the principles which they cherished in their owm bosoms, 
and which they scattered broadcast among the people, have 

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been transmitted down to the present generation. Reflections, 
however, have been cast on the want of intelhgence among the peo- 
ple, as well as the looseness of ourrehgious principles, by a class 
of bigots and sectarians. But the moral virtues which guided 
the inhabitants of the Island were as pure and as unmixed as 
those of any section of the country. 

Dr. Mather, a little more than a century ago, said, " Ehode 
Island was occupied by Antinomians, Anabaptists, Quakers, 
Eanters, and everything else, but Eoman Catholics and Chris- 
tians; and if any man has lost his religion, he may find it in 
this general muster of opinions — in this Gawzzim of New Eng- 
land, this receptacle of the convicts of Jerusalem, and the out- 
casts of the land." 

Now, to us of the present day, such intolerant and abusive 
language, from a professed believer in Christ, sounds strangely 
in our ears ; yet the age in which he lived is some apology for 
his singular and unaccountable conduct. But no apology can 
now be offered for the sensorious remarks which have often been 
made in relation to our civil and religious institutions, by a class 
of unprincipled bigots, w^ho view everything through a distorted 

Considering her geographical extent, with the number of her 
inhabitants, Ehode Island can justly lay claim to having pro- 
duced as many distinguished minds as that of any section of the 
Union. Call it arrogance, if you please to indulge such a thought. 
"We feel called upon to frown down with the most sovereign con- 
tempt, the interlopers who dare cast aspersions on her fair fame, 
whether they be agents of religious bodies,or school teachers whose 
pride has been elated by receiving the patronage of the people. 

Ignorance at home, where they are best known, is profound 
knowledge when the soil of Ehode Island is pressed ; and it is 
owing to this cause alone, of strangers having been preferred to 
enlighten the dark minds of Ehode Islanders, that the false im- 
pression has been given. 

"We trust, for the honor of the State, this disgrace will soon 
be remedied, and the stigma of reproach wiped from our escut- 
cheon. We have no wish to deny that w^e had our birth and 
education on the Island of Ehode Island, where the glorious 
principles of liberty were first taught, and where none is ac- 
counted a deUnquent in matters of rehgion. Happy, thrice 

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happy spot ! we will cherish in fond remembrance those sainted 
patriots, whose mouldering ashes now repose in the fairest gem 
of the ocean. The hallowed influence of their principles has 
leavened this mighty nation^ and neutralized, if not subdued, 
the dark malignant spirit of bigotry and superstition, religious 
intolerance and persecution. 

Our fathers understood the true principles of government—- 
they acknowledged the sovereignty of the people. This is the 
basis of a republican form of government, and should be guard- 
ed with the most scrupulous care, as on this hinge turns our 
political freedom. Abandon this vital principle, and our glorious 
temple of liberty, reared by the hands and cemented by the 
blood of our patriot fathers, would crumble to pieces, and its 
funeral dirge be chanted throughout the world. 

This is an admirable feature in our Constitution, that a re- 
dress of grievances lays with the people. Deny this position, 
and you at once hurl us back to the dark period, when the land 
was governed by a sovereign tyrant, at whose dictation the 
people must bow and do fealty ; and the conclusion to which 
we unavoidably arrive by admitting this political dogma, is, that 
our Eevolutionary forefathers were a body of insurgents, and 
throughout every step in the great moral and physical enter- 
prise of attempting to break the fetters which bound us to 
G-reat Britain, were wholly unauthorized by every principle of 
justice and equity — and as an act of atonement for past wrongs, 
should lead the nation at once to recognize the supremacy of 
Queen Victoria, as the legitimate and rightful sovereign of the 
land, and thereby wipe from our escutcheon the infinite wrongs 
of which we have been guilty. 

In the view of enlightened and liberal minds, they can never 
tolerate the idea, that absolute power should be vested in any one 
man, or body of men, to be exercised according to their discre- 
tion, over the rights and liberties of others. It is an assumption 
of power, which the light of science wherever enjoyed, will not 
for a moment sanction. It must, however, be admitted that 
there is a want of moral courage prevalent at this day, more 
especially Jn the New-England States, which often gives to 
minorities the complete ascendency. We feel called upon to 
enter our solemn protest against such imbecility and weakness, 
derogatory to the character of man, which threatens the over- 

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throw of our social, political, and religious liberties, which have 
been purchased at the expense of the blood of our fathers. 

It is far better to suffer nobly the " pangs of outrageous for- 
tune," with a mind free and untrammelled, than to bask in the 
sunshine of worldly prosperity, a mere slave ; for slavery of the 
mind is far more to be deprecated than that of the body. "We 
are legally and constitutionally bound to respect our rulers, 
whenever their acts are in accordance with the letter and spirit 
of the Constitution. But when the principles embodied in the 
Magna Oharta, are not complied with, that moment they tran- 
scend the power lodged in their hands, and disregard the wishes 
of their constituents, and render their acts obnoxious to the 
people, and vox populi should be raised that their places may 
be filled with better men, who will labor to promote the interest 
of the whole people, and not legislate merely for the few. 


This age is distinguished in some measure by endeavoring to 
grant facilities to the poorer classes, to enable them to subsist 
more comfortably than they do at present ; hence the distribu- 
tion of the public lands to actual settlers is now strongly advo- 
cated by many whose patriotism extends beyond their own sel- 
fish interest. And it behoves the Legislatures of each of the 
respective States of the Confederacy to authorize their repre- 
sentatives in Congress to use their influence in bringing about 
this highly important and meritorious object, and not permit the 
waste land to be monopolized by speculators. Many of the 
8tates, to their praise be it said, have also passed the Homestead 
Exemption Law, where the value does not exceed from five 
hundred to a thousand dollars. This is a humane and chari- 
table act, and should be followed by every state in the Union. 
It is for the people to straighten what is now crooked, and to 
right what is at present wrong. These should be made the test 
questions in our future elections, as being of infinitely more im- 
portance to the interest of the people, than the tiveecUe-diim and 
tiveedle-dee. Let not a craven spirit continue to influence the 
minds of the people of Ehode Island, for it is too humihating to 

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witness man, elevated as he is above all the works of God, fear- 
ful of acting out the sentiments of his heart, for fear of the 
opinion which some worm of the dust may entertain of him^ 
which may possibly endanger his temporary interest. Let the 
language of David to his son Solomon, be regarded and prac- 
tised, " show thyself a man V 

In bringing this work to a close, let me urge on the minds of 
the inhabitants of the island, the value and importance of culti- 
vating a spirit of enlarged liberality. Suffer not the mind to be 
influenced by merely selfish considerations, which are opposed 
in their nature to the principles advocated by the early settlers. 
Keep their example in full view, which will act as a stimulus in 
urging you forward in the sacred cause of justice. The spot 
which you occupy has been properly called the " Paradise of 
America," in a physical point of view, and in the past it was so 
in a moral and intellectual point of view. But, alas ! '' the gold 
has become dim, and the most find gold changed. " The vener- 
able Dr. Waterhouse has remarked : " Newport will be — must 
be — the Bath of the United States, to which rich invahds will 
retire for lost health. I often wish that I had some pleasant 
spot or farm on my native Island, to which, if not myself, my in- 
vahd posterity might resort to enjoy peace, health, and liberty." 
Such were the views entertained by the venerable Doctor, 
and which have subsequently been reahzed in the vast crowds 
which now resort to Newport, to spend a few weeks during the 
sultry heat of summer. Here the gentleman of leisure can find 
exemption from the evils which exist in crowded cities, while a 
rich treat is furnished the lovers of pleasure which can no where 
else be enjoyed in the same degree. 

This has turned the attention of the inhabitants to the build- 
ing of large and spacious hotels, for the accommodation of the 
numerous strangers who resort here, until it has in a very great 
degree excluded every other kind of business from the place. 
Such precarious business should not, however, be the sole re- 
liance of the inhabitants, but secondary in importance. New^- 
port, with her spacious and commodious harbor, should 
enjoy an extensive commerce. Her situation is admirably 
adapted to the whaling and fishery business, and it should be 
remembered that commerce was the means of her former pros- 
perity and glory, and its decay her downfall. 

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We are aware that great and important changes have been 
wrouglit in the country-places. Those once insignificant have 
sprung into being, as by magic ; still it does not necessarity fol- 
low, that Newport must remain forever in statu quo^ satisfied 
with having the town a mere resort of strangers for a few weeks. 
If this be the manifest destiny j why of course, the people must 
passively submit. 

It must, however, appear obvious to the mind that has given 
the least attention to the subject, that the great depth of water 
at Easton's Point, the northern extremity of the town, presents 
facilities which are not enjoyed elsewhere. In many of the mari- 
time cities, they often meet with obstacles which cause delay, 
owing to the want of sufficient water to float the larger class of 
ships, while here, at low tide, from eighteen to twenty feet of 
water is found. 

In this age of progress there appears to be a demand for a 
still larger class of steamships, and it has been suggested that 
in the lapse of time Newport may become one of the principal 
depots for steam navigation. But this view of the subject is 
highly improbable, as there is no market to be found tiere, and 
merchants would not be at the expense of freighting their mer- 
chandize to New -York, Boston, &c. The idea is too preposterous 
to be indulged in for a moment. If these natural advantages, 
which are possessed in so high a degree, are to be made sub- 
servient to the prosperity of the place, it must be effected by 
the enterprise of the inhabitants alone, and all Quixotic schemes 
abandoned forever, 

"We have not, in this work, attempted to draw comparisons 
between the past and the present, but have rather preferred to 
let the intelligent reader draw his own inferences ; for it must 
be confessed that the moral, intellectual, and physical condition 
of the place is so wholly and entirely changed, as to render it 
painful to contemplate. "We can hardly realize that it is the 
same place ; and many, who after years of absence have re- 
turned, have found so sad a deterioration, that they have pre- 
ferred a residence elsewhere. In fact, it is only in the past that 
Newport appears interesting to a reflective mind. 

The houseless, wandering descendant looks at the mansion of 
his fathers and exclaims : 

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" Now thou standest 

In faded majesty, as if to mourn 
The desolation of an ancient race.' 

We flatter ourselves that the work will be read with interest, 
more especially by the inhabitants of the Island, as well as those 
who are in the habit of resorting there to admire the romantic 
and pictmxsque scenery, which is the great attraction of the 
place. It will assist the reader to while away his leisure hours 
in its perusal, and carry the mind back to the interesting period, 
when the highly eminent characters which we have presented 
figured on life's busy stage, who have long since retired to make 
room for others. 

A List of the Presidents of the Colony of Ehode Island and 
Providence Plantations, under the first Patent ; and the 
Governors under the second Charter. Collected from the 
State Eecords. 


From the year 1647 to 1648, John Coggeshall, 

„ „ 1648 to 1649, Jeremiah Clarke, 

„ „ 1649 to 1650, John Smith, 

„ „ 1650 to 1652, Nicholas Easton. 


From the year 1654 to 1657, Eoger WilHams, 

„ „ 1657 to 1660, Benedict Arnold, 

„ „ 1660 to 1662, "Wilham Brenton, 

„ „ 1662 to 1663, Benedict Arnold. 


From the year 1663 to 1666, Benedict Arnold, 

„ „ 1666 to 1669, William Brenton, 

„ „ 1669 to 1672, Benedict Arnold 

„ „ 1672 to 1674, Nicholas Easton, 

„ „ 1674 to 1676, Wilham Coddington. 

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From the year 1676 to 1677, AY alter Clarke, 

„ „ 1677 to 1679, Benedict Arnold, 

„ „ 1670 to 1680, John Cranston, 

„ „ 1680 to 1683, Peleg Sanford, 

„ „ 1683 to 1685, 'William Coddington, 

„ „ 1685 to 1686, Henry Bull, 

„ „ 1686 to — — , Walter Clarke. 

The Charter was at this period superseded by Bir Edmund 
Andross, but it was again restored in 1689. 


From the year 1689 to 1690, Henry Bull, 

„ „ 1690 to 1695, Johg^ Easton, 

„ „ 1695 to 1696, Caleb Carr, 

„ „ 1696 to 1698, Walter Clarke, 

„ „ 1698 to 1727, Samuel Cranston, 

„ „ 1732 to 1734, William Wanton, 

„ „ 1734 to 1741, John Wanton, 

„ „ 1741 to 1743, Eichard Ward, 

„ „ 1745 to 1746, Gideon Wanton, 

„ „ 1747 to 1748, Gideon Wanton, 

„ „ 1762 to 1763, Samuel Ward, 

„ „ 1765 to 1767, Samuel Ward, 

„ „ 1768 to 1769, Josias Lyndon, 

„ „ 1769 to 1775, Joseph Wanton, 

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The following account is compiled from the Eecords of Henry 
Bull, Esq., with Notes by the Eev. Francis Yinton, and ad- 
ditional remarks. 

Until nearly the close of the seventeenth century, there were 
but two orders of Christians in the town of Newport, who 
were organized, and regularly met together for the purpose of 
worship, and those were of the denomination of Baptists and 
Friends, or Quakers. 

The original founder, and first principal patron of Trinity 
Church, in Newport, was Sir Francis Nicholson. He was by 
profession a soldier ; was Lieutenant-Governor of New- York, 
under Sir Edmund Andros, and at the head of the Adminis- 
tration of that Colony from 1687 to 1690, at which time he was 
appointed Governor of Virginia, and so continued for two 

From 1694 to 1699, he was Governor of Maryland, after 
which time he was again Governor of Virginia. He com- 
manded the British forces sent to Canada, in 1710, and took the 
important fortress of Port Eoyal. In 1713 he became Governor 
of Nova Scotia, and in 1720, Governor of Carolina. He 
returned to England in June, 1725, and died in London in 

Mr. Lockyer, an Episcopal clergyman, commenced preaching 
in Newport about the close of 1698 ; and by that means a 
Church was gathered. He was doubtless procured by the 

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instrumentality of Sir Francis Nicbolson, who was then Gover- 
nor of Maryland ; for the Eecords of Trinity Church fully 
sustain the fact, that Sir Francis was its founder. The people, 
and more especially the leading gentlemen of the town, were 
well disposed towards this new undertaking, and a considerable 
society was soon estabhshed, with sufficient strength and zeal, 
aided by their generous patron, to build a handsome Church, 
which was completed in or before 1702. '^ Handsomely,'' as 
they say, '^ finished all on the outside, and the inside pewed 
well, but not beautiful." 

Thus far the Church had made its way without any aid from 
the mother country. In the year 1702, when the Society for 
Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, was estabhshed and 
incorporated in England, the Wardens of Trinity Church 
applied to the Bishop of London, sohciting the aid of the 
Society ; on which application the Eev. James Honyman was 
appointed Missionary, in 1704, and sent over to this station. 
The Society, as a further encouragement, sent also as a present 
to the Church, a valuable library of the best theological works 
of that day, consisting of seventy-five volumes, mostly foHo. 
Many of these books are still in the possession of the Church. 

Queen Anne presented the Church with the bell, which was 
received here in 1709 ; about which time the Minister, "War- 
dens, and Vestry, wrote to the Governor of Massachusetts, and 
to the Rev. Samuel Miles, Minister of Boston, requesting each 
of them to forward money, left in their hands for the Church, 
by Sir Francis Nicholson, stating their present want of money, 
to enable them to prepare for and hang the bell but recently 

Mr. Honeyman was a gentleman well calculated to unite his 
own society, which grew and flourished exceedingly under his 
charge, as well as to conciUate those of other religious denomi- 
nations, all of whom he " embraced with the arms of charity." 

In the year 1713, the Minister, Churchwardens, and Vestry, 
petitioned the Queen for the estabhshment • of Bishops in 
America, setting forth the great benefit that would result to 
the church from such a measure. Mr. Nathaniel Kay, the 
Collector of the Queen's revenues in Rhode Island, who after- 
wards liberally endowed the school connected with this Church, 
was among the signers of this petition. 

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111 the year 1724j Mr, Honyman writes to the Society in 
England, as follows : " That there was properly belonging to 
his ■ church in Newport, above fifty communicants, who live in 
that place; exclusive of strangers. The church people grow 
now too numerous to be accommodated with seats in the old 
church, and many more offered to join' themfeelves to the 
church confimunion." Mr. Honyman proposed to the church 
menibers, the building of a new church, and subscribed £30 
himself for that purpose. The people heartily concurred, and 
he soon after obtained subscriptions amounting to £1000 of the 
currency of ' the country; but it was estimated the building 
Would cost twice that amount However, a sufficient sum was 
raised, and-, in- the year 1726, the church was completed, and 
Mr: Honyman held the service in it The body of the building 
was seventy feet long, and forty-six wide. It had two tiers of 
Windows, was full of pews, and had galleries all round to the 
east end. It was acknowledged by the people of that day to 
be' the most beautiful timber structure in America. The old 
building was given to the people of Warwick, who had no 
church of their own. 

-We have every reason for beheving that the new building 
was -erected ■ on the site of the old one, for the old one 
appears to have been disposed of by gift, to make room for 
the new, which would not otherwise have been done in a town 
rapidly increasing in population, and in want of more buildingSc 
At the time of which we are writing, 1724 to 1726, there were 
Quakers and two sorts of Anabaptists in Newport, yet the 
members of the Church of England increased daily; and 
although there was not to be found alive at that time, four of 
the original promoters of church worship in this place, yet there 
was then above four times the number of all the first. Mr. 
Honyman had under his care at this time, the towns of New- 
port, Freetown, Tiverton, and Inttle Gompton. 
■ The history of this Church has-been, thus far, principally 
derived from the publicatipns of the^Society for Propagating the 
G-ospel in ^Foreign Parts, and from Letters from the Minister, 
Wardens, and Vestry, to Queen Anne, to the Bishop of London^ 
and to Sir Francis Nicholson, copies of which have been pre- 
served = in the first parish records of the Church. The first 
book of the corporation records having been lost, is a circum-^ 

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stance much to be regretted. The second book commences 
with the date 1731. 

A letter, written in Newport, and published in the " New 
England Journal," Boston, September 3d, 1729, says, " Tester- 
day, arrived here, Dean Berkley, of Londonderry, in a pretty 
large ship. He is a gentleman of middle stature, of an agree- 
able, pleasant, and erect aspect. He was ushered into the 
town with a great number of gentlemen, to whom he behaved 
himself after a very complaisant manner. 'Tis said he proposes 
to tarry here with his family about three months." 

The connection of Dean Berkley with Trinity Church, calls 
for a passing notice of his sojourn in Newport, where he arrived 
by a circumstance purely incidental. He, with other gentle- 
men, his associates, were bound to Bermuda, with the intention 
of establishing there a college, for the education of the Indian 
youth of this country ; a plan, however, which wholly failed. 
The captain of the ship in which he sailed could not find the 
island of Bermuda, and having given up the search after it, 
steered northward, until they discovered land unknown to 
them, and which they supposed to be inhabited only by savages. 
On making a signal, however, two men came on board from 
Block Island, in the character of pilots, who, on inquiry, 
informed them the harbor and town of Newport were near ; 
that in the town there was an Episcopal Church, the Minister of 
which was Mr. James Honyman, on which they proceeded for 
Newport, but an adverse wind caused them to run into the 
west passage, where the ship came to anchor. The Dean wrote 
a letter to Mr, Honyman, which the pilots took on shore at 
Conanicut Island, and called on a Mr. Gardner and Mr. Mar- 
tin, two members of Mr. Honyman's Church, informing them 
that a great dignitary of the Church of England, called a Dean, 
was on board the ship, together with other gentlemen passen- 
gers. They handed them the letter from the Dean, which 
Messrs. G-ardner and Martin brought to Newport, in a small 
boat, with all possible dispatch. On their arrival they found 
Mr. Honyman was at church, it being a holyday, on which 
olivine service was held then. They then sent the letter by a 
servant, who delivered it to Mr. Honyman in his pulpit. He 
t)pened it, and read it to the congregation, from the contents 
of which it appeared the Dean might be expected to land in 

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Newport, every moment. The church was dismissed with the 
blessing, and Mr. Honyman, with the wardens, vestry, church, 
and congregation, male and female, repaired immediately to the 
ferry wharf, where they arrived a little before the Dean, his 
family and friends. The foregoing tradition we have given as 
we received it, but other traditions vary a little from that ; 
some of which say that ^'the ship made no land until she arrived 
in the East or Sachuest river, from which she came round the 
north end of Rhode Island to Newport." It has also been 
stated that Col. Godfrey Malborn, being out in his pleasure 
yacht, on discovering the ship, made towards her, and on being 
informed that the Dean and suit were on board, he took them 
to his magnificent country-seat, now the property of Prescott 
Hall, Esq., where they tarried until morning, and then started 
for Newport. The Dean purchased a farm of about one hun- 
dred acres in the town of Newport, adjoining one of about the 
same extent belonging to the Rev. James Honyman, on which 
Mr. Honyman resided. The Dean built him a house on his 
farm for his residence, which he called White Hall, w^hich name 
it still retains. The house is still standing. It is situated in 
what is now the town of Middletown, about three miles from 
the State House in Newport, and a little back of the road w^hich 
runs eastward from the towm, near a beautiful little water 
course, which runs southward towards Sachuest Beach. This 
White Hall estate he gave to Yale College, in Connecticut, 
which still owns the fee. 

The White Hall estate was sold soon after it came in posses- 
sion of Yale College, on a lease of nine hundred and ninety-nine 
years, at a rent of one hundred ounces of silver per annum. 
The mansion house is still standing, and is in the occupation of 
Mr. Abraham Browm, the present owner of the lease. It re- 
mains the same as when Bishop Berkley occupied it. We 
would suggest the importance of repairing the front, &c. He 
continued here about two years, perhaps a httle longer. He 
was certainly here as late as September, 1731, as appears by a 
supplementary inscription on the tomb-stone of Nathaniel Kay, 
Esq., w^hich is as follows : " Joining to the south of this tomb, 
lies Lucia Berkley, daughter of Dean Berkley, Obit, the 5th 
of September, 1731." 

His preaching was eloquent and forcible, and attracted large 

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congregations to Trinity church. When he was called to a 
sphere of greater usefulness in his native country, he was not 
forgetful of a residence which was endeared to him by many 
pleasing recollections; and which, moreover, possessed for him 
a melancholy interest, from the circumstance of its containing 
the ashes of his infant daughters, who had died during his so- 
journ in Newport. 

After his return to England, he sent as a donation to Trinity 
Church, in the year 1733, a magnificent organ. This organ is 
surmounted by a crown in the centre, supported by two mitres, 
one on each side. 

Mr. Nathaniel Kay, who came from England to Ehode Island 
as collector of the King's customs for the colony of Ehode 
Island, was the most liberal patron, as to the amount of his 
pecuniary aid, that the church has ever had. His house stood 
on the site now occupied by the dwelling-house of the heirs of 
the late George Engs, Esq., on the hill, near the head of Touro- 
street. It was, when built, one of the most spacious and ele- . 
gant private dwellings in town. 

No apology can be offered for the neglect of the church, in 
suffering it to be destroyed. It was a piece of modern vandal- 
ism, which w^e can never cease to regret. Since the revolution, 
it was occupied by a Mrs. Pollock, a lady from South Carolina, 
who kept her carriage, and lived in a style of affluence, befitting 
her rank and station. At the time of the embargo, when busi- 
ness was suspended, and no employment was to be had for the 
laboring classes, she, like a true philanthropist, opened a soup- 
house^ and daily supplied the poor inhabitants throughout the 
winter. At his death, he devised and bequeathed to the 
church as follows : '^ I give and bequeath my dwelling house 
and coach house to my wife, during the term of her natural 
life ; after which I give and bequeath both, with my lots of 
land in Ehode Island, and £400 in the currency of New Eng- 
land, to build a school house, to the minister of the church of 
England (Mr. Honyman), and the church wardens and vestry 
for the time being — that is to say, upon trust and confidence, 
and to the interest and purpose, benefit and use of a school to 
teach ten poor hoys their grammar and the mathematics, gratis ; 
and to appoint a master at all times, as occasion or vacancy 
may happen, who shall be Episcopally ordained, and assist the 

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minister =(Episcopial) of the town of Newport, in some proper 
office, as they shall think most useful."- Mr. Updike, in his his- 
tory, has attempted an apology for the loss of the estate thus 
kindly bequeathed by Mn Kay to Trinity church. It only 
proves that property disposed of in this way, fails to be carried 
out according to the wish of the donor. The Eev. Theodore 
Deher took charge of the parish, as minister, in 1797. His 
gentlemanly deportment and concihatory manners, his pulpit 
eloquence, his mild disposition, and his sound piety, soon 
brought back the wandering sheep to the common fold. The 
church was again filled with a numerous congregation, ear- 
nestly engaged in social worship. 

In 1762, the edifice w^as greatly enlarged, by moving the east- 
erly part about thirty feet, and adding as much in the middle. 
This was done at the expense of forty- six gentlemen, who took 
the pews they added in full satisfaction for the expense of said 
enlargement. In the same year that the organ was presented 
(1733), Jahleel Brenton, Esq., presented the clock in the tower 
— and we would suggest that, in memory of the donor, it should 
be put in repair. 

In 1740, the bell presented by Queen Anne was cracked; it 
was taken down and sent to London to be recast. In 1741, 
the first school house was built, and Mr. Cornelius Bennett ap- 
pointed schoolmaster. 

In 1750, the Rev. Mr. Honyman died at an advanced age. 
He was buried at the expense of the church, on the south side 
of the passage from the gate to the church, where his tomb- 
stone now hes. His salary was £70 per annum. 

In July, 1751, the Church agreed to ask the Society to send 
them Mr. Beach as minister. On the 27th of August, 1752, a 
committee was appointed to collect, by subscription, a sum suffi- 
cient to purchase a parsonage. Their success was such, that in 
December the house was purchased for the purpose aforesaid. 

Mr. Thomas Potter arrived in 1754, having been sent by the 
Venerable Society as missionary. In Ts^'ovember, Mr. Potter 
left. The church, being destitute of a minister, called the Eev. 
Marmaduke Brown, of Portsmouth. He accepted the call, and 
arrived in December. 

In 1768, the old tower was taken down, and a new one built, 
eighteen feet square, and sixty feet high. In 1769, Mr, Brown 

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went to England on a visit. During his absence, Mr. Bisset 
supplied his place as minister. 

Oct. 27, 1770, there was a severe gale of wind, in which the 
spindle on the steeple was broken off below the ball. 

The Easter-Monday after the death of Mr. Brown, the con- 
gregation chose Mr. Bisset their minister, until the Venerable 
Society should be heard from. On Sunday, the 8th of Decem- 
ber, 1776, the British fleet and army took possession of the 
Island of Rhode Island, which event gave a new character to 
everything here of a local nature. Mr. Bisset continued with 
the church until the evacuation of the Island, which took place 
October 25th, 1779. 

Many of the leading members of Trinity Church w^ere of the 
royal party, who went with them to New York; and among the 
number was the minister, Mr. Bisset, who left his wife and 
child behind, in the most destitute circumstances. His furni- 
ture was seized by the State of Rhode Island ; but afterwards, 
upon the petition of his wife to the General Assembly, it was 
restored to her, and she, wath her child, was permitted to go to 
her husband in New York. 

A few days after the British left Newport, some young men 
of the town, and among them two American officers, entered 
the church, and despoiled it of the altar-piece, consisting of the 
King's arms, the Lion and the Unicorn. They were highly or- 
namented, and were placed against the great east window. 
Afler trampling them under foot, they were carried to the north 
battery, and set up for a target to fire at. The other emblems 
of royalty, being out of reach, were allowed to remain. They 
consist of one royal crown on the spire, and another on the top 
of the organ. This structure has never been subjected to the 
hand of modern vandalism, and we trust that the inhabitants 
of the ancient town will guard it with the most scrupulous care. 
The interior is now the same as when Dean Berkley preached 
in it, and the pulpit is now the only one in America ever graced 
by the occupancy of that distinguished prelate. The church 
was, at the time of which we are speaking, without a minister. 
As it had been nursed by the high church party in England, it 
was unpopular with the mass of the people, who were writhing 
under the scourge inflicted by that very party. The church 
edifice, too, had been spared by those ruthless invaders who 

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iiad worshipped in it, while they had desecrated the other pla- 
-ces of worship in the town, by converting them into hospitals, 
etc. ; and every part of them but the shells, they had demol- 

There was no service in the chureh immediately after Mr. 
Bisset left, and the minister of the ^' Sixth principal Baptist So- 
ciety" of this town, the Eev. Gardner Thurston,, was allowed 
to occupy the church, with his numerous congregation, until 
their own place of worship was repaired — from 1781 to 1786 — • 
at which period the Bev. James Sayre was engaged and settled 
as minister. 

He took upon him the duties of that office on the 1st of Oe- 
■tober. In 1787, the pews built in the west aisle of the church 
were taken down, and the passage from the north to the south 
doors again laid open. 

In 1788, Mr. Boure and a majority of the congregation 
came to an open rupture with Mr. Sayre. They charged him 
with " refusing to put a vote in the vestry, which he had pre- 
viously agreed to do."" 

It appears Mr. Sayre soon left the church ; but by what 
means they got rid of him — whether through the means of 
Bishop Seabury, whose mediation had been requested by a por- 
tion of the congregation, by his voluntary relinquishment of his 
charge, or by compulsion, the records do not inform us. 

By a vote of May 5th, 1789, the Eev. WilHam Smith, of Si 
Paul's Church., Narragansett, was invited to visit the church 
every other week, which invitation he accepted, with the con- 
sent of his own church ; and in December following, he was 
^called to become the minister of Trinity churchj which he ac- 

The Eev. Mr. Smith was not agreeably settled, inasmuch as 
the society were divided. The feuds which had originated be- 
tween Mr. Sayre and Mr, Bours had not been healed, and 
many of the minority refused to attend church under the 
preaching of Mr. Smith, but preferred holding meetings of wor- 
ship in their private houses. Mr. Smith received a call from 
the church at Norwalk, Conn,, which he accepted, and em> 
Marked for his new station April 12, 1797. 

The church, on the 14th of May, invited the Eev. John S. X 
<^ardner5 assistant minister of Trinity churchy Boston, to come 

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to Newport, and spend a few Sundays. In Mr. Gardner^ 
answer to the chnrcb, dated September 17th, he calls it " a 
scattered church, and a divided people.'^ JPor these reasons, 
and because his own church, rather than part with him, had 
raised his salary to $800, he dechned the invitation, but recom- 
mended to the church, a young man named Theodore Dehor. 
On the 8th of October, 1797, Mr. Dehor was chosen ministerj 
and requested to obtain orders. November 19th,- his salary was 
fixed at $700 per annum, with the use of the parsonage and lot, 
and other perquisites of said ofiice. On the 7th of January, 1798, 
he entered upon the duties of his ministry. Mr. Dehor proved 
very acceptable to the society, which again united in the bonds 
of harmony and Christian fellowships flourished and increased 
to an overflowing congregation. In 1798, a vestry was built in 
the north east corner of the church ; in this spot a full length 
portrait of Mr. Honyman hangs. In 1799, a new school-hoase 
was erected on the lot where the old one form'erly stood. The 
old one had been pulled down, as we have reason to believe,, in 
the hard winter of 1780, and given to the poor of the church for 

In 1804, the church bell which had been in use sixty -three 
years cracked, and was again cast over. In November of the 
same year, the new bell cracked and was still again re-cast. The 
affairs of the church having been settled under the pastoral care 
of Bev. Mr. Dehor, but little worthy of notice took place until 
1809. For about ten years previous to that time, many mem- 
bers of the corporation had been anxious the church should pos- 
sess a fund, to be invested, and the interest arising to be exclu^ 
sively appropriated to the minister's salary. This year they set 
themselves to work in earnest to accomplish the desirable pur- 
pose. On the 2d of June, the vestry appointed a committee to 
report a plan to raise a perm.anent fund, and in August the said 
committee made a report which was not adopted. 

A new committee was appointed,, which reported in Decem- 
ber, 1810, whose report being adopted, measures were taken for 
carrying it into efl'ect. The members of the congregation were 
solicited to subscribe such sums as they were willing to- contri- 
bute towards the fund ; no one being obhged to pay until the 
whole sum subscribed should amount to six thousand dollars. 
Ib a short time a list of six thousand and fifty dolkrs was ob- 

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tamed. The subscribers being thus held for the amounts sub- 
scribed, agreeably to the terms of their subscriptions, the money 
was collected and invested in bank stock — the dividends on 
which were to be regularly invested until the capital should 
amount to ten thousand dollars. After which the yearly in- 
come was to be applied to the payment of the minister's salar}^ 
and for no other purpose. This was fully accomphshed in due 
time, and one thousand dollars added by the bequest of Mr. 
Samuel Brown, of Boston, a native of Newport, making the per- 
manent fund eleven thousand dollars, at the original cost of the 

In February, 1810, the Rev. Theodore Dehor resigned the 
rectorship of the church, but tendered his services until the 
ensuing autumn. On the 28th of October, he preached his last 
sermon to the congregation, aud proceeded to exercise the Epis- 
copal offices of Rector of St Michael's, Charleston, and Bishop 
of South Carolina. 

When Mr. Dehor retired, the Rev. Samuel Wheaton, w^ho 
married the sister of Mr. Dehor, and who had been previously 
engaged to preside over the church, arrived here from New- 
Haven, and took charge of the parish. The Rev. Mr. Wheaton 
presided over the church for thirty years, when he resigned, and 
the Rev. Francis Yinton was chosen Rector, and entered on 
his duties at Easter, 1840, and was instituted Rector April 
i4th, 1841. 

It is a subject of regret that Mr. Wheaton could not have 
continued to preside over the parish until his removal hy death, 
for he was a devoted servant of Christ, and endeared himself to 
the people of Newport by a blameless life and godly conversa- 
tion. His resignation was not voluntary but compulsory, and 
continued to be a source of bitterness to his mind, until his re- 
moval to higher honors in the church triumphant in heaven. 

The present officiating minister is the Rev. Mr. Brewer. It 
has been intimated that there is an organ in Brooklyn, New- 
York, which bears the inscription as being the gift of Bishop 
Berkley ; now Bishop Berkley never presented but one organ, 
and that was to Trinity church in Newport If the old pipes^ 
which were removed when the organ was repaired, were taken 
to Brooklyn, and worked into an organ, this does not make it 
the gift of Bishop Berkley. The reader can draw his own in- 

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Mr. Kay, of whom particular mention has been made as a 
benefactor to Trinity church, also made a hberal bequest to 
St. Michael's church, Bristol, of 160 acres of land on Pappoose 
Squaw Neck, to sustain a grammar school. What disposition 
has been made of the income, we are not properly apprized, 
but would hope that the wishes of the donor have been complied 
wdth, though such is not apt to be the case. The disregard 
which has too frequently been paid to the wishes and intentions 
of donors, should put man on his guards in devising property to 


In January, 1696, Mr.. Nathaniel Clap, of Dorchester, in 
Massachusetts Bay, a graduate of Howard College, by the 
advice of the minister of Boston, came to Newport and preached 
till his death. It was not, however, till the year 1720, that a 
church was gathered and organized, and Mr. Clap was ordained 
and installed its pastor. November 20th, the church consisted of 
the following fourteen male members, viz. r Nathaniel Clap, John 
Keynolds, Thomas Browm, Culbert Campbell, Ebenezer Daven- 
port, "William Sanford, Eichard Clark, Job Bisset, Joshua Stat- 
son, Kendal Nichols, (he was an influential merchant of Newport^ 
and died Sept. 18, 1767, aged 81 years,) John Mayhem, James 
Carey, Nathaniel Townsend, and John Labeer. 

The church under Mr. Clap's ministry fiourished, and addi- 
tions were gradually made to its numbers for about three years, 
when the sacrament of the Lord^s Supper ceased to be admin- 
istered by the pastor, and at the same time he refused to admin- 
ister the ordinance of Baptism to a child of Mr. Kendal Nichols, 
who with his wife w^ere communicants of the church. He 
thought his church was not pure, and that its members were 
" not of sufficiently holy conversation'' for the holy ordinance. 

In the original correspondence, (still extant,) between Mr» 
Clap and Mr. and Mrs, Nichols, on the subject of his refusal 
to baptize the infant of the latter, there is assigned no reason 
for such refusal, but a distrust on the part of Mr. Clap, of the? 
Christian state of Mr, and Mrs. Nichols. 

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This course on the part of Mr. Clap gave great offence, and 
was the commencement of a fire that continued to burn for 
many years. The church and congregation revered their pas- 
tpr, and admired him as a truly evangelical apostohcal preacher j, 
but were displeased with his rigid course of discipline and 
church government. 

In July 20thj 1724, the church addressed, a respectful appli- 
cation to their pastor, soliciting his consent to have recourse 
to other churches for sacramental privileges, if bodily weakness 
was the only reason of his denying or withholding them, but 
without success. 

Mr. Clap, in answer to a remonstrance from B. Ellery and S. ' 
Vernon, Esq., said: 

" I came here by the advice of the Eev. minister of Boston. 
I have continued here by his advice ; I have preached the 
Grospel here. As for you who are trying to drive me away, I 
would have you to consider the awful account you will have to 
give for the damnation of the souls that will be lost for the want 
of my preaching." 

Although Mr. Clap was not inclined to assign a plausible 
reason, or one that was satisfactory to the church, in the singu- 
lar course which he took in refusing to baptize the child of Mr. 
and Mrs. Nichols, and subsequently in suspending the holy ordi- 
nance of Communion, yet tradition has informed us, that there 
wa3 a vahd reason in his mind, which led him to pursue such a 
course. It was owing to a remark made to him soon after his 
taking possession of the parsonage, which he understood was 
built expressly for him by Mr. Nichols. A female member of 
his church, who called ujpon him soon after he was quietly set- 
tled in his new home, on learning his gratification of the favor 
which had been conferred upon him by Mr. Nichols, she very 
indiscreetly remarked, that as long as he remained the pastor of 
the church, the house was his. On Mr. Clap^s interrogating her 
where she had derived her information of this fact, she replied 
that she had it from Mr. Nichols. This^ no doubt, led him to 
suspect that a possibility existed of an attempt to dissolve 
the connection, which at that period was viewed as solemn and 
as sacred as the marriage contract. The least allusion to such 
an event was considered in the light of a gross insult. And it 
has been also said that on Mr. Nichols calhng upon Mr. Clap, 

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he was received with coldness, and that he at once put the 
question to Mr. Nichols, wishing to know of him whose house 
this was. On being told it was his, he then requested Mr. 
]^ichols at once to leave it. 

This shows that he retained a degree of self-respect, however 
his conduct may be viewed by the pigmies and dwarfs of the 
present day. In the view of Mr. Clap, it looked like an invasion 
of his rights, which if not checked in the bud, might lead to dis- 
astrous consequences to the church and to the ministry. This 
is the most probable reason which can be assigned for his sin- 
gular conduct. 

In the year 1745, Mr. Callender published a discourse occa- 
sioned by the death of his friend, the Rev. Mr. Clap, in which 
he pays a high tribute of affectionate veneration to his memory. 
Mr. Callender's sermon was founded on Hebrews xiii., 7, 8. The 
prominent traits in his character are faithfully dehneated in the 
following extracts from this sermon : 

^' The main stroke in his character, was his eminent sanc- 
tity and piety, and an ardent desire to promote the knowledge 
and practice of true godliness in others. As his understanding 
was above the common level, so was his learning, though he 
studiously concealed it. He thought his station required more 
than common instances of innocency, self denial, and caution. 
He abounded in contrivances to do good, by scattering books 
of piety and virtue, not such as minister questions and strife, 
but godly edifying, and put himself to a very considerable ex- 
pense, that he might by this method awaken the careless and 
secure, comfort the feeble minded, succor the tempted, instruct 
the ignorant, and quicken, animate, and encourage all. He 
abounded in acts of charity to the poor and necessitous, to 
whom he was a kind father and guardian. In fine, he was a 
pubhc blessing, as an able minister of the New Testament, an 
example of unspotted piety, and an honor to religion. There 
are two things in w^hich he excelled in so remarkable a manner, 
that I must not omit them : his care about the education of 
children, and his concern for the instruction of servants. 

" The conclusion of his hfe and ministry, was a peaceful and 
happy death, without those raptures which some boast of, but 
with perfect resignation to the will of God, and good hope and 
humble confidence in Christ Jesus, who was the sum of his 
doctrine, and the end of his conversation." 

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While he was eminently pious, he was at the same time very 
eccentric. " The administrator of his estate informed the 
writer, that he found among the papers and dust of his study, 
which he never allowed to be swept, several hundred dollars, 
in many little parcels, wrapped in orange peel or paper, which 
had probably fallen from his table, without observation or sub- 
sequent search ; 'and likewise, another sum of considerable 
amount, on the shelves of his closet, in paper, and orange-peel. 

" There was likewise a barrel, almost full of tops, which he 
had purchased of boys in the street, to show his disapprobation 
of the vain sport. It was his custom to walk out in a black 
velvet cap, and in a gown girded about his loins. In one side 
of it he would carry books, and in the other cakes, and with 
one or the other of which he would generally succeed in pur- 
chasing of boys their tops, and would give them kind advice, so 
that instead of fleeing from him, they loved to see him ap- 
proach."— 2temmisce?ices of Hopkins. 

Their next step, July, 1725, was to propose a colleague, as a 
means of allaying all uneasiness ; this, Mr. Clap declined. The 
church and congregation were determined, and the services of 
Mr. Bass were obtained for a short season, and after him, Mr. 
John Adams ; this must have been some time in 1727. Mr. 
Clap, after a while, utterly refused any association with Mr. 
Adams, and entirely occupied the pulpit on the Lord's day, not 
giving opportunity to the other to preach. This exasperated 
the people to such a degree, that nearly half of both churches 
and congregations withdrew, and met in a separate place, under 
Mr. Adams' ministry. 

In 1728, an ex-parte Council of Churches was convened on 
the 3rd of April, which, after solemn supplication to G-od for 
his gracious presence and direction, came to the following 
result, unanimously agreed in, upon mature deliberation. The 
Council then went on to say, '' that as Mr. Adams had received 
a valid call to the colleagueship with Mr. Clap, they affection- 
ately advised Mr. Clap and his friends to consent to Mr. 
Adams' ordination ; and if they would not, they recommended 
the aggrieved party to use the same house of worship, for the 
time being, one in the morning and the other in the evening, 
wath their respective pastors." Mr. Clap persisted in having 
no intercourse with Mr. Adams. 

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Tradition informs us, that when the Council had assembled 
at the parsonage, to endeavor to adjust the differences which 
existed between a portion of the church and Mr. Clap, he 
came from his study with a plate in his hand, containing as 
many figs as there were ministers present, and after handing 
them round, until he came to the last, remarked, '' here is a fig 
for you all;" and immediately retired to his study. This 
illustrates the moral courage of the ministry at that day. 

A new church was organized, and Mr. Adams ordained 
their pastor, April 11th, 1728. The Lord's Supper was ad- 
ministered on Lord's day. May 11th, 1728. The place of 
worship where Mr. Clap then preached, was situated in 
Tanner-street, and its occupancy by Mr. Adams, contrary to 
his wishes, was so displeasing to him, that he would not consent 
to preach in it again, A new house was erected, which at 
present is occupied by the Unitarian Society, under the pastoral 
care of the Eev. Mr. Brooks. When the house was completed, 
and they had brought him the key, the first question he asked, 
was, " Is it paid for ?" On being informed that a small 
balance remained unsettled, he handed back the key, and not 
until the debt was cancelled would he consent to occupy the 
house, which was quickly done. Such was the moral principle 
of that day. 

Mr. "Whitfield, in his Journal, in his remarks on Mr. Clap, 
says, " His countenance was very . heavenly, and he prayed 
most affectionately for a blessing on my coming to Ehode 
Island. I could not but think I was sitting by one of the 

Dean Berkley was intimate with Mr. Clap, and often spoke 
of his good deeds, and exemplary character. He said, '' Before 
I saw Father Clap, I thought the Bishop of Eome had the most 
grave aspect of any man I ever saw ; but really, the minister 
of Newport has the most venerable appearance." 

The Eev, Mr. Clap continued his pastoral care over the 
First Church, until his death, though he abandoned the house, 
as before remarked, to Mr. Adams and his Church. 

1733. This year, the Second Congregational Church buih 
a new meeting-house, in Clarke-street. 

The Eev. Mr, Adams w^as dismissed, February 25th, 1729— 

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April 2M, 1731, the Eev. James Searing was ordained over 
the Second Church. He died January 6th, 1755., aged fifty 

May, 1740, the 'Rev, Joseph Gardner was ordained co-pastor 
with Mr, Clap, over the First Church, and was disnaissed 
June 10th, 1743. 

' June 20th, 1744, Jonathan Helier was ordained co-pastor 
with Mr, Clap, over the First Church, and died May 27th, 
1745, He was a very ingenious and excellent man. 

October 30th., 1745, the Eev Nathaniel <Clap died, at the 
■advanced age of seventy-eight y-ears. His remains lay in the 
Arnold burial ground, at the rear of the IJjiitarian Church. 

Octob-er 29th, 1746, the Eev. William Vinal was ordained 
pastor of the First Church, and was dismissed September 21st5 

April nth, 1755, Eev. Sammel Hopkins was intalled pastor 
'0f the First Congregational Church. 

October 22d, 1755, Eev. Ezra Stiles was ordained pastor of 
the Second Congregational Church. It was a most curious 
coincidence that two such minds should have been settled 
over Newport xjhurches the same year. 

At the settlement of these distinguished divines, Hopkins 
and Stiles, over the churches in Newport, they were in a 
flourishing condition, and continued so many years, and many 
additions were made to them ; but, in 1744, the difficulties 
connected with the relations that existed betv/een Great Britain 
mnd her American Colonies, began to give warning of the 
^conflict that ensued. Newport began to dechne, commerce 
forsook her wharfs, many dwellings were emptied of their 
inhabitants, and the churches were in a great measure forsaken. 
Dr. Hopkins had removed his family ; and, in 1776, he himself 
left, and returned to reside with his family in Great Barrington, 

On the 23rd of October, 1775, the remiiant of the Second 
Society met, and determined it to be inexpedient to continue 
public worship during the winter, in consideration of the tumul- 
tuous and evacuated state of the town. In the following 
March, their pastor left Newport, and these churches were 
destitute of ministers, and their members scattered abroado 

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Both the bouses of worship, during the war, had been used 
as barracks for the soldiers. The bell of the First Church was 
carried to England, and the pulpit, pews,- and fixtures, were 
demolished. The Second Church fared but little better ; for^ 
though the pulpit was left standings the enemj had put up a 
chimney in the middle of ity and destroyed the pews below, and 
in the gallery. 

In the spring of 1781), Dr. Hopkins returned to his parish, to 
witness a scene of desolation and miseiy ; some of ttie iii em- 
bers of the church and congregation had died,, many had 
sought other homes, and those that remained, were so im- 
poverished and dispirited, that only a few had the moral 
courage to think of reviving their church. But they were 
©ventually able to succeed. 

It has already been remarked, that the enemy had completely 
destroyed the interior of the church, and their limited resources 
prevented their refitting it, only in a plain manner. For year& 
there was no paint on the pews, and the impression was visibly 
seen in the aisles, where the British soldiers had struck the 
muzzles of their gunt^. The people of Taunton veiy kindly 
gave them the pulpit, which continued to be graced with 
Hopkins, and his successors, bo long as the place of worship 
was used by the society. 

But although there was no outward adorning, yet an amount 
of piety existed at that period,- which more than supplied its 
place. The female members of hi® church were many of them. 
eminently pious. There was Madam Osborne,- Busannah An- 
thony, Hannah Johnson, Mrs. Bonely, with many others^ 
^^ whose praise is in all the churches." The writings of Madam. 
Osborne and Susannah Anthony are to be met with in the Sab- 
bath School; librarie& of the land. They were the " poor of 
this world, but rich in faith ^ and heirs of the kingdom which 
God hath prepared for them that love him." They were tO' 
Doctor Hopkins what Aaron and-Hur were to Moses,, they 
stayed up his hands, and encouraged his heart under the con- 
fficts and trials which,, as a soldier of the cross, he was called 
to endure. At that period, there was something witnessed lik© 
the primitive times, when love bound the church together as' 
0tte, The world had not then th@ complete ascendency in the 

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human heart There was a renunciation of " the world, the 
Hesh, and the devil," and a childlike spirit seemed to charac- 
terize the church. 

During the war, Dr. Stiles had accepted the presidency of 
Yale College, although he was not formally dismissed from the 
pastoral charge till after the peace ; consequently, on their re- 
turn to Newport, the Second Church found themselves without 
a pastor, and continued in that state till the 24th of May, 1786, 
on which day the E,ev. WiUiam Patton w^as ordained their min- 

President Stiles was one of the most learned men that our 
-country has ever produced. As a scholar^ he was famihar with 
every department of learning. He had a profound and criti- 
cal knowledge of the Latin, Greek, French, and Hebrew lan- 
guages ; in the Samaritan, Chaldee, S^'-riac, and Arabic, he had 
made considerable progress, and he had bestowed some atten- 
tion on the Persic and Coptic. He had a passion for history, 
and an intimate acquaintance with the rabbinical writings, and 
w^ith those of the fathers of the Christian Church, As a 
preacher, he was impressive and eloquent ; and the excellence 
of his sermons was enhanced by the energy of his delivery, and 
by the unction which pervaded them. His catholic spirit em- 
braced men of every nation, sect, and party. In the cause of 
civil and religious liberty, he was enthusiastic. In his discourse 
on Christian union, he says : " There ought to be no restric- 
tions on the conscience of an honest and sober believer of reve- 

The following appropriate remarks are from the pen of Chan- 
cellor Kent^ one of Dr. Stiles' pupils. 

" A more constant and devoted friend to the Eevolution and 
mdependence of his country, never existed. He had anticipa- 
ted it as early as the year 1760, and his whole soul was enlisted 
in favor of every measure which led on gradually to the for- 
mation and establishment of the American Union. He was 
distinguished for the dignity of his deportment, the politeness 
of his address, and the urbanity of his manners." President 
Stiles was for more than twenty years a resident and distin- 
guished ornament of Rhode Island. 

December 20th, 1803, Eev. Samuel Hopkins, D.D., died aged 
82 years. In his death, the church sustained a heavy loss> 

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Tbougli not eloquent, as was Dr. Stiles, yet there was a solem- 
nity m his preaching which carried conviction to- the under- 
standing and heart, and shewed the sincerity of his mind, as on© 
in whom you could rely. B^ecision of character was preemi- 
nently conspicuous in his whole character — a trait seldom to be 
met with at the present day. His theological views were some- 
what peculiar, and gave great offence, though his opponents 
were constrained to admit his honesty. 

He w^as a target at which the arrows of malice w^ere thrown^ 
"but he stood, as he remarked, "like a brazen wall, un- 
hurt." Charles Oahoone, who' was skeptical in his views, and 
rather eccentric^ was disposed to- annoy the Doctor by sending 
persons to him to buy brimstone. Such conduct was highly 
displeasing to the Doctor, but it never deterred him from 
preaching what he beUeved to be the truth. Cahoone was 
a carver, and a specimen of his work may be- seen on the roof 
of the house of Engine No.. YI., at the head of King-streeto 
It represents old Breton, an English rigger, dressed in his pet^ 
ticoat, trowsers, and cocked hat, with the pig-tail tobacco hang- 
ing out of his pocket. It is a/ac simile of the person. 

^' Dr. Hopkins was a distinguished divine. His mind was 
discerning, and his application was almost unet^ualed. He 
sometimes devoted to his studies eighteen hours in a day. One 
of his peculiar sentiments, was that the inability of sinners is 
moral, not natural ; but this is only saying that their inability 
consists in disinclination of heart, or of opposition of will, to 
what is good. Combining the Calvinistic doctrine that God 
has foreordained whatsoever comes to pass, with his views of 
the nature of sin as consisting entirely in the intention or dispo- 
sition of the mind, he inferred that it was no impeachment upon 
the character of the most righteous Disposer of all events, to 
say, not only that He had decreed the existence of sin, but that 
He exerted His own power to produce it. The design being be- 
nevolent, he contended that no more iniquity could be attached to 
this act, than to the bare permission of sin. This is another of 
his peculiarities. Erom his view of the nature of holiness, as con- 
sisting in disinterested benevolence, he also inferred that a 
Christian should be wiUing to perish forever, to be forever mis^ 
erable, if it should be necessary for the glory of God and the 
good of the universe thajt he should encounter this destruction. 

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" Instead of the Calvinistic doctrine of the strict imputation 
of Adam's sin, and of the righteousness of Christ, he chose 
rather to adopt the language of Scripture in saying, that on 
account of the first transgression, men were made or constitu- 
ted sinners, and that men are justified on account of the right- 
eousness of Christ, or through the redemption which there is in 
him. Another of his peculiarities is, that all sin consists in sel- 

He was a man of large stature, and well proportioned ; 
dressed in the costume of the age, with a full bottomed wig, 
he presented an imposing appearance. 

Sept. 12, 1804, Eev. Caleb T. Tenney was installed pastor of 
the First Church, and was dismissed May 29th, 1815. 

Aug. 23d, 1815, Rev. Calvin Hitchcock was installed over 
the Pirst Church, and was dismissed August 23d, 1820. 

July 25th, 1821, Rev. Samuel Austin, D. D., was installed 
pastor of the First Church, and was dismissed in 1826. Dr. 
Austin, previous to his coming to Newport, had been Presi- 
dent of Burlington College, Vermont. He was an able exposi- 
tor of the Scriptures. 

He was succeeded by Rev. WiHiam Torrey, January, 1827, 
who was dismissed in May, 1829, rather unceremoniously. 

March 24th, 1830, Rev. William Beecher was ordained pas- 
tor of the First Church, and dismissed June 23d, 1833. 

April 18th, 1833, Rev. William Patten was dismissed from 
his pastoral charge over the Second Church, after having min- 
istered to his people for the long period of forty-seven years. 
If great success did not attend his ministrations, if additions 
w^ere not as numerous as in some instances, nevertheless he was 
a pious and devoted servant of Christ, and was strongly en- 
deared to the members of his Church. 

Dr. Patten was a fine classical scholar. There was no at- 
tempt at display in the pulpit ; he deHvered the truth, and left 
it with Grod to apply it to the hearts and consciences of his 
hearers. The reason assigned for his dismission, was that the 
Church had been long in a dechning state. This was not of 
sufficient weight to dissolve a connection which had existed for 
nearly half a century. Dr. Patten had spent the energies of 
his youth in their service ; he had reared up a large family in 
their midst and all his dearest associations were there. It was 

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painful to his mind to be under the necessity of turning his 
back on the people of his charge, and to take up his residence 
in a spot where the changes had been so great in the period of 
nearly half a century, that he scarcely knew any of the inhabi- 

It would have been far better, had the church and society 
proposed a colleagae, and allowed the venerable servant of God 
to have lived and died in their midst. 

Dr. Patten, though dignified in manners, and commanding 
the respect of all, was yet very companionable., and at times 
highly amusing. A Mrs. K., a lady from the South, and con- 
nected with some of the first families, became insane, and was 
placed in the family of Rev. William Patten. She was rather 
disposed to sneer at his pretensions to the ministerial office, 
which he pleasantly submitted to. Subsequently, Brown Uni- 
versity conferred on him the degree of D. D. Mrs. K. contin- 
ued her attacks, when the Doctor remarked, " Why, Mrs, K., 
I am really surprised that a lady of your rank and dignity, will 
condescend so low as to insult a Doctor of Divinity." She ap- 
peared greatly surprised at the announcement. " You a D. D. ?•' 
" Yes, madam ; do you require my credentials ?" '' No, sir," 
she replied ; and from that moment, as he informed' the author, 
she was always respectful. The Doctor jocosely remarked that 
this was all the benefit he derived from the Doctorate. 

Por many years, the Second Church was destitute of a single 
male member, and was indebted to the Deacons of the Pirsl 
Church for the duties which pertain to that office, in the cele- 
bration of the Lord's Supper. In 1833, a project for uniting 
these two churches in one began to be talked of, and gradually 
gained favor, until at length, on the 24th of- May, 1833, the 
work was consummated. 

On the 26th of Sept., 1839, the Rev. A. Henry Dumont was 
installed, by an Ecclesiastical Council, the first pastor of the 
United Church. 

The societies being united in one, deemed it expedient to 
erect a new house of worship, which was accordingly done. 
This house was solemnly dedicated to the worship of the Tri- 
une God, on the 4th of June, 1834. 

The present pastor is the Rev. Thatcher Thayer, who suc- 
ceeded the Rev. Mr. Dumont, and who is highly esteemed by 
his people. 

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The two Congregational Churches, up to the time of the 
death of Dr. Hopkins, enjoyed the most entire harmony. So 
pure and deep was the sympathy of the two pastors, that they 
called each other by the appellations of /ai^Aer and son. The 
last time that Dr. Hopkins walked out with Dr. Patten, who at 
that time was comparatively a young man, and accompanied 
him home, Dr. Hopkins said, " What need have I any more of 
a cane, since I have your arm ;" and gave his cane or long 
staff, mounted with ivory, into the hands of Dr. Patten, who 
used it afterwards, and reckoned it among his choice things. 
They were like David and Jonathan, '' pleasant and lovely in 
their lives," and in their resting place on earth they are not 
divided. They repose in front of the Spring-street church. 

A strong desire is expressed by the family of the late la- 
mented Dr. Patten, that a monument be erected to his memory, 
and we trust, for the honor of the town, that no obstacles will 
be thrown in the way of the accomplishment of the object. 

At the same time, the church and society over which Dr. 
Hopkins presided for so many years, should erect a suitable 
monument to his memory, or join with the family of Dr. Patten 
in the praiseworthy undertaking. 

The estimation in which Dr. Hopkins' writings were held in 
Scotland, led the College at Edinburgh to confer on him the 
degree of D.D. It w-as a high honor, and showed that they 
highly appreciated his talents as an able theologian. 

Dr. Hopkins' salary, for many years, did not exceed $200 per 
annum, and the parsonage house, which is still standing. His 
study would only admit of a table, with just sufficient room to 
move round it ; it was there he wrote his System of Divinity, 
which cost him ten years' labor, and for the copyright of which 
he obtained $800. 

A wealthy lady of his church, Mrs. Wright, was in the habit 
of furnishing himself and wife, which then comprised his fam- 
ily, dinner three times a week from her own table ; and he and 
his companion would often take tea out, with some of his pa- 
rishioners, who were always gratified with the visit of their 
pastor. Dr. Hopkins often remarked that he would not ex- 
change his situation for an increase of salary, so dehghted was 
he with Newport, and the affectionate church over which he 

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But few such self-sacrificing spirits are to be met with in this 
world. It was theflock^ and not the fleece he was after. He 
had consecrated himself to the work of the Gospel ministry, 
and in that service he labored until removed by death. He 
looked for higher honors than earth could possibly confer, as 
the reward of his labors and toils in the service of his Lord 
and Master. A faithful minister will proclaim the truth to both 
saint and sinner ; he will not shun to declare the whole counsel 
of God. The commission which he professes to have received, 
binds him to the faithful performance of this duty. His ofiice 
is not one of earthly appointment, if well understood — though 
many at this day seem to view it so, by the cautious manner in 
which they wield the weapons of the Gospel, lest the minds of 
their hearers should be disturbed. It was not so with Hop- 
kins and his associates ; they believed that the investiture was 
from Jehovah, and that obedience was required of all who bore 
the vessels of the sanctuary. They put their trust entirely in 
God, and not in man for a blessing on their labors of love. 
Such were the divines Clark, Callender, Stiles, Hopkins, Brown, 
Clap, Thurston, and Patten, who graced the pulpits of that 
day. , 

1787. — Last Saturday night arrived here Capt. Benjamin 
Pearce, in the brig Ehzabeth, sixty-three days from Copenhagen, 
bringing a bell of about 1,100 lbs. weight, for the Second Con- 
gregational Church of the City of Newport. ''The City of 
Newport" is cast on the bell. It is now in the belfry of the 
Union Congregational Church, in Spring-street. 


The First Baptist Church in Providence having arrogated to 
itself the honor of being the first in the State and in the country, 
it was taken for granted that their claim was a vahd one, and 
none attempted to deny to. them the honor. But recently the 
subject has undergone a thorough examination, which has 
resulted in giving an entire new version to the subject. A com- 
mittee was appointed by the church at Providence, to invest!- 

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gate the matter, of, whicli Eev, T. C. Jameson was Chairman^ 
wherein they repoi^ that they " are of the opinion that the 
Baptist church at Newport was formed certainly before the 1st 
of May, 1639, and probably on the 7th of March, 1638." In- 
stead of submitting to the report, which, according to parlia- 
mentary usages, they should have done, they came out with a 
review of the doings of their committee, and finding themselves 
driven to the wall by the weight of evidence furnished of the 
priority of the First Church in Newport, labored to show that 
it was not in its comm encement Anna-Baptist, but Psedo-Baptist. 
May 11th, 1639. The existence of this church was matter 
of public record in Massachusetts : 

'' 1639. The people of Aquedneek, gathered a church in a 
very disordered way, for they took' some excommunicated per- 
sons, and others who were members of the church of Boston, 
and not dismissed." 

^^ The church of Boston sent three brethren with letters to Mr. 
Coddington, and the rest of our members at Aquedneek, to 
understand their judgment in divers points of religion formerly 
maintained by all, or divers of them, and to require them to 
give account to the church of their unwarrantable practice, in 
communicating with excommunicated persons, &c. When they 
came, they found that those of them who dwelt at Newportj, 
had joined themselves to a church there, newly constituted^ 
and therefore refused to hear them as messengers of our churchy 
or to receive the church's letters. Whereupon, at their return^ 
the elders and most of the church would have them cast out, as 
refusing to hear the church, but all not being agreed, it was de- 
ferred." — Winthroph Journal^ 1st mouthy (March) 24, 1639-40. 
From this extract, it appears that this church, from its or- 
ganization, rejected infant baptism, the supervision of the civil 
magistrates, &c., and was in fact a Baptist church. On what 
other ground can we possibly reconcile the conduct of the 
church at Newport, in thus refusing to receive the messengers 
which were sent from Boston ? Most certainly, if they had been 
at this period Psedo-Baptist, they would never have rejected 
those of the same faith and order, but would have extended the 
right hand of fellowship to their brethren. It is well-known 
that infant baptism at that day among Psedo-Baptists, was the 
sine qua non^ and all who diifered in this grand essential were 

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viewed as heretical and worthy to receive thirty stripes, which 
were subsequently inflicted on Mr. Holmes and others with great 

The charge preferred against this church was '^ in their com- 
municating with excommunicated persons." Now, it is not 
probable that the church in Newport would receive into their 
communion, persons of immoral character, but rather individ- 
uals that had thought proper to exercise their own private • 
judgment in matters of conscience. This was a point which 
gave offence to the churches in Massachusetts, and led them to 
view the church in Newport, as unworthy of their fellowship, 
having abandoned a vital principle of Christianity. There is 
displayed a spirit of dictation by the Congregational churches 
of Masisachusetts towards this church, which preeminently 
characterizes their histoiy. They came to Newport to hrow- 
heat this church, but the church would not recognize them as 
brethren of the same faith and order with themselves. They were 
Anna-Baptists as early as this period, for in no other sense can we 
reconcile their conduct towards the churches of Massachusetts, 
which is well-known were Psedo-Baptist, and held to the ordi- 
nance of infant sprinkling as a matter of infinite importance. 

The First Baptist Church in Providence has assumed two 
points, which she is unable to maintain : Pirst, her existence 
being prior to that of the church at Newport ; secondly, that 
the church was founded by Eoger Williams. Comer, the first, 
and for the early history of our denomination, the most reliable 
of writers, ascribes distinctly and repeatedly, this priority to the 
Newport church. He had formed the design, more than a hun- 
dred and twenty years ago, of writing the history of the Ameri- 
can Baptists, and in that work which he only lived to commaence, 
but which embraces an account of this church, he says in one 
place, that it is the first of the Baptist denomination ; and clos- 
ing his history of it, he says : " Thus I have briefly given some 
account of the settlement and progress of the First Baptist 
church on Rhode Island, in New-England, and the first in 

From the way in which he asserts it, the priority of the New> 
port church must have been a universally conceded fact. He 
was careful to excess, not to record as certain, that on which 
any suspicion rested, and yet this father of American Baptist 

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history, whose veracity has never been questioned, states that in 
age it was prior to any other Baptist church in America. It is 
true, and I was sorry to see it, some later hand has added in a 
note : " Excepting that of Providence^ Who wrote this, I will 
not say, but no one should touch Comer's writings, unless he is 
a more reliable witness than that pains-taking and impartial 

Besides his general carefulness, he was, when he wrote the 
above, on the most favorable terms with the Providence churchy 
while a difficulty had occurred between him and the Newport 
church, which caused him the most painful feelings. 

This interpretation of the writings of Comer, in order to give 
the priority to the church at Providence, is most certainly an 
unchristian act, and shows to what miserable shifts they were 
driven to obtain the honor which justly belongs to another. 
This, however, is not the first attempt to pluck the laurels from 
the brow of the people of Newport, and which they have too 
long passively submitted to ; but a redeeming spirit is at worky 
which will be put forth in defence of her just and lawful claims, 
as the first to rear the Baptist standard in this land, as well as 
the first to publish to the world the great principle of the rights 
of conscience. 

Eev. Mr. Adlam has shown conclusively that the present 
First Baptist church of Providence has existed only from 1652, 
and thus it cannot be the oldest of the Baptists in America. Dr, 
Hague, late pastor of that church, in his " Historical Discourse,'^ 
prepared with great care, and received with uncommon satis- 
faction and respect by his people, does not deny a single state- 
ment that Comer, or Callender, or Backus have made, but as far 
as he refers to this subject harmonizes with them, 

•The Pirst Baptist church in Providence has been called the 
*' Eoger WiUiams' Church," implying that he was its first patron 
and founder, and this, until very recently, has been the generally 
received opinion. Stephen Hopkins, Signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, grandson of Wickenden, uniformly affirmed 
that Wickenden was the first elder of the existing church, and 
asserted this in his'' History of Providence," published in 1765. 
Moses Brown, that venerable Nestor of Providence, as he is 
called by Knowles, always held that his ancestor Chad Brown^ 
Was the first elder of the Providence Baptist church. John 

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Angelj born in 1691, claimed the same honor for his grand- 
father, Gregory Dexter, ancestor of Nathaniel G. B. Dexter, 
Esq., of Pawtucket, E. I. 

Callender, in 1738, says : " The most ancient inhabitants now 
alive, some of them above eighty years old, who personally knew 
Mr. Williams, and were well acquainted with many of the ori- 
ginal settlers, never heard that Mr. Williams formed the Bap- 
tist chm'ch there, but always understood that Mr. Brown, Mr. 
Wickenden, or Wigginton, Mr. Dexter, Mr. Olney, Mr. Tilling- 
liast, &c., were the first founders of that church.^' 

" This shows that the general opinion of Roger Williams being 
the founder and first pastor of that church is a modern theory; 
the farther you go back, the less generally is it believed, till 
coming to the most ancient times, to the men who knew Wil- 
liams, they are such entire strangers to it, that they never heard 
that he formed th^ Baptist church there. 

" Among the evils that have resulted from the wrong date 
of the Providence church, has been the prominence given to 
Roger Williams, It is greatly to be regretted that it has 
ever entered into the mind of any one to make him, in America, 
the founder of our denomination. In no sense was he so ; well 
would it be for Baptists, and for Wilhams himself, could his 
short and fitful attempt to become a Baptist, be obhterated from 
the minds of men. A man only four months a Baptist, and then 
renouncing his baptism, forever, to be lauded and magnified as 
the founder of the Baptist denomination in the New World t 
There is another name long, too long concealed by Williams'' 
being placed before him, who will in after time be regarded with 
unmingled affection and respect, as the true founder of the Bap- 
tist cause in this country. 

'^ That orb of purest lustre will yet shine forth, and Baptists, 
whether they regard his spotless character, his talents, his learn- 
ing, the services he rendered, the urbanity and the modesty 
that distinguished him, will mention John Clarke, as the real 
founder of our denomination in America. And when Baptist 
history is better known than it is at present, every one pointing 
to that venerable church, which on one of earth's lovehest spots 
he estabHshed, will say: ^' This is the mother of us all 1" — Rev. 
■S. Adlam^ on the Origin of the Baptist Churches. 

Having presented the proof of the priority of the First 

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Baptist Church in Newport, we will proceed to notice the most 
important events connected with its history 
Dr. John Clarke was its first pastor. 

The first house erected to the w^orship of God, was built at 
Greenend ; they sold the house, and built a new one in 1708, 
on the lot in Tanner-street, now used as a burial place fiDr the 
pastors of the church. The ground was the gift of John Clarke. 
Mr. Obadiah Holmes was the second pastor of this church, 
and was called to that office very soon after Mr. Clarke sailed 
for England. In him the church found a bold and fearless ad- 
vocate for truth, and a faithful and indefatigable pastor ; which 
office he continued to discharge, until, in 1682, he was removed 
from the scene of his sufferings and toils by death, in the 
seventy-sixth year of his age. He lies buried on the Holmes 
Parm, in Middletown, now owned by Gideon Peckham, Esq., 
where a tomb is erected to his memory. 

Mr. Holmes was educated at the University of Oxford, in 
England, and seems to have been well adapted to the times in 
which he lived,- — times which tried men's souls. The name of 
Holmes has now become extinct on the island, but his descen. 
dants, in the male line, are still numerous in New Jersey ; 
some of his descendants, in the female line, are still living in 

After Mr. Holmes' death, the church seems to have been 
without a pastor, until about the year 1690, when Mr. Eichard 
Dingley became their pastor. He continued with them only 
four years, when he left, and went to Charleston, South Caro- 
lina. After Mr. Dingley left, the church being few in number, 
and^'without any one to administer to them the word of life, 
they concluded to sit under the ministry of the Rev. Mr. 
Hiscox, of the Sabbatarian Church. 

In 1711, this little band w^ere again permitted to go up to 
the Zion they loved, and sit under the ministry of the Eev. 
WilHam Peckham, who was ordained to the pastoral care of 
the church that same year. 

Mr. Peckham continued faithfully to discharge the duties of 
Ms office, until the increasing infirmities of age rendered assist- 
ance indispensable to his own happiness, and the prosperity of 
the church. 

In May, 1718, it appears from the records of the church, 

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that a Mr. Daniel White was. received to her fellowship, by a 
letter from a church in England, and was soon after invited by 
the church to assist Elder Peckham in the discharge of his 
ministerial services ; but he proved a very troublesome man, 
and created a division in the church. 

In 1724, a meeting-house was erected for Mr. "White, in 
which he continued to hold meetings for about four years ; 
when, having but one individual member of his church left, he 
sold the meeting-house, and left the place. 

In 1725, the church invited Mr. John Comer to become the 
colleague of Mr. Peckham, which invitation he accepted, and 
entered upon the duties of his office the following spring. Mr. 
Comer was a man of talents, and eminently successful as a 
minister of Jesus. Under his ministry, the number of the 
church was increased. He also commenced the records of the 
church before alluded to, and to him we are indebted for much 
of her early history. But the prosperity and happiness of the 
church, under Mr. Comer's administration, was soon interrupted 
by a sermon, delivered by him on Lord's day, November 17th, 
1728, in which he maintained the doctrine of imposition of 
hands on baptized believers, as indispensable to church member- 
ship, &c. This discourse gave great uneasiness to the church, 
and finally resulted in his dismission, which occurred on the 
8th of January, 1729 ; they, however, parted with their late 
pastor in love and peace. 

The sixth pastor of this church, was the Eev. John Callender, 
nephew of the Eev. Ehsha Callender, of the old Baptist 
Church, in Boston. Mr. Callender was a native of Boston, 
and received his education at Harvard University, in Cam- 
bridge. He accepted the invitation of this church to become 
their pastor on the 4th of July, 1731, and on the 13th day of 
October following, was set apart to that office, by fasting, and 
prayer, and the imposition of hands. The churches of Boston 
and Swanzey, by their ministers and messengers, were invited 
to participate in the services. 

Mr. Callender ministered in this church, during the period 
of almost seventeen years, and was very evidently attended 
with the approbation and blessing of Grod. Like his divine 
master, Mr. Callender was poor in this world's goods, " but 
rich in faith, and heir to an inheritance incorruptible, undefiled. 

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and that fadeth not away." His passage through this vale of 
tears, though not protracted to great length, was one of adver- 
sity, sickness, and pain. His departure from the toils and 
sorrows of earth, to that rest which remaineth for the people of 
God, was on the 26th of January, 1748, in the forty-second 
year of his age. Mr. Callender not only lived to secure the 
reputation of the scholar and gentleman, but what is infinitely 
more valuable, the reputation of a liberal-minded, pious, and 
devoted christian. 

His Historical Sermon, preached in March, 1738, has immor- 
talized his name. It breathes the same spirit of rehgious 
freedom and liberality of sentiment, that distinguished the names 
of Clarke, Coddington, and their associates. 

His remains lie in the burial place in Tanner- street, Newport, 
beside John Clarke, which render it a consecrated spot. 

The following inscription was composed by Dr. Moffat, a 
celebrated physician of Newport : 

" Confident of awakening, here roposeth, 


Of very excellent endowments of nature, 

And of an accomplished education, 

Improved by application, in the wide circle 

Of the more polite arts, and useful sciences, 

IFrom motives of conscience and grace. 

He dedicated himself to the immediate service 

Of God, 
In which he was distinguished as a shining 
And very burning light, by a true and faithful 
Ministry of seventeen years, in the First Baptist 
Church of Rhode Island ; where the purity 
And evangelical simplicity of his doctrine, confirmed 
And embellished by the virtuous and devout tenor 

Of his own life. 
Endear' d him to his flock, and justly conciliated 
The esteem, love, and reverence of all the 
Wise, worthy, and good. 
Much humility, benevolence, and charity 
Breathed in his conversation, discourses, and 

Which were all pertinent, reasonable, and usefuL 
Regretted by all, lamented by his friends, and 

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Deeply deplored by a Wife, and numerous issue, 
He died 
In the forty-second year of his age, 
January 26th, 1748, 
Having struggled through the vale of life 
In adversity, much sickness, and pain, 
"With fortitude, dignity, and elevation of soul, 
Worthy the Philosopher, Christian, and Divine." 

Mr. Oallender was succeeded in the pastoral office by the 
Rev. Edward Uphanij who continued with them for more than 
twenty years, when, by death, he was removed from his labors, 
to that rest that remaineth for the people of God. 

The eighth pastor of this church, was the Eev. Erasmus 
Kelley. He accepted the call of the church in 1771, and con- 
tinued in the faithful discharge of his duty until 1778, when the 
meeting-house being used as a barrack for the troops of King- 
George, he removed to Warren. But, in a few mpnths, the 
enemy followed him to that place, and burnt the house in 
which he resided, and destroyed his valuable furniture. 

In 1784, Mr. Kelley returned to Newport, and resumed his 
pastoral labors among his flock. But they were, however, of 
short continuance, for, on the 7th of November following, he 
was removed by death. 

The ninth pastor was the Eev. Benjamin Foster, D. D. Mr. 
Eoster commenced his labors with the church on the first 
sabbath in January, 1785, and, on the 5th of June following, 
was installed to the pastoral office. He contineud with them 
for three years, when he received and accepted a call from the 
Eirst Baptist Church in New- York. Mr. Eoster was a man 
of superior intellect, and of high Uterary attainments. He was 
well versed in the Greek, Hebrew, and Chaldean languages. 

In 1789, the Eev. Michael Eddy became the pastor of this 
church, the duties of which office he continued to discharge 
for almost half a century. He possessed a liberal mind, was a 
pleasant companion, and in the sick-room, and at the bedside 
of death, he excelled. Mr. Eddy departed this life on the 
3d day of June, 1835, in the seventy-fifth year of his age 

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respected and beloved by his friends, in the church and congre- 
gation, and by the inhabitants of Newport. If greatness 
consists in goodness, then was Elder Eddy worthy of the 
appellation. During his labors of love in the church, he bap-., 
tized mare than five hundred, many of whom have been removed 
by death, and some remain unto this day. He was assisted 
one year, by the Eev. J. M'Kensie, of Newport 

The Eev. Arthur A. Eoss was installed March 11th, 1835,^ 
^nd remained with them a few years. 

The present pastor is the Eev, So Adlani, who continues to 
be popular witb his people. 


In 1656, twenty-one members of the First Baptist Churcb in 
Newport, withdrew themselves, and formed the Second Baptist 
Church in this town. These brethren objected to the original 
church, in her use of psalmody, restraints upon the Uberty of 
prophesying, and holding the laying on of hands a matter of 
indifference, which they regarded -as binding on all believers. 

The grounds for this schism will be looked npon at this day 
^s too trivial to cause a separation. This very church, now^, has 
an organ, agreeably to the directions of the sweet singer of 
Israel, " Praise Him upon the organ, and let every thing that 
hath breath, praise the Lord." It shows the progress which 
has been made in the science of music, by conforming to the 
letter and spirit of the Bible. It w^as viewed by these brethren 
as sin for any to engage in sacred music but the professed 
members of the church, and this without the least regard to 
»Grder. A choir w^as looked upon as -an infringement, and 
at variance Avith the teachings of the apostles. The tuning 
fork, the pitch-pipe, was horrible, and w^hen the big fiddle, as 
it was then called, was introduced into the sanctuary, it was an 
innovation, which could not for a moment be tolerated. But, 
alas ! those days of scriptural simplicity have fled, and now^ the 
organ is thought to be a necessary appendage, and its absence 
renders the services far less interesting. It is stated, that when 
Bishop Berkeley was in this country, he offered an organ to the 

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Congregational Churchy in Berkley, Massachusetts, whieli they 
refused to accept. It was then presented to Trinity Church, 
Newport. How are the times changed 1 The town of Berkley 
was named in honor of the prelate. 

The iirst pastor of this Church was theEev. William Yaughan^ 
who continued with them till his death, in 1677. 

The second was the Eev. Thomas Baker,, who subsequently 
settled in North Kingston. He was succeeded by the Eev, 
John Harden, who died in 1700. 

The fourth pastor was the Eev, James Clarke, nephew of Dr. 
John Clarke. He was assisted in the discharge of his pastoral 
duties by tho Eev. Daniel Whitman, who succeeded him in that 
office, in 1704, 

In 1729, Mr.. John Comer became a member of this churchy 
and as Mr. Whitman was now aged and infirm, the church invi- 
ted Mr, Comer to assist him in the ministry. Mr, Clarke died 
in 1736, aged eighty-seven years. 

After the death of Mr. Clarke^ the church invited Mr. Nicho- 
las Eyers to become the colleague of Mr. Whitman^ in which 
he continued until Mr. Whitman^ death, m 1750. Mr. Eyer© 
died in 1759. 

He was succeeded by the Eev. Gardiner Thurston, who con- 
tinued to discharge the duties of a minister of Jesus Christ 
with great faithfulness and success for more than forty years,- 
when increasing infirmities of age pressed heavily upon him^ 
and he applied to his beloved flock to procure an assistant,. tO' 
relieve him from some part of his arduous labors^^ Mr. Thurs- 
ton was not distinguished for superior talents ; but he possessed, 
in a very eminent degree, what is infinitely more valuable^— a 
heart deeply imbued with the spirit of his divine Master, which 
led him to labor untiringly in his service, "Under his ministry^ 
the' church was united in love,, and many were the trophies of 
redeeming grace, through his mstni mentality. He was assist- 
ed for a few months by the Eev. Thomas Dunn ; after him, by 
the Eev. William Peckhamy a hcentiate and member of the 

In 1799, the Eev. William Collier, of Boston, was invited to' 
labor as the assistant of Mr. Thurston. But in 1801, the ven- 
erable servant of God, knowing that the time of his departure 
was at ha^nd, earnestly entreated his people to procure a pasto!?. 

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and release him from the responsibilities of his charge. Ac- 
cordingly, in May of that year, he was permitted to witness 
the settlement of the Eev. Joshua Bradley as his successor in 
the pastoral office. Mr. Thurston died the following year, aged 
©ighty-two. " The memory of the just is blessed."" 

In October, 1807, the Rev. Mr. Gibson became their pastor; 
which office he held till March^ 1815, when he requested and 
received a discharge from the pastoral charge of the church. 
Mr. Gribson 'was very successful in building up the cause of 
Christ, and many will have occasion to rejoice forever, who were 
made recipients of divine grace through his instrumentality. 

The Rev. Samuel Widown was his successor, who continued 
with the church until 1817, when the Eev. Mr. Elton w^as invi- 
ted to become its pastor, and was ordained on the 11th of June, 
of the same year. During the year 1820, more than one hun- 
dred were added by baptism. In 1822, Mr. Elton, having re- 
ceived a call from the Baptist Church in Windsor, Vermont, 
requested a dismission, which was reluctantly granted by his 
affectionate people. 

Mr, Elton was succeeded in the pastoral office by the late 
lamented Gammell, December 10, 1823- Mr. Gammell's ca- 
reer was short, but brilliant ; on the 31st of May, 1827, he sud- 
denly expired, in the full hope of a glorious immortality. Mr. 
Gammell was no ordinary man ; v/hat was wanting in classical 
education, was more than made up in native talent That stiff- 
i^ess and formality which is often the result of an imperfect 
training, was not witnessed in his case. There was an inde- 
pendence of character displayed in his public efforts, which 
showed that he felt his accountability to his God, and not to 
man. His death was not only deeply afflicting to his family and 
the church of God, but lamented by thousands who had with 
pleasure hung upon his hps, as the ambassador of Heaven, and 
listened to the impassioned eloquence of his soul. 

On the 27th of September following, the Rev. J. 0. Choules 
was inducted into the pastoral office. On the 3d of January^ 
1833, Mr. Choules tendered his resignation as pastor of the 
church, which was accepted on the 25th of the same month. 

In December, 1833, Rev. John Dowling was called to the 
pastoral charge, which call he accepted. On the 27th of March 
followingj he was publicly recognized as their pastor. On the 

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20th of July, 1836, Mr. Bowling tendered bis resignationy 
which was accepted. 

The Eev. Timothy G-. Freeman was invited to become pastor 
of this chnrch, on the 15th of January, 1837, which invitation 
he accepted, and w'as set apart to that office on the 16th of 
March following. 

There is a ministerial fund of $8,000, left by the late Judge 
Taber, as also $1,000 for a poor fund^ f^r th© benefit of the- 


The exact time- when the Society of Eriends of Quakers 
formed themselves into a body for church government, cannot 
now be actually stated. When William Leddra and Marma- 
duke Stephenson came to Newport, in the year 1658 or '59^ 
they found their brethren here; and Daniel Gould, the first 
minister they have any account of in Newport, went to Boston 
with them, where the two first named were hanged, and Gould 
severely whipped at the carriage- of a great gun, as appears by 
his account, written by himself, and pubhshed in 1700. The first 
records of the monthly meeting commenced- in the year 1676. 

But it is evident that they were^ farmed into ,a society previ- 
ous to that time, as John Burnyeat, a minister here from Eng- 
land, speaks in his Journal of attending a yearly meeting in 
Newport, as early as 1671 ; and George Pox the following 
year, 1672, which was held at the house of William Godding- 
ton. In early times, the society was very large. About one- 
half the population, in 1700, were of that persuasion^ and in 
that year they built the meeting house in which they now wor- 

There have been many ministers, and other conspicuous mem^- 
bers of that society, who lived in Newport and its vicinity. The 
most distinguished ministers who appeared among them ^. were 
Daniel Gould, John Hewlett, Ebenezer Slocum, Thomas Cor- 
nell, Samuel Ereeborn, William Anthony, Gov. John Wanton^ 
Joseph Wanton, Dr. Clarke Eodman, John Casey, Christopher 
Townsend, Joseph Michel, Isaac Lawton, David Buffum, Ja- 
®ob Mott. and many others., The Mott family have ever been 

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highly respectable ; the property has continued in the family 
from the early settlement of the Island, and the sixth Jacob 
now occupies the homestead. General Nathaniel Greene's 
mother was Mary, the daughter of Jacob Mott, of Portsmouth, 
E. I. Like ^ary, the mother of Washington, she gave an im« 
press to his character, which rendered him highly distinguished. 
He was brought up in the religious principles of the Society 
of Priends, of which his father was a preacher. He early be- 
came fond of a military life, and was most active in forming the 
miUtary company known as the Kentish Guards. General 
Greene's abilities soon attracted notice, and he was particularly 
distinguished by George Washington, who deservedly placed 
great confidence in his talents and judgment. When the army 
was formed, he was appointed Major- General. Gen. Greene 
was born at Potowamet, in the township of Warwick, P. I., 
on the 22d of May, 1742. The estate is still in possession of 
his family. He died at Savannah, Geo., aged forty-seven 

Since the Kevolutionary war, the Society has decreased in 
Newport, and on the Island. There are, however, a respecta- 
ble number, who meet, both at Newport and at Portsmouth, 
and hold regular meetings in the middle of the w^eek, on 
Thursdays and Sundays. 

Previous to the war of the Eevolution, their meeting house 
was well filled, above and below ; but at tha.t time many of its 
most wealthy members removed to other places, and never re- 
turned — and it is now remarked that there are but few settle- 
ments of Priends in the State of New York, or in Vermont, 
where the seed of Ehode Island is not to be found. And it is 
now easily shown, that within forty years, more of this Society 
have removed from the Island, than now dwell upon it. 

This Society, at one period of the settlement, say from 1660 
to 1760, was very influential in the government of the Colony. 
A large proportion of its Governors and other oflacers, were of 
that denomination. Among whom may be enumerated Wm. 
Ooddington, Nicholas Easton, John Easton, Walter Clarke, and 
Henry Bull, who died the last of the first settlers ; and John 
Wanton, Gideon Wanton, and Governor Hopkins, were all 
members of the Society. 

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This church was constituted in 1671. Several members of 
Mr. Clarke's church, entertaining conscientious scruples in re- 
gard to keeping the first day of the week as the Christian Sab- 
bath, withdrew from the fellowship of that church, and organ- 
ized^ themselves into a church, with Mr. Wilham Hiscox as then' 
leader. He died May 24, 1704, in the 66th year of his age. 

The second pastor of this church was Eev. William Gibson, 
of London. He died March 12th, 1717, aged seventy-nine. 

He was succeeded by Eev. Joseph Crandall, who died in 

Their next pastor was Eev. Joseph Maxson, who was ordained 
as an Evangehst at Newport, Oct. 8th, 1732, and preached 
alternately at Newport and Westerly, serving the church with 
great faithfulness until his death, which occurred in September, 

Elder John Maxson was the fifth pastor of this church, from 
the year 1754 until his death, in March, 1778. 

Mr. Ebenezer David, who was converted in Erown Univer- 
sity, during his collegiate course of study, became a member of 
this church, and was ordained May 31, 1775. He accepted a 
place of chaplain in the army, in which office he died, near 
Ehiladelphia, March 19th, 1778. 

Mr. William Bhss became their next pastor. He was admit- 
ted as a member of the church, June 7th, 1764, and was or- 
dained an evangelist at Hopkinton, Dec. 7th, 1779, and 
was installed pastor of this church, Dec. 25th, 1780. He con- 
tinued faithfully to discharge the duties of his office until his 
death, which occurred May 4th, 1808, aged eighty-one years. 

Elder Bliss owned a farm at '' Green-End," where he resided. 
His second wife was the sister of Gov. Ward. The relation- 
ship of the people of the Island, either by blood or marriage, is 
quite remarkable, when the matter is investigated. They seem 
to be one family. Elder Bhss was a fine sportsman, and the 
neighborhood where he resided furnished much game at that 
period. The precision with which he took aim, and his great 
success, led the British, who were often present to witness his 
skill, to think they had a formidable enemy to encounter in the 

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Yankees. His remains lay buried in the family burial ground 
at Green-End. 

On the Bliss farm are excavations, known as the *' Bliss Mines." 
Tradition says " it was the work of money diggers," who beheved 
that treasure was hidden there. Of their success we have no means 
of knowing. It w^as a judicious remark of an eminent professor, 
that " the most gold lay under the ploughshare." Some of late 
have attempted to invest these subterraneous passages with the 
marvellous, in order to excite interest in the minds of the credu- 
lous and unsuspecting. They suggest that it was the chosen 
retreat of the noted Kid, where he deposited his plunder, and 
its proximity to the ocean rendered it a safe and convenient re- 
treat from his enemies. This, however, being of recent origin, 
should be received with caution, as it carries on its front a 
strong appearance of fiction. 

Since penning the above, we have conversed with Captain 
Jeremiah Bhss, now in the 82d year of his age, (the son of Elder 
Bhss.) He remarked : " I have often heard my father say that 
the excavations were made by his father, in the hope of finding 
treasure, which he imagined was buried there."- If there was 
no tradition on the subject, its first appearance would lead the 
mind to the behef that it was the work of nature. But on a 
more careful examination it will be found to have been the work 
of art, as the drills in the rock are plainly visible. The passage 
from the " Mine" to Easton's Pond, was undoubtedly Resigned 
for a drain to carry off the water. It is, on the whole, quite a 
curiosity, and worthy of notice for its antiquity, without making 
it the abode of smugglers. 

The last pastor, Eev. Henry Burdick, was admitted as a mem- 
ber of this body, January 30, 1802, and was ordained to the 
work of the Gospel ministry, December 10, 1807. He continued 
to labor with them until his death, which occurred October 22d, 
1843. Since that period they have had no regular ministrations. 
This church, previous to the Eevolutionary war, embraced a 
number of talented and influential men. The Hon. Samuel 
"Ward, who for several years was Governor of Ehode Island, 
and a member also of the Continental Congress, belonged to this 
church. But the war scattered them, and greatly interrupted 
their prosperity. Since that time this church has never been 
able to recover her former eminence, and for several years past, 

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having but few if any additions, the churcli has gradually de- 
creased, so that its present number is but eight, who reside in 
Newport. Their first house of worship was built at " Greene 
End," near Newport. 


In 1758, the Moravians, or United Brethren, constituted a 
church in Newport. The origin of this church is as follows : 

In 1749, two missionaries, Matthew Beutz, and George Haske, 
stopped at Newport, on their way to Surinam. While here, 
they formed an acquaintance with the Rev. Timothy Peckham, 
a Sabbatarian preacher, who kindly received them at his house, 
and introduced them to several pious persons, who desired them 
to preach to them the unsearchable riches of Christ. This re- 
quest was comphed with, and at their departure deep solicitude 
was expressed by their hearers, that a teacher from among the 
Brethren might be sent to gather a congregation in Newport. 
These Brethren no sooner arrived at their place of destination, 
than they wrote to Bethlehem, Penn., and requested that some 
of the Brethren at that place, if possible, should make them a 
visit. Soon after two Brethren from Bethlehem made them a 
visit, and others from time to time, until the constitution of the 
church, in 1758. 

The first pastor of this church was the Rev. Ei chard Utley. 

The second pastor was the Rev. Thomas Yarrell 

The third pastor was Rev. Prederick Smith. 

These were pastors of the church from its constitution until 
the year 1765. 

The fourth pastor was the Rev. Lewis Rusmeyer, who held 
this oflace from 1766 to 1783. 

Prom 1785 to 1802, the Rev. Prederick Smith held the pas- 
toral office of this church. 

The sixth pastor was the Rev. Samuel Towle, from 1803 
to 1819. Mr. Towle was a most estimable man ; he was uni- 
versally beloved by the church and the inhabitants of Newport, 
and it is a matter of regret that he and his family were not con- 
tinued here. It was ascertained after he had left, that the 
society in Bethlehem would have afforded her aid in Newport, 

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witlioiit Km repairing to Bethlehem'. The infirmities of age pre- 
vented his laboring much in the service of Christ ; still his pre- 
sence was consoling, with those of his amiable wife and twO' 
lovely daughters, Marj and Louisa, who have all since passed 
into the eternal world. 

His successor was Rev. George G-. Miller, who remained with 
the church but one year. 

In 1821, Eev. John G. Herman became the pastor of the 
church, the duties of which office he continued to discharge 
until 1823. 

The ninth pastor, Eev. Charles A. Van Yleck, served the 
church from 1827 to 1834. 

The tenth and last pastor was the Eev. Charles E. Seidel, 
who commenced his pastoral relations in 1837. For many years 
they have been without a shepherd, and the flock has become 
greatly reduced. But a few are now to be found in Newport^ 
and they have connected themselves with other religious bodies^ 
The influence of this Christian body had a salutary influence on 
the hearts of the community ; the weapon which they wielded 
was love, and this alone will subdue the evil passions of man's 
nature, and fit and quahfy him for heaven. 


The Fourth Baptist Church in Newport, was orgaiiized June 
23, 1783. The original members of the church were nine males^ 
and these were chiefly from the Second Baptist Church in this 
town, who not feehng satisfied to remain in that church, with- 
drew and formed another. 

They believed that '' where the spirit of the Lord is, there is 
liberty," and hence they thought all Christians were called upon 
to exhort, and to teach in public. " Also, the liberty and duty 
to prophesy or exhort, in all or any meetings of the church, was 
most fully recognized and maintained." 

The first ministers of the church were Eev. Caleb Greene and 
Wilham Moore, who were ordained November 27th, 1796,, and 
w^ere succeeded by John Ormsbee, a member of the Baptist 
church in North Providence. 

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Mr. Ormsbee was ordained the 1 4th of September, 1821, and 
removed to Wickford in 1822. Between this time and 1826, 
Elder Greene and Elder James Graham, preached with them a 
short time, the last being invited to become their pastor, but 
was under the necessity of returning to Beauford, S. C, in con- 
sequence of the decease of the minister of the church in that 
place. Mr. Graham was a highly acceptable preacher. 

The next minister was James A. McKenzie, who was or- 
dained to the pastoral office, August 12th, 1830. Mr. McKen- 
zie was succeeded by the Eev. Samuel Bobbins, of Buxton, 
Me., November, 1835. 

This church can now hardly be said to have an existence, no 
more than the Sabbatarians and the Moravians. It is painful 
to see churches which have once existed, lose their visibility. 


Previous to the year 1805, Newport was occasionally visited 
by Methodist clergymen, having oversight of that district of 
country in which Newport was situated. 

In December, 1805, the presiding elder of this district was 
pleased to send to this place the Eev. E. Hubbard, who com- 
menced his mission in the Eirst Baptist meeting-house, under 
the pastoral care of the Eev. Michael Eddy. Mr. Hubbard 
continued here two years, and was succeeded by the Eev. 
Messrs. Mervin, Webb, Erost, and Lambert, when the latter 
was succeeded by Mr. Webb, who became a Local Preacher, 
and remained with the church nine years. He was succeeded 
by Messrs. Mudge, Norris, Puffer, Tucker, Kent, Lord, Jansen, 
Ely, and Cady. 

There is also a small church, of the Methodist denomination, 
in Portsmouth, in the north part of the island, which has a 
convenient house of w^orship, and is regularly supplied with 
the ministry of the word of life. 

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ST. Joseph's church. 349 


In 1824, several indiYiduals of the people of color, among 
whom was Newport Gardiner, who subsequently died at Li- 
beria, formed themselves into a religious society, under a 
written constitution, by the name of the " Colored Union 
Church and Society, in Newport, Ehode Island." There is 
also among them a society for promoting the education of 
colored children and youth, called the " School Friend Asso- 
ciation," which sustains an instructress the greater part of the 
year. They own and occupy a very neat and commodious 
house of worship. Since the purchase of the house in 1835, 
it has been raised, and a basemicnt story added, which is 
occupied as a school-room, &c. 

The people of color, in Newport, are a well-bred class, such 
as you seldom meet with elsewhere. 


Soon after the extensive works at Fort Adams were com- 
menced, by the United States, in 1825, Newport was occasion- 
ally visited by a Boman Catholic Priest, to look after the 
spiritual interests of that class of our population, belonging to 
the Catholic Church, many of whom had been induced to 
take up their residence in Newport, by finding employment at 
the Fort. 

The Eev. Eobert D. "Woodley, a native of Virginia, v/as the 
first Cathohc Priest that organized a congregation in Newport, 
for the accommodation of which, he purchased of E. Trevett, 
Esq., in 1828, the school-house, in Barney-street, where divine 
service was maintained for several years. 

Mr. Woodley resigned his charge in 1831, and was suc- 
ceeded by the Eev. John Oorry, who officiated in that congre- 
gation, until August, 1837. 

In the spring of 1833, Mr. Corry opened a subscription, for 
the erection of a church, which was commenced the latter part 
of that same year, and completed in 1836. The house is 

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spacious, and well-finished, and occupies a commandiBg site 
at the head of Barney-street. The estimated cost of lot, build- 
ing, &c., was about $4000 ; all of which was contributed, and 
paid by the Oathehcs, at Fort Adams. 

On the 24th of August, 1837, the church was^ dedicated 
under the title of St. Joseph, by the Right Rev. Bishop Fen- 
wick, of Boston, Massachusetts. On the following day, the 
Rev. Mr. Corry, under whose superintendence the church had 
been erected and completed, resigned his charge of the mission^ 
and was succeeded by the Rev. Constantine Lee. 

The Rev. Mr. Corry, in a letter to the Rev. A. Ross, speak- 
ing of the people of Newport, says : " It is but just for me to 
add, that I have never seen a town in the United States, among 
whose inhabitants there is less intolerance and religious bigotry, 
I have for six years been more or less among them, and during 
that period none have denied me the common civilities of life, 
because I was a Cathohc priest, but always treated me with the 
greatest respect." And in proof of the practical existence of re- 
ligious toleration in Newport, he says : '^ Our church stood for 
upward of two years with its windows unprotected by bhnds, 
and during that time not one pane of glass was broken." 

The high encomium passed on the people of Newport, by the 
Rev. Mr. Corry, shews the Cathohc spirit which exists there, 
and which is the fruits of the principle of religious toleration 
estabhshed by Clarke and Coddington, which Grod grant may 
ever continue to influence the people. The Catholic population 
of Newport, numbers about five hundred. A very costly edi- 
fice of stone is now in the course of completion, which will prove 
highly ornamental to the town. 


Early in 1 833, the Second Episcopal parish was formed in 
this place, by members of Trinity church. After the due or- 
ganization of the parish, and an apphcation of the Episcopal 
Missionary Convocation of Rhode Island, the Rev. John West 
commenced his labors as the minister of the parish. On the 17th 
of Marchj 1833., puMic worship commenced in the State House, 

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from which the congregation soon removed, to the house of the 
First Congregational Society, at that time unoccupied. A sub- 
scription was immediately opened for building a new church, 
which as soon as $600 was subscribed, was commenced. In June 
of the following year, the new church was completed and conse- 
crated. The cost of the building, including organ and furni- 
ture, together with the lot, was about $17,000. Of this sum 
about $11,000 was realized from the sale of pews, and the re- 
mainder by a noble act of generosity, contributed and paid by 
individual members of the corporation. 

The Parish has now a fund of nearly $5000 in pews, and of 
the hundred and twelve pews in the church, at least one hun- 
dred of them are sold or rented. At the present date, this parish 
has been but five years in existence, and the contemplation of its 
history affords many pleasing evidences that the Divine Head 
of the Church has poured upon it the continual dew of his bless- 
ing. Accessions have been constantly made to the church, and 
on an average, the additions to the communion have been about 
thirty a year. 

The church from its commencement, has enjoyed great do- 
mestic tranquillity and peace. No unhappy difference of opinions 
has arisen among them, resulting in unfriendly dissensions and 
divisions, or anything found on the pages of her history, to tar- 
nish the glory and beauty of the Zion of Grod. The congregation 
is large, and their attendance on the pubHc and social services 
of the church, worthy of imitation. 

This church has engaged in the cause of missions with a 
liberality and zeal, becoming the dignity of the Christian char- 
acter, and the magnitude and importance of the great mission- 
ary enterprise. Their annual contributions for home missionary 
purposes in Bhode Island, amount to not less than $150, and for 
foreign missions and other benevolent purposes, their contribu- 
tions equal, if not exceed that sum. 

The present Eector of the church, is the Eev. Mr. Watson, a 
man universally respected by his parish, and whose labors have 
been eminently successful in advancing the interest of the Ee- 
deemer's kingdom in the world. 

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In the year 1834, a missionary was sent by the Ehode Island 
Convocation, to Portsmouth, R. I. A parish was organized, 
under the name of St. Paul's Church, and within one year, a 
respectable house of worship was erected, and with the aid 
of about $1200 in contributions, from Episcopahans in other 
places, was entirely paid for. At the same time, a fund was 
secured in pews for the support of the minister, amounting to 
more than one thousand dollars. The labors of a zealous, de- 
voted missionary in that place, have been blessed to the gather- 
ing of a respectable congregation, and an addition of about forty 
members to the communion of the church. 

The Rhode Island Convocation has contributed towards the 
support of the minister of the parish, up to the present time, 
nearly $2,000. 

The church of St. Mary's has been subsequently organized 
in Portsmouth, and a neat and tasteful church of stone erected 
by the munificence of Miss Sarah Gibbs, the daughter of the 
late George Gribbs, Esq., an eminent merchant of Newport. 

In Middletown, the Third Episcopal Church has been organ- 
ized, and a neat structure has been erected, called the " Church 
of the Holy Cross." Rev. Mr. "Williams is the present Rector. 


An Association of gentleman friendly to Unitarian views of 
doctrine, was formed in this town, October, 1835. Their ear- 
liest meetings for Divine service, were held in the State House ; 
in the course of the following month, they purchased of the 
Fourth Baptist Society in this place, the chnrch in Mill street. 
This church had originally belonged to the First Congregational 
Church and Society, over which the celebrated Dr. Hopkins 
presided for many years as pastor. 

A charter was granted to this Association by the General 
Assembly of the State, at their January session, in 1836, incor- 

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porating them as '' The Unitarian Congregational Church," 
in Newport. Soon after this, the society commenced rebuilding 
and remodelHng the old house in Mill-street, worshipping in 
the mean time at Masonic Lodge, in Church-street. The work 
was completed in the Spring of 1836, and for elegance, neatness, 
and taste in its internal arrangements, is perhaps unequalled in 
Bhode Island, excepting Trinity church. The new house (for 
only the frame of the old building had been retained, together 
with the corner-stone^ bearing the inscription, '' For Christ and 
Peace,") was dedicated on the 27th of July that same year. The 
Eev. Charles T. Brooks of Salem^ Mass., was called as the first 
pastor, in Jan., 1837, and ordained June 14th of the same year. 
The organization of a church was begun in the summer of 1837. 
The Communion of the Lord's Supper was first administered on 
Sunday, October 3d, and continues to be administered monthly. 
The Kev. Mr. Brooks married a daughter of the late Benj. 
Hazard, Esq., of Newport, and continues the able and efficient 
pastor of this church, respected and beloved for his amiable 
traits of character, which preeminently distinguish him in the 
varied walks of Hfe. 


There are three churches of this denomination on the Island, 
— two in Middletown, and one in Portsmouth. The first 
church in Middletown was organized Oct. 14th, 1828. Their 
first pastor w^as the Rev. Harvey Sullings, who served the 
church with acceptance for nearly five years from its consti- 

They own a very neat and commodious house of w^orship, 
about three miles from New^port, erected soon after the organi- 
zation of the Church. 

The house of the Second Society stands on the east road, 
about three miles from Newport. 

The church in Portsmouth was constituted Oct. 16th, 1834. 
Its first pastor w^as the Rev. Salmon Tobey. His ministry com- 
menced with this people in April, 1834, and continued for two 
years, during w^hich time six members were added to the 

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His successor in the pastoral office of this church was the 
Eev. John Taylor. He commenced his labors with them on 
the 1st of June, 1837. The house in which they w^orship w^as 
erected in 1821, by voluntary subscription, and is called the 
Union Meeting-House. It is pleasantly located on the east 
road about six miles from Newport. 


*' The first date upon record of a new meeting-house at Ports- 
mouth, is of a monthly meeting being held at our new meeting- 
bouse 2d month 28th, 1702." 

There was a house built prior to this, ^' which was sold and 
afterwards converted into a barn." As the records of the So- 
ciety were mostly destroyed, the exact date of the first house can- 
not be ascertained. 

The yearly meeting formerly commenced at Portsmouth on 
Saturday, but the change in the mode of traveling has led to 
the commencement of the services at New^port, as being more 
convenient for the Society. 


In 1847, a portion of the Second Baptist Church seceded, 
organized a Church, and invited the Eev. Henry Jackson to be- 
come their pastor. He accepted the invitation, and is still 
laboring among them. Their place of worship is in Clarke- 
street, formerly the Second Congregational house, where the 
late Eev. "WiUiam Patten, D. D., labored for nearly half a cen- 

The spirit which has characterized the various religious 
bodies on the Island, has been as catholic as could have been 
expected in the nature of things. It Avas not to be. presumed 
that w^here a diversity of sentiment prevailed, there W'ould be 
necessarily a perfect agreement in all things ; but they have 
rather agreed to differ on non-essentials, regarding practical 

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Obristianity as tlie sum and substance of evangelical religion. 
No where does the character of the Saviour appear more lovely 
and attractive, than when his divine power was exercised to 
soothe and mitigate the evils of hunger and nakedness, with all 
the attendant miseries which flesh is heir to. And the grati- 
tude which is evinced by the subjects of His compassion, was in 
some degree equivalent to the sincerity which prompted these 
humane and benevolent acts. In truth, there is no blessing like 
sympathy ; 

" It soothes, it hallows, elevates, subdues, 
And bringeth down to earth its native heaven. 
Life hath nought else that may supply its place ; 
Void is ambition, cold is vanity, 
And wealth an empty glitter without love." 

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[LOgir ©1 ©(U][li©[^Q[il[^: 

The Hon. John H. Clarke, United States' Senator, Ehode Island 

George B. Holmes, Rhode Island 

E. Garrington, Rhode Island 

Thomas Bargess, Rhode Island 

N. B. Crocker, Rhode Island 

The Rt. Rev. J. P. K Henshaw, D.D., Bishop of Rhode Island 

J. H. Eames, Rhode Island 

Thomas E. Carpenter, Rhode Island 

W. S. Greene, Rhode Island 

E. Dyer, Jun., Rhode Island 

Wilham Grosvenor, Rhode Island 

J. Balch, Jr., Rhode Island 

VY. B. Burdick, Rhode Island 
N. Smith, Rhode Island 

Allen Brown, Rhode Island 

H. N. Slater, Rhode Island 

Benoni Harris, Rhode Island 

R. Newcoml), Rhode Island 

George Z. Earl, Rhode Island 

Marshall Woods, Rhode Island 

E. P. Mason, Rhode Island 

E. B. Burges, Rhode Island 

Thomas Sukill, Rhode Island 

S. Ang. Arnold, Rhode Island 

C. G. Dodge, Rhode Island 

B. J. Brown, Rhode Island 

R. J. Arnold, Rhode Island 

James R. Brown, Rhode Island 

Benjamin Co well, Rhode Island 

The Hon. A. C. Greene, TJnited States' Senator, Rhode Islana 

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John H. Ormsbee, Ehode Island 
B. D. "Weeden, Ehode Island 
Eesolved Waterman, Ehode Island 
Alpheus Burges, Ehode Island 
Prince Davis, Ehode Island 
Eichard Waterman, Ehode Island 
Nelson H. Mowry, Ehode Island 
H. 0. Gardiner, Ehode Island 
H. B. Lyman, Ehode Island 
H. W. Bradford, Ehode Island 
Hartford Tinglej, Ehode Island 
WilHam 8. Patten, Ehode Island 
John I. Hall, Ehode Island 
George Grinnell, Ehode Island 
Albert S. Gallup, Ehode Island 
T. D. Eound, Ehode Island 
Charles Potter, Ehode Island 
S. Dorr, Ehode Island 
Baker T. Wesson, Ehode Island 
J. 0. Brown, Ehode Island 
S. G. Arnold, Ehode Island 
A. D. Smith, Ehode Island 
W. Snow, Ehode Island 
James Mulchahey, Ehode Island 
John 0. Tower, Ehode Island 
Samuel Merry, Ehode Island 
George Alexander, Ehode Island 
Benjamin Allen, Ehode Island 
Alexander Eddy, Ehode Island 
W. B. Sayles, Ehode Island 
Lewis L. Miller, Ehode Island 
Hon. N. E. Knight, Ehode Island 
J. D. Burgess, Ehode Island 
Gideon Palmer, Ehode Island 
Hon. Charles Jackson, Ehode Island 
Ebenezer Wood, Ehode Island 
WilHam H. Bogman, Ehode Island 
E. A. Webster, Ehode Island 
James T. Hawes, Ehode Island 
Honorable A. Simons, Ehode Island 

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John B. Herreshoff, Ehode Island 

Samuel Dexter, Rhode Island 

Edward R. Young, Ehode Island 

Menzies Sweet, Rhode Island 

Wilham Eletchcr, Rhode Island 

Bailey W. Evans, Rhode Island 

Thomas Yernon, Rhode Island 

Nathaniel G-. B. Dexter, Rhode Island 

Henry Marchant, Rhode Island 

Honorable Tristam Burges, Rhode Island 

H. Eoster, Rhode Island 

Samuel Marlor, Rhode Island 

Hezekiah Allen, Rhode Island 

■Wilham P. Bullock, Rhode Island 

Samuel Osgood, Rhode Island 

John B. Ames, Rhode Island 

Thomas G-reene, Rhode Island 

Thomas 0. Hartshorn, Rhode Island 

A. Caswell, Rhode Island 

Elisha Harris, Rhode Island 

Earl Carpenter, Rhode Island 

Wilham T. Pierce, Rhode Island 

C. L. Bowler, Rhode Island 

H. Barker, Rhode Island 

E. Ham, Rhode Island 

Miss Goddard, Rhode Island 

W. A. Clarke, Rhode Island 

Wilham G-ardner, Rhode Island 

Benjamin Watson, New^-York 

ReV. Evan M. Johnson, New- York 

Right Rev. Benjamin T. Onderdonk, D.D., New- York 

Rev. Samuel Sebury, D.D., New- York 

Charles H. Russell, New -York 

Rev. S. H. Tyng, D.D., New- York 

T. R. Minturn, New-York 

R. R. Ward, New-York 

J. Ward, New- York 

Rev. Q. T. Bedell, New-York 

Honorable J. Prescott Hall, New- York 

€. A. Busteed, New- York 

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John Bristed, Kew-York 

Rev. William Berrian, D.D., New- York 

Rev. William E. Eigenbrodt, New-York 

David P. Hall, New-York 

Rev. 0. S. Henry, New- York 

R. B. Minturn, New-York 

Rev. Ed. Y. Higbee, D.D., New- York 

Right Rev. J. M. Wainwright, D.D., New- York 

Commodore M. C. Perry, United States' Navy 

August Belmont, New- York 

Rev. J. E. Schroeder, D.D., New- York 

William D. Mumford, New-York 

B. A. Mumford, New- York 

Rev. Erancis L. Hawks, D.D., New-York 

A. Bloomer Hart, New-York 

Major- Gen. Winfield Scott, United States' Army, New- York 

Rev. W. H. Lewis, D.D., New- York 

Rev. B. 0. Cutler, D.D., New-York 

Rev. Erancis Yinton, D.D., New-York 

Rev. Benjamin Evans, D.D., New- York 

Rev. Lewis P. W. Balch, New-York 

Rev. Jesse Pound, New- York 

Right Rev. Henry J. Whitehouse, B.D., New- York 

M. W. Dwight, New-York 

Gold S. Silliman, New York 

John S. Stone, New- York 

Isaac Parclee, New -York 

W. A. Muntr avers. New- York 

R. S. Howland, New- York 

W. Everett, New- York 

Cornelius R. Duffie, New-York 

Clement C. Moore, New-York 

WilUam J. Hoppin, New- York 

G. Curtis, New-York 

S. Cahoon, Jun., New- York 

Thomas D. M' Gee, New- York 

Rev. Benjamin I. Haight, D.D., New- York 

Samuel Hazard, New-York 

Joseph Harrison, New- York 

Thomas R. Hazard, Portsmouth, Rhode Island 

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J. H. Gilliot, New- York 

John Caswellj New-York 

R. "W. Buloid, New-York 

R. Biiloid, New-York 

E. M. Olyphant, New York 

8. A. Crapo, New-York 

Hamilton Hoppin, New-York 

Peleg Hall, New- York 

George Collins, New- York 

Frederick A. Parley, New-York 

Mrs. E. H. Thurston, New-York 

Silas Holmes, New-York 

George S. Coe, New-York 

L. P. Eobinson, New-York 

James E. Gorton, New-York 

"William Ohilds, New- York 

James Pellows, New -York 

Eichard Cornell, New- York 

James S. Tilley, New- York 

P. M. Abercrombie, New- York 

Thomas A. "Whitaker, New- York 

James Jacobs, New- York 

C. A. Talbot, New- York 

S. H. Cahoon, New-York 

J. Greenwood, New-York 

Henry B. Melville, New-York 

George 0. Tupper, New-York 

G. L. Willard, New York 

Z. Ingalls, New-York 

A. G. Peckham, New- York 

Stanton Bebee, New-York 

Edward Anthony, New-York 

Isaac H. Cady, New-York 

A. B. Thomas, New- York 

C. B. Le Baron, New-York 

John Davol, New-York 

J. A. Sprague, New-York 

Nehemiah Knight, New-York 

Philip Tihinghast, New-York 

Wilham Brenton Greene, New- York 

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Edwin Hoytj New- York 

Elbert J. Anderson, New- York 

Mrs. Martha M. Anderson, New- York 

L. M. Eoffman, New- York 

Waldon Pell, New-York 

Henry H. Ward, New-York 

E. H. M'Ourdy, New-York 

Isaac Otis, New -York 

H. 0. De Eham, New- York 

Charles Marsh, New- York 

0. L. Anthony, New- York 

Mrs. Auchmuty, New- York 

Eobert W. Aborn, New- York 

G-. M. Grardiner, New- York 

James N. Olney, New- York 

Charles Oongdon, New- York 

M. H. Grinnell, New- York 

Joseph Bridgham, New- York 

John Jay, New- York 

George E. Sheldon, New- York 

Isaac Arnold, New- York 

Thomas T. Sheffield, New- York 

D. H. Gould, New- York 

John E. Bigley, New- York 

"W. A. Work, New- York 

C. Y. Spencer, New-York 
T. W. Wilber, New-York 
John E. PhiUips, New- York 
H. T. Wetmore, New- York 
N. Geffry, New- York 

D. S. Kennedy, New- York 
Wilham Ellery Sedgwick, New-York 
S. T. Caswell, New-York 

C. H. Van Brunt, New- York 
John D. M^Kenzie, New- York 
Francis B. Cole, New- York 
Wilham H. Douglass, New-York 
Pierre C. Kane, New- York 
Samuel Johnson, New-York 
Eobert T. Douglas, New- York 

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M. Douglas, New- York 
T. J. Oarr, New-York 
O. G-. Snow, New-York 
P. G-. Taylor, New-York 
Henry Euggles, New- York 
Samuel Ward, New- York 
Hon. George Bancroft, New-Yorl: 
Stephen William Smith, New-York 
J. H. Mahony, New- York 

A. Gracie King, New- York 
Howard 0. Cady, New- York 
James Edwards Smith, New- York 
Edward Dodge, New- York 

€. Jenks Smith, New-York 
Bev. Thomas H. Skinner, Jun., New-York 
W. B. Lawrence, New-York 
•Rev. G. Spring, D.D., New- York 
Eev. Erskine Mason, D.D., New-York 
Eev. J. M'Elvoy, D.D., New-York 
Eev. W. W. Phillips, D.D., New- York 
Eev. W. Patton, D.D., New- York 
Eev. Joseph 0. Stiles, New- York 

B. D. SiUiman, New- York 
E. W. Dickinson, New- York 
A. A. De Motte, New-York 
Charles Dickinson, New-York 
John B. Ward, New- York 

Eev. George Potts, D.D., New- York 

Eev. John M. Krebs, New-York 

George Dickinson, New- York 

Eev. I. S. Spencer, D.D., New- York 

Ealph Malbone, New- York 

Eev. M. W. Jacobus, D.D., New-York 

Eev. Samuel D. Burchard, D.D., New- York 

Eev. John Knox, D.D., New- York 

William Dumont, New- York 

Eev. Samuel H. Cox, D.D., New- York 

Eev. John M. Macauley, New-York 

Eev. N. J. Marselus, New-York 

Eev. James Benjamin Hardinbugh, D.D., New- York 

Hosted by 



Thomas Adams Emmet, New- York 

0. Ohamplin, New-York 

J. J. Lyons, New- York 

Samuel R. Johnson, Brooklyn, Long Island 

Ezekiel Ostander, New- York 

John H. Baker, New-York 

P. Balen, New- York 

J. Eich, New- York 

S. Knowlton, New- York 

E. K. AlBurtis, New-York 

Horace Southmayd, New- York 

Eev. Henry Chase, New-York 

Eev. 8. H. Cone, D.D., New-York 

A. C. Wheat, New- York 

Eev. William E. WilHams, D.D., New- York 

John C. Thatcher, New. York 

John H. Ormsbee, Jun., New- York 

Samuel P. Eobinson, New -York 

Samuel J. Jacobs, New-York 

James Eobinson, New -York 

Eight Eev. John Hughes, D.D., New- York 

WiUiam Eichmond, New- York 

Cyrus H. Pay, New- York 

David BufFum, New-York 

Eev. Ira E. Steward, New- York 

T. B. Stillman, New-York 

Benjamin Babcock, NewY^ork 

Charles D. Ehody, New-York 

Courtlandt Palmer, New-York 

Eev. E. H. Ohapin, New- York 
, Eev. M. S. Hutton, P.P., New- York 

Eev. J. M. Mathews, P.P., New- York 

Eobert 8. Slocum, New-York 

J. Guidicine, New-York 

W. Ames, New-York 

Eev. N. Baird, P.P., New-York 

Theodore Pehore, New- York 

John E. Van Nest, Jun., New-York 

H. William Channing, New- York 

Samuel L. Bush, New- York. 

Hosted by 



E. Martin, New-York 

John Blunt, Brooklyn 

J. W. Brinley, New- York 

Edward Brinley, United States' N"aw 

Ezra Jones, New- York 

L. W. Gibbs, New- York 

Edward Macomber, New- York 

W. W. Eussel, New- York 

W. C. Eussel, New-York 

Edward J. Ma nee, New-York 

Joseph W. Taggart, New-York 

J. H. "Weston, New- York 

D. Bigkr, New-York 

Bev. James M. Macdonald, New- York 

John 0. Gruldin, New-York 

James Ooggeshall, New-York 

Isaac T. Hopper, New- York 

John H. Bevier, New- York 

W. 0. Rowers, New- York 

PhiUp 8. Crooke, Brooklyn 

Blandina Dudley, Albany 

Eev. J. K Hobart, New York 

A. Le Barbie, New- York 
W. B. Ogden, New-York 

B. B. Grinnell, New- York 
Eobert A. Burfee, New- York 
George 8. Easton, New- York 
P. W. Engs, New-York 
Edward Minturn, New- York 
Augustus Whiting, New- York 
J. Thorndike, New-York 
Benjamin B. Hawkins, Ehode Island 
E. E. Newton, Ehode Island 
Timothy Ooggeshall, Ehode Island 
J. Thayer, Ehode Island 

George Jones, Ehode Island 
E. P. Lee, Ehode Island 
M. H. Gould, Ehode Island 
T. E. Hunter, Ehode Island 
Charles Hunter, Ehode Island 

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Hon. H. Clay, Ashland, Ky. 

James Atkinson, Ehode Island 

Samuel B. Yernon, Ehode Island 

Thomas Brinley, Ehode Island 

Alfred Hazard, Ehode Island 

E. B. Lawton, Ehode Island 

Charles Barriall, Philadelphia, Pa. 

"WiHiam Y. Taylor, Ehode Island 

Eev. D.. E.. Brewer, Ehode Island 

Eev. Thomas E. Lambert, United States' Navy 

Levi H.. Gales, Kew Orleans 

Sarah Bailey, Ehode Island 

Joseph I. Bailey, Ehode Island 

Henry Bull, Ehode Island 

D. 0. Millett, Ehode Island 
S. Gibbs, Ehode Island 

Eev. W. Williams, Ehode Island 
IST. B. Crocker, Ehode Islaad 
Hon. Byron Diman, Ehode Island 
William G. Hammond, Ehode Island 
Wilham H. D'Wolf, Ehode Island 

E. King, Ehode Island 

Mrs.. T. H. Sweet, Boston, Ms. 

Eobert E.. Carr, Ehode Island 

Mrs. L. M. Breese, Ehode Island 

Mrs. George Engs, Ehode Island 

John Hopper, Ehode Island 

Eev. H. Potter, D.D., Albany, New- York 

Samuel Brown, Ehode Island 

Jenny Lind, Stockholm 

H. Allen Wright, Ehode Island 

De Lancey Kane, New- York 

Albert Sumner, Ehode Island 

Charles Lyman, New-York 

T. Tompkins, Ehode Island 

William B. Spooner, Ehode Island 

Mrs. I. D. M. Perry, Ehode Island 

Henry Waterman, Ehode Island 

Thomas Brownell, United States' Navy, New York 

Alexander Burgess, Ehode Island 

Hosted by 



W. B. Eurdick, Rhode Island 

Mrs. James, Rhode Island 

Samuel Allen, Rhode Island 

James B. Bliss, Rhode Island 

D. H. Braman, Rhode Island 

Jeremiah G. Bhss, New-York 

John 0. Patton, New-York 

John "W. Richmond, New- York 

"Wilham R. Andrews, New- York 

W. R. Danforth, New-York 

Hon. Charles T. James, United States' Senator, Rhode Island 

J. Bullock, New- York 

Washington Hoppin, New- York 

Edward Seagrave, New-York 

"Wilham Wiley, New -York 

Edward J. O'Brien, New-York 

Bernard O'Reilly, New- York 

Wilham 0. Ohapin, New-York 

William Newton, New-York 

D. T. Swinburne, New-York 

Samuel Adlam, New-York 

James Eitton, New- York 

Wilham Sanford Rogers, New- York 

Major Gr. W. Patten, United States' Army 

Ool. Gates, New-York 

James Cook Richmond, New-York 

Jacob Babbitt, New- York 

Honorable John Brown Erancis, Rhode Island 

Joseph L. Grardner, New- York 

Charles Smith, New- York 

Robert Rogers, New -York 

Charles C. Burdick, New- York 

Rev. J. Stokes, New-York 

George J. Bailey, New -York 

Oliver Potter, New-York 

Edward Van Zandt, New- York 

Joseph Sherman, New-York 

Albert Sherman, New-York 

Wilham J. Roberts, New-York 
■ T. W. Sherman, United States' Arrny 

Hosted by 



Joseph Josleu, New- York 
James Brickhead, New-York 
Mrs. Harriet L. Murray, New-York 
William Littlefield, New York 
A. B. Belknap, New^-York 
E. L. Maitland, New-York 
O. J. Chafee, New-York 
J. P. Darg, New-York 

A. Bobeson, Jud., New- York 
R. S. Satterlee, New-York 
Alleyne Otis, New-York 
Bichard Peterson, New- York 
Benjamin J. Cahoone, New-York 
Marshall 0. Slocum, New-York 
Andrews Norton, New- York 
Bobert S. Hone, New- York 

J. S. Hone, New-York 

Hon. Levi Woodbury, New Hampshire 

Samuel Powel, Bhode Island 

James Burdick, New-York 

James 0. Porsyth, New-York 

B. B. Hazard, Jun., New- York 
Mrs. B. Moss, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Joseph L. Moss, Phihidelpbia, Pa. 
Henry Lazarus, Philadelphia, Pa. 
David Sears, Jun., New- York 
Jacob A. Herritt, New -York 
Henry Brewerton, Nev\^-York 
Bear- Admiral Wormeley 

Mrs. Morrish Samuel, New -York 

Mrs. Juha Lawrence, New- York 

a. H. Calvert, New-York 

Hon. Stephen A. Douglas, United States' Senator, Chicago, Til. 

Miss Minis, Savannah, Georgia 

Joseph Pew, New-York 

Isaiah Bogers, New -York 

Pehx Beckham, New- York 

Jos. B. Weaver, New^-York 

J. Gr. Weaver, New-York 

David a. Cook, New -York 

Hosted by 



George M. Dexter, Kew-York 

M. A. D'Bruen, New- York 

Eichard 0. Derby, JN^ew-York 

E. A. Sherman, New- York 

A. Eitchie, New- York 

T. Eiddeil, New York 

A. a. Stout, New- York 

J. M. Middleton, New- York 

J. S. Pringle, New- York 

Nathaniel Greene, New- York 

Henry A. Middleton, New-York 

P. A. Stockton, New-York 

E. M. Mason, Ehode Island 

Samuel Allen, New- York 

Isaac Gourd, New- York 

George Tiffany, Baltimore Md. 

S. W. Butler, New-York 

W. J. Munro, New- York 

E. B. Cranston, New- York 

E. M. Munro, New- York 

S. A. Gardner, New- York 

Amelia De Jongh 

Damaris 0. Ohace, New-York 

E. G. Wallop, New-York 

John Bull, New- York 

G. G. King, New- York 

A. N. Littlefield, New-York 

George W. Taylor, New- York 

Joseph Thomas, New-York 

Ehsha Atkins, New-York 

Mrs. Stephen Bowen, New-York 

E. M. Staigg, New-York 

Thomas Aston Coffin, New-York 

Charles Dereny, New-York 

Capt. MacKinnon, E.N., Lymington 

Arnold Wilbur, New -York 

Wilham S. Vose, New- York 

Stephen Hammett, New- York 

Joshua Appleby Williams, New-York 

Edward A. Hassard, New- York 

Hosted by 



Daniel Boone, New-York 

Edwin "Wilbur, New-York 

John Boss Dix, New-York 

W. P. Congdon, New-York 

Nathaniel Holt, New-York 

Wymbuley Jones, New-York 

Mrs. Gr. Jones, New-York 

Charles Bnssel, New- York 

Euth 0. Thurston, New-York 

Gr. W. Sherman, New-York 

C. Ehodes, New-York 

A. J. Potter, Bath, Me. 

William Bailey, New-York 

Joseph Case, New-York 

Giles Mardeabro' Eaton 

Honorable Prank Pierce, President of the United States 

Wanton 8. Carr, New- York, 

Oliver Hull, New-York 

William Burnet, New-York 

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Hosted by 





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A more sincere and 'wholesome protest against the false life and misoeial tend- 
encies of the times, we have not met with. Charles Lamb might so have breathed 
out his soul after a five years' residence in this comitry. Indeed, our author has 
a mind more kindred with that quaint and gentle moralist, than any American who 
has written. There is much admirable preaching in this book, which evidently 
comes from a heart tried by bitter experiences, and which is conveyed in such 

grotesque wit as to commend it to the most unwilling listener. The truth is, the 
ook is a disguised sermon upon the folly of worldliness, unbelief, and ill-tempei*. 
recited in a thunder-storm of grumbling, with flashes of saturnine humor and 
quaint imagination illuminating the preacher's queer but earnest iace.—Ghr^isfimi 

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"Whoever the author may be, however, and whatever may be his bodily state, 
he has clearly no need of a physician to " minister to a mind diseased." In an 
intellectual sense, the " invalid" lays about him with uncommon vigor, uttering 
novel opinions with boldness, wit tempered by wisdom, and wisdom sharpened 
with wit. — Home Journal. 

He shows a sensibility to the beautiful, and a heart to love what is noble and 
true. We have followed the wanderings of his mind, often with the deepest at- 
tention, always with interest We have once or twice caught ourselves in sup^ 
posing that the writer of the " Reveries of a Bachelor" might have had a hand la 
tiie authorship. — JSfvemng Post, 

This work reminds us of the " Eeveries of a Bachelor," that much-read and 
justly commended work of Ike Marvel. The "Musings of an Invalid," like the 
*' Reveries of a Bachelor," show great perception of character, as well as a veiy 
happy faculty of conveying his impressions to the reader. No one can read this 
work without positive benefit, and acquiring more enlarged and truer ideas of the 
value of Ufe.— 'Gazette of the Union. 

A better book than the "Reveries of a Bachelor." — Da/y Book. 

Those who have read the "Lorgnette" papers and "Reveries of a Bachelor," 
by Ike Marvel, with pleasure, can not but enjoy those " Mutterings and Musings," 
and aU who read them, will credit them with great merits. — JUTew Yorker. 

His pages are not without wisdom. They are crowded with terse and vigorous 
sentences, and prove a reflecting mind and a philosophic nature. — ChriaUcm 

This is one of the most delightftil books we have looked into. There is no mis- 
taking the source of these "Musings;" they spring from a kindly heart and an 
original, refined intellect. To us they seem like the "Reveries" of an old ao- 
quaintance (Ike Marvel.)— Jffommgr /S^^cw. 

Rarely have we been treated to so fresh, piquant, and nervous a volume. 
Every sentence is bold, startling, and replete with vigor, and bears the impress of 
a keen, sensible, and original mind. — Long Island Star. 

This book is something altogether unique in the literary world. One moment 
it reminds us of Charles Lamb, then of some other writer who has charmed us ; 
but in the end we are compelled to fall back upon the conviction, that it is de- 
cidedly original. It is full of the deepest and most wholesome thought, while a 
vein of the richest humor enthralls you. These " Musings" must be the thoughts 
of a sick chamber — the veritable siftings of no ordinary mind, breaking loose from 
disease now and then, as a fair struggle is given between the strong mind and a 
feeble body. The man who wrote this volume must be well worth knowing, if 
his identity could be once established. To chat with a mind like that, one hour 
Bach day, would be a treat indeed. We have quite set our heart on finding out 
who the author is. This bears evidence of being his first literary effort ; may tho 
rest only equal it— Pefer«on.'s LaMei^ J^aOonal Maga&ine. 


1 vol. 12mo, cloth, - - - - - - --$100 


"The Musings of an Invalid," by the same writer, were well received by care- 
ful and judicious critios, and are gaining for their unknown author an enviable 
reputation. The present work wlU, we predict, secure a still wider popularity, 
and be more acceptable to that class of readers who appreciate well-drawn and 
faithful strictures of the fashipnable foibles of modern society, written in a forcible, 
plqn^ut s\j^.-' 'Merchamt^ Magamie, 

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Otr. Attention has been called to this book, because it has been severely abiaed 
In certain quarters, where every thing which is not radical, or which do«s not 
savor of infidelity and the " Progress" which is identical with an attempt to de- 
stroy all the institutions of civilization and religion, is habitually condemned. We 
confess that the title did not much prepossess ns in favor of the work ; but we 
must also confess that having once opened it, we very soon arrived at the conclu- 
sion that it is one of the very best books of the day, and that the author, who is 
unknown to us, is assuredly a man of no ordinary promise. As a specimen of 
Barcasm and irony, this little book has rarely been excelled. And the author not 
only thinks soundly and conservatively upon all subjects, but he writes with a vigor 
and directness which are exceedingly refreshing in this age of namby pambyism, 

If there be any fault to find with the author, it is in the severity of his sarcasm 
and the unsparing manner in which he lashes the follies, and vices, and absurd- 
ities of the day. But even this is atoned for in the manly and fearless defense of 
right and of the old-fashioned principles of religion and equity which pervades 
this book. — JS/ew York Cownefr and jEnqv4/rer. 

"We noticed at some length and with decided favor, the previous work by this 
author, the " Musings of an Invalid." The invalid has laid aside his chamber 
negligee and come forth as quite a stout and eupeptic man. 

The present work has all the spirit of its predecessor, and a far broader range. 
It is full of pithy thoughts and sharp sayings. The tone of the book is earnest, 
and, on the whole, kindly, respectful to all hearty workers, and somewhat savage 
upon aU ambitious theorists. — OTi/risticm Inqmrer. 

This new volume is worthy of the reputation acquired by its predecessor, and 
will considerably increase the public desire to learn the name of the author. He 
certainly wields hfepen with a rare combination of grace and vigor. — Pittsbwrg 
Satm'dwy Visitor. 

We do not know when we have been more entertained than by the reading oi 
this book. It came to us unheralded from an anonymous source. We opened it, 
intending simply to glance at the contents, and if they were attractive, to lay the 
volume aside for future examination and notice. We had reckoned without our 
host. The first few sketches completely enchanted us, and we found ourselves 
spirited along from page to page, even to the end. The contents embrace short 
chapters, the subjects of which are generally suggested by the doings of the day 
in large cities. The thoughts are original, and they are expressed in equally 
original language. Sarcasm is a prominent feature of the book ; sarcasm, too, of 
the rarest quality. It also abounds in wit and humor of the best quality. — 
Oh/wrch^B Bizarre, FhU.. 

The rich field chosen by the author gives full play to his vigorous and Original 
mind, and piquant or nervous style. Those who have read the " Musings," need 
not be told that he is just the man to glean and bind up an inimitable sheaf of 
" Whimsical Fancies." Its perusal will take the frown off the face of " dull care," 
and thereby cheer and lengthen life, besides communicating many wise, striking, 
and improvable thoughts. — Binghampton Dmwc/rat. 

We are pleased with this book. There is a quaintness about it that is almost 
unrivalled. The satire is gentlemanly, yet suflSciently pungent; and the oddities 
are rather more quaint than grotesque. The author has too much feeling to be 
severe, and too much generosity of soul to misrepresent. — Hartford Dmly 

This is a very clever book, by an author, whose previous work, mentioned in 
the title page, has secured for him a favorable reception on this his second ap- 
pearance. The sketches are lively and spirited, and the reflections have the great 
recommendation of never being tiresome, as sensible reflections so often are. — 
J^. T. M&rmig Post 

There is a vein of quiet, keen wit running through this book, that holds the 
reader as by a charm. The author is certainly a genius of no common order ; and 
though he modestly conceals his name, we can not loubt that he has entered on 
a career of authorship that will secure to him the i;ghe»t literary distinction.— 
Daily Albany Argus. 

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Ill this volume we see the same adventurous, original, philosophic and amusing 
genius at work we had occasion to notice some time ago from the sa jie pen, call- 
ed "The Musings of an Invalid." The articles are interspersed here and there 
with Ihhigs gram aruX facetious^ with a vein of philosophy running; through th« 
whole, which always commands readers. TL-i.s, we believe, is the second work 
of this original author, but we hope it will not be the last. There is a vein of 
thought where this material comes from that is ioort?i working. — Nmo York 
Gh/i^isUcm Intelligencer, 

The author is evidently an unpracticed writer, but a man of mature thought^ 
who, as he becomes accustomed to the pen, will attract a constantly increLsing at- 
tention from the reading public. He is a httle too careless in his thrusts at what 
he deems the follies and vices of the age ; and in his zeal for the truth, sometimes 
strikes right and left with more vigor than discretion ; but in spite of his seeming 
want of orthodoxy, his heart appears right, and is evidently in his work. The 
earnestness thus acquired, joined with a caustic humor, and an original and strik- 
ing faculty of illustration, will cause the book to be widely read, even by those 
who come more or less under the lash of the writer. Notwithstanding that the 
author, under the guise of an editor, speaks posthumously of himself, we trust 
that he will not be thus lost to the world, but appear among the armed host thi? 
side of the river of death. — N&io York Journal of Oommerce. 


A Romance of the Hartz Priso7i. 


1 vol. 12mo. Illustrated. Full cloth, - - - - - $j 0«, 

» " . » 7r 

1 vol. 18mo, Sunday-school Edition, . . . - . 6i 


Since the days of John Bunyan, there has not been given to the Christian work 
BO beautiful an allegory as this. Its design is to exhibit the pernicious effects of 
slander, and surely no one can contemplate this odious offspring of the depraved 
heart as it appears in this fanciful sketch, ^vithout abhorring and despising, thv 
reality. The names of the several characters are significantly chosen, and the 
grouping is managed with a fine artistic effect. The style comports v/ith tha; 
chaste simplicity wliich should characterize an allegory, in which the veil shoukl 
not be so elaborately and closely woven as to hide the modest mein of truth be- 
neath — I'he Independent {N&io York). 

A volume, small and quaint, but very clever ; and we have read it, every lino 
of it, at a sitting too, and take the pen in hand to suggest to the reader of this tha 
he go and do likewise. Startled he will be at the title, '" Salander and the Dragon,' 
but the first page will reveal the story as an allegory, of wliich the great mastei 
of that species of writing need not be ashamed. — TJie Presbyterian. 

I regard this volume as one of the most successful attempts at the Bunyan style 
of alleg;orical writing I have ever read. A copy came into my hands not long 
since, and v/as read with absorbing interest. 1 then put it into the hands of my 
oldest child, a girl some ten years of age, and found that it was read by hei with 
equal avidity, and the characters and delineations well understood — a very good 
test, I judge", of the success of the author in the execution of the work. Nd one 
can read " Sal.\nder" without struck at the unveiling of the true character 
and the disastrous consequences of Slander. It ought to find a place iu every 
family. — N&io York Gh-istian Ad/vocate am,d Journal. 

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A very ingenious use of the allegory, to illustrate the doforraitj- and cvii of SIa7t 
ie?- unA Envi/. The excellent lesson is more impressively set forth by this pic- 
turesque representation than by any didactic essay, and is much more attractive to 
the reader. The author evinces great slvill in the management of the story, and 
steady pursuit of a high moral aim. — N'eio York Evangelist. 

An allegory well worth reading. Its object is to illustrate, in all its c eformity, 
Slander — one of the worst and commonest of the social vices. It is written some- 
what in the good old Bunyan style — graphic, poetic, convincing. It will put all 
malicioiis gossips to their purgations, who can be induced to read it ; and if a por- 
tion of the funds of the American Tract, Bible, and Missionary Societies were ex- 
pended in a cheap edition of a million copies of so practical a book as this, the 
money would be put to good account. — New York Mirror. 

An allegory, designed to illustrate the danger of uttering or listening to insinu- 
ations and scandalous detraction. We are glad to see the hideous deformity of 
this vice so faithfully exhibited. It requires only to be seen in its true colors, to 
excite that detestation which will render its exercise disgraceful, and cause it to be 
avoided. — JS^'&w York Joxirnal of Com/merce. 

" Salandbk." — Here is an insinuating title for a book ! — Salander ! — how it runs 
in the mind, snaky and salamander-like, as though it were related to some ugly 
monster ! And so it is, while it tells " A Story of the Hartz Prison," truthful 
enough to be recognized by every one — beautiful enough in grace, and flow, and 
quaintness of narrative, to fascinate the dullest reader, and yet horrible enough in 
its characters accessory to the plot to make one shudder that so foul a fiend should 
ever be imprisoned in a human heart. " Salander, a Story of the llartz Prison," 
might have been written by that master allegorist, John Bunyan, to his credit ; 
but, for the credit of our time, it is written by ITrederick W. Shelton. 

It explains fully how Don Officioso imposed, in the name^a forgery — of the 
Lord Conscienza, upon Goodman, keeper of Ilartz Prison, by representing that 
this Salander — no other than the green monster, 8lam.der — was sent by Conscienza 
(conscience) for mcarceration in Hartz (the heart's) Prison ; also how Salander 
vexed Goodman, until his wife Pryint (pry into it) got into the secret, when off she 
goes to Bad-Neighborhood, and conjidmitly teUs IVli's. Blab and a host of scandal- 
mongers that her husband has brought home a monster ! This is noised speedily 
about, laying Goodman and his house under suspicion. To get rid of this, he is 
obhged to let Salander out of prison, and thus be quit of the unputation of father- 
ing him. 

Salander goes forth, cultivates the acquaintance of one Duke d'Envy, and a war 
is declared upon Goodnaim, a person heretofore in the confidence of all who knew 
him. During the battles between Salander and his host of ragamuflflns and Good- 
naim— who stoutly defended himself— the Eairweather Guard and Old Friends of 
the latter forsook him, but Goodnaim triumphed. — The New Yorker. 

Salander and the Dragon. — Be not startled by this head-line. It is only the 
title of a book, and that aii allegory, by the Eev. Mr. Shelton, of Huntingdon, L.I., 
a clergyman of the Episcopal Church. 

Salander is a monster, born of Envy, and his name, Avithout cover, is Slander. 
Hideous and hateful, his ov/n father is not willing to keep him, but commits him 
to the custody of another called Goodman, the jailor of the Hartz Prison. The 
struggle of Salander to get out, the food that he is fed on while in this prison of 
the Hearty the command of Lord Conscienza, that he shall be kept confined, and 
no one shall know of his existence ; how the jailor finally tells his wife that he has 
this monster, and she insists on seeing him, and promises never to mention his 
existence to any one, and keeps her promise for a whole weok or so, and then 
hints it to Mrs. Snapit, and she to Mrs. Tattleby, and she to Mrs. Blab, and she to 
Mrs. AYatovit, and so on till all tlie neiglibors came to see the monster, and how 
he was finally let loose; — all this, and more, is painted with exceeding skill. Sa- 
lander, once at liberty, goes forth to work mischief. He plots the ruin of the castle 
Gudnaim, and robs Stella, the wife of the baron, of a priceless jewel which she 
wore, more precious thim any gem which ever adorned the casket of an empress ; 
and when she was robbed, she pined away and died, and a pure and beautiful 
Rhaft was erected to her memory by her faithful husband, with this inscription — 
" She healed the hearts of the sorrowful vrhlle living, and broke them when »bi3 

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died." And by-and-by the castle is surrounded by a host of enemies, Malice, and 
Backbite, and others, led on by Salander ; and at last the baron is slain, and 6ud« 
naim razed to the ground. The jailor who let Salander out of prison, is arrested 
by Conscienza, whom he contrived to put to sleep for a while ; but at length being 
roused, the Lord smites the jailor, who confesses his guilt, and tries to make some 
amends for what he has done. He goes to the ruins of castle Gudnaim, but he 
can not find Stella's jewel which Salander stole away ; nor can he rear again the 
ruins of the castle ; but he asks where are the baron and his beautiful wife ? he 
will humble himself to them ; and he is led into the grave-yard, and is told, they 
are here I Conscienza seizes him, and gives him into the hands of a dark fiend 
named Bemorse, who scourges him to the very verge of life, when he is told to go 
to God for pardon ; and by repentance he seeks and finds peace. This is a scant 
and unfair outline of the allegory, which may be read and re-read with profit. 

. It is a sermon that ought to be i)reached everywhere. It has a great truth in it 
"Who does not know it ? Happy is he who has not felt the bitterness of the mis- 
chief which this infernal imp is working in the world. And if Mr. Shelton had 
done nothing else than to write this book, he would have lived to good purpose. 
"We think the story will be read when he ceases to be heard. — iretuzus. — JV^io 
York Observer, 


With 13 fine Steel Engravings. 

1 vol. 8vo, cloth, . - $2 00 

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1 Tol. 12mo. Illustrated. Full cloth, - * - - 

« « « gilt edges, - 

Ivol. ISmo. "Without the Plates. Sunday-school Edition, 


This WOTk may very properly he considered a companion to the " Sacred 
M(yimtams,^^ by the same author. Its object is to illustrate and "render more life- 
like" the Sacred Writings. It is not the author's design to supersede the Bible ; 
but his wish is to excite a solicitude to obtain, and to become intimately acquainted 
«nd perfectly familiar with its history, doctrines, and laws ; to know its truth, to im- 
bibie its spirit, feel its povrer, and partake of its salvation ; in a word, to prize, in some 
measure, as it deserves, this treasure, which is Indeed beyond price. We predict 
for it a circulation far beyond any of the author's former works. — TTie News. 

This work will add greatly to the reputation of the author. In literary merit, 
it more than equals his " Sacred Mountains." Mr. Headley excels in his glowing 
style and vivid descriptions. His works are a rich treasury of all the sublimity 
of thought, moving tenderness of passion, and vigorous strength of expression, 
which are to be found in all languages by which mortals declare their minds. — 
2)aUy Globe, 



Tol. 12mo. Illustrated. Full cloth, f 76 

** 18mo. Sunday-school Edition, - - • - - 60 


IwLlSma moflfrated. F^lldoth, - - - • • $1 00 

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lvol.l2mo. lUustrated. Full cloth, - - - - . $100 


We have not for a long time sat down to a book with more pleasing anticipa- 
tions, or found those anticipations more fully realized, than in the perusal of the 
■work before us— and we know it will be hailed with gratification by the many ad- 
mirers of the talented author. His " Napoleon and his Marshals" was, perhaps, 
as popular, and found at least as many enthusiastic readers as any book that can 
be mentioned. We think his " Rambles and Sketches" are destined to be as popu- 
lar at least as any of his previously published works. There is not a dull chap- 
ter in the work, filled as it is with '' an infinite variety." The author has ample 
JFOom and verge enough for the employment of his fine talents to great advantage 
—and most successfuUy has he accomplished the task. The biographical sketch 
of the author is interesting and " well considered," and adds much to the value 
of the book, which is got up in a very neat and attractive style by the publisher. — ■ 
Portland Tra/riscript. 

Mr. Headley is one of the most promising writers of this coimtry, and we have 
here one of his best books — one on which he can safely rest his fame. It possesses 
the unfatiguing charms of perfect simplicity and truth. There is a graceful frank- 
ness pervading the composition, which engages the interest of the reader in the 
author as well as in the subject. His rambles about Korae, Paris, and London, 
exhibit a thousand hvely traits of an ingenious nature, upon which a man of taste 
will deUght to linger. We predict for this a sale equal to that of any of the author's 
works. — New York News. 


With a Portrait of each. Engraved on Steel. 




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WITH HIS li:fe. 

1 Yol. 18mo. Illustrated, - - - - « - -|0 50 

" " gilt edges, extra, - - . . 75 


The collection is one of which no author need be ashamed. It consists, indeed, 
of some of Mr. Headley's most brilliant and highly-finished compositions — of those 
specimens of his abilities by which he may be judged with the greatest safety to 
ins fame as a word-painter and thinker.— iV^^io York '^^-''^ 


Or, the Plenary Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures, 


(Translated by Rev. E. N. Kiek). 


1 Tol. 12mo. 410 pages, - - - - - - -$100 

"We wish to maice a very distinct and earnest recommendation to onr clerical 
friends, to teachers in Sabbath-schools, and others engaged in the work of in« 
struction, of a volume entitled, " Theopneusty, or flie Pleno/ry InspiraUon of 
the Holy SoHptures:^ The work is by Professor Gaussen, of Geneva, Switzer- 
land, and the translation by the Eev. E. N. Kirk. It is published by John S. 
Taylor, New York. As an attractive, interesting, powerful, and satisfactory ar- 
gument on the plenary inspiration of the Bible, we regard it as unsurpassed by 
any work in our knowledge designed for popular reading. It is stripped of 
doematic terminology, and is full of faith, and love, and beauty. Our faith in 
^od and in His Holy Word has been refreshed and strengthened by the perusal 
Hi this work. 

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Illustrated with Splendid Engravings, 

I ToL 12mo. New, revised, and enlarged edition, - • ' tt 99 

« « « " gUt edges, extra, - 1 09 


Ji Tale ef Other Times. 


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1 VOL 18mo. aotb, ..--.-- $06& 


1 VOL 18mo. lUustrated, 10 60 


Me. J. S. Tatlob: 

It aflfords me pleasure to learn that you are about to re-publish the little work 
called " Thb Lily op tkb Valley." Since the time it was presented to my daugh- 
ter, by the Eev. Dr. Matheson, of England, it has been a great favorite in my 
family. It has been read with intense interest by marly who have from time to 
time obtained the loan of it. Indeed it has but seldom been at home since its first 
perusaL I doubt not but all who have read it, will be glad of the opportunity of 
possessing a copy. 

The story is not only natural, but instructive, and weU calculated to impress upon 
the mind important moral and religious lessons. Some jxortions of the narrative 
are of the most touching and thrilling character. There is a charming simplicity 
pervading the work. I feel a strong confidence that you will find an ample sale 
for the book. It will find its w?"' into many families, and be found in the libraries 
of the Sabbath school. 'Wiluam Patton. 


Avery interesting little work erf 123 pages. It is a simple, though beautiful, 
narrative of a young female, some portions of which are of the most pathetic and 
affecting character— particularly designed for the edification and instruction of 
young females, and a most excellent work to introduce into Sabbath schools. Its 
tendency is to kindle the flame of piety in the youthful bosom, to instruct the un- 
derstanding, and to warm and improve the heart. Its intrinsic, though unosten- 
tatious, merits, should famish it with a welcome into every family. — ioStes' Mom^ 

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This is a neat and very interesting liltle volume. The narrative throughout will 
be read with pleasure, and some portions of it with thriUing interest. The story 
Is natural, and told in very neat language, and with admirable simplicity. It is 
not only calculated to please and interest tne mind of the reader, hut also to make 
moral and religious impressions upon the heart. We are well assured, if its merits 
were generally known, that it would find its way into many families and Sabbath 
school libraries, as it is particularly adapted to please and engage the attention of 
juvenile readers. — Ilethodist Protestant, Baltimore. 

This is a re-publication of a small narrative volume published in England. The 
narrative is written with beautiful simplicity, possesses a touching, interest, and is 
calculated to leave a salutary impression. It is well fitted for a present by parents 
or friends to children, and is worthy of a place in Sabbath school libraries. — Chrid- 
tia/n InteJMgencer. 


(^Translated from the German of Zchokke.) 

1 vol. 18mo. Cloth, - - - - - - • - - $0 31 

Journal of a Poor Yioar. — Such is the title of a little work translated from 
tke German of Zschokke, and published by John S. Taylor, 143 Nassau street. 
This Journal is said to have been the foundation of Goldsmith's Vicar of Wake- 
field, and certainly it is v/orthy of germing that celebrated work. The author of 
" The Journal of a Poor Vicar," is well known as one of the most affecting of that 
class of German writers, who know so well how to halo humble life with the iris 
of tender and holy sentiment, and this little work is, perhaps, his most successful 
effort. Nothing can be more beautiful, touching, and purifying than the character 
he has drawn of the Poor Vicar and his two daughters. We defy any one, with 
a spark of sentiment, to peruse this Journal without shedding tears. It is a wand 
that exercises the feelings and emotions of the heart, with irresistible potency. We 
have read nothing — not even the Vicar of Wakefield — to equal it. The translator 
has happily presented the spirit of the original. The volume is neatly published, 
and whoever fails to reads it, fails of a great and long to be remembered enjoy- 


Vith Proofs^ thereof out of the Scriptures, in Words at length. 
Per Hundred, $3 00 

The above Books will be forwarded to order, at the prices mentioned, /re^ of 
postage, to any part of the United States, on the receipt of orders, toith tTie money. 

J-OIII^ §• TA"¥ILOIt, PiiMislier, 


N.B. Any valuable Books to be had in New York, fiirnished by J. S. Taylos, 
Rt the lowest cash prices. 

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FROM Stuart's most celebrated painting. 

This large and magnificent FULL-LENGTH POETEAIT of WASHINa 
TON, from the burin of an American Artist, is considered by all who have seen 
it to be one of the most beautiful specimens of art ever published, and a corr 
Ukeness of WASHINGTON. 

The size of the plate is eighteen by twenty-eight inches, which will make a 
handsome picture for the parlor, and should be in the hands of every American 

It is a correct copy from Stuart's celebrated original Painting, now at the State 
House, Hartford, Conn. 

It is finely engraved, and printed on superior plate paper. That it may be 
\vithin the means of all, the Publisher has reduced the price to ONE DOLLAE. 

^^ All persons remitting the amount may rely upon receiving a perfect 
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On St^el, 16 by 22, $1 00 

It is finely engraved, and printed on superior plate paper. That it may be 
within the means of all, the Publisher has reduced the price to ONE DOLLAE, 

^P" AU persons remitting the amount may rely upon receiving a perfect 
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rollers made for the purpose), /r^6 of postage. 

Address all orders (post-paid) to the Publisher, 

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In One Vol. 12mo., 432 Pxges. 


No. 17 Ann Street, New York, 

And for Sale by all Booksellers. 

" At the present period, there are but two great powers in the world, 
the one representing the past, with its attendant burden of ignorance, 
srimes, and miseries, called Catkolicism^ or Romanism ; the other 
3ontending for the present, and foreshadowing the future, known as 
Republicanism, or Liberty, or Protestantism. All other powers, either 
3ivil or religious, are but secondary constellations, moving in various 
orbits around these two principles, according to the amount of Liberty 
or Despotism they contain, 

" The past Boman Catholicism — concealing her fondling, Despotism, 
under the cloak of religion : — the present Kepublicanism — inscribing 
on its broad flag, Liberty, and the regeneration of mankind." 

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6 A JESUIT IN PETTICOATS - -^ ...... 88 




MENT , 143 















24 CONCLUSION » "^12 

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Rfom the New-York Evangelist. 

0ARLOTINA AND THE Jesuits.— A powerftilly wrongfit tale, 
fottMed upon and weaving into its narrative, the scenes of the 
revoltition in Rome in 1848, under the iitloof Carldtina ' and tM 
^nfedestey or- a Night with the Jesuita at Rdme. The principal in- 
terest centers in the heroine Carlotina; but the other characters 
are but thin disguises of the prominent actors in- that scene. — 
Using the vices, arts and terrible power of Popery as the mate^ 
rial, the fervid imagination of the author has produced a story 
o=f exciting and absorbing interest ; while the political and reli- 
gious sentiments it inculcates, are such as Americans cannot help 
aj^provin^,. The reader. gets,. among the. deepest, imppessiona of 
tl^|}, l/ook,, a .pijOfound sense of .the, evilg :and .terrors <^t, ■., Jesuitism, 
a»ic jajjamed far. towards^ thei adoptioiLof iPather ^YAm!s :gTm^ 
ciple, destruction to Popery, 

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From the Christian Parlor Magazirie, 

A book in such an attractive form, so true to nature, will be 
inquired for, purchased and read. The whole tendency is so hap- 
py, the moral and religious tone is so unexceptionable, that we 
earnestly hope it will gain a wider circulation than even Uncle 
Tom's Cabin, that now goes rapidly even in foreign languages. 

Let every one who can obtain this work read it, if for nothing 
else than to thank God for our security against so dreadful a 
snare, and the good fortune of living in a land where civil and 
religious libery are enjoyed unmolested^ May the author of this 
volume be spared to produce another as interesting and as pro- 

I^om the Tribune. — Detroit 

It portrays, vividly and truthfully, the recent struggles of the 
Republicans of Borne, against the damning corruption, lust and 
wickedness of the Jesuitical Priesthood of the Church and Pope 
of Rome, in its efforts to perpetuate ignorance and despotism. 
We heartily wish this little book in every family, and especially 
in the hands of every American citizen, whether Adopted or 
Native, Catholic or Protestant ; for it matters not in what nation 
or creed an American citizen may have been born and educated, 
he owes to the American Government the duty to read, examine, 
and study well the principles upon which that Government is 
founded and must be perpetuated— he owes it to himself to think 
for himself— to scan, compare, and contrast well, in his own mind, 
the teachings of any and every person who would influence him 
in his actions as an American Freeman. 

From the Christian Chronicle — Philadelphia. 

In this book Catholicism in its true nature, and history as the 
enemy of civilization and liberty is sketched in glowing and truth- 
fed terms by a pen highly skilful and eloquent. The author 

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charges the miseries of the past in Papal countries np^n tbds very 
apostate religion, and represents every where, and at all times, as 
in antagonism with republicanism. His strong positions are not 
overwrought, but fully sustained by the facts in the case. We 
are truly glad that one so well qualified has entered on this task. 
The book will do much to open the eyes of the public on the 
character of Catholicism, and to prepare for its successful resist- 
ance as encroachments are continually made. 

JFVom the Christian Observer — Philadelphia, 

The woof of this interesting story is composed of two great 
ideas, which claim the attention of theologians, patriots, and 
statesmen everywhere : 1st. Catholicism in every country where 
it controls the popular mind, is in open antagonism with the pro- 
gress of civilization. It is the foster-mother of ignorance, crime, 
misery, and despotism. 2d. Its direct antagonist power is Re- 
publicanism, inscribing on its broad, open flag the liberation of 

FV^m the Trumpet — Boston, 

Catholicism is on the increase ; it exercises a great influence 
on the destinies of the world. All the countries of Europe are 
more or less swayed, or acted upon, by it. Where Catholicism 
is paramount, civilization is at a low ebb, as in Mexico, South 
America, Spain. Religious liberty decreases under Catholicism. 
That species of religion is double-faced ; it accommodates itself 
to despotism or republicanism to gain its ends, while all the time 
it is striking at the liberties of mankind. To show these expres- 
sive facts is the object of the story before us. The Italian pea- 
santry ; the Signora a Jesuistic agent of priesthood ; the greedy 
host wavering between money and liberty, but finally yielding to 
the latter ; the unflinching patriotism of Adrian, dying for his 
fellow-companions in democracy ; the precocious genius of the 

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4 OPINIONS cyp THi& PR^S^. 

Italian boyv Jeronimo, whose devotedness to fVeedcjm, and repti^ 
naneetojCatholicism foreshadows invivldlfglity the spirit of coniing 
generations ; the innocence, love, and recantation of Oarlbtina; the 
talent, ambition, and passions of Father Francisco, a priest; whose 
eiainent^faeiilties^ forced into a^^v^ong channel by the compressing 
hand of the Ghnroh, were rioting in vices,' instead of progressing 
incvirtuesi;— -alii these charact^s; moving- ill the circle traced 
round them by the principles they professed; are painted in keep- 
ing with the strictest law of the logic of the human mind, and 
also in accordance with time, locality, and the teachings of his- 
tory, the records of the Roman Church, and the late events of 
the Italian Revolution. Let ua have a republican literature. — 
Let us have books which will impress uponthe hearts of the peo- 
ple a love of the institutions of our country, especially our Free 
Schools; and awake them to the dangers with which Catholo- 
cism, surrounds them. 

FVom the LiUrary World, 

It is just in the vein and temper to piquiB curiosity, and set in 
motion all the elements which belong to the two great worlds of 
Protestant and (Roman) Catholic readers. The plot is suflScient- 
ly involved to keep us in a maze,' the incidents crowd on with ac- 
tivity and despatch ,: and altogether the work is done up in a 
style; so vivid and provocative of attention, that all; those who 
niake it a pastime or a business to read, will regard *' Oarlotina ^^ 
asna windfall of the first quality. There is a certain^ foreign ^fla* 
vor in the style which, while it is well suited to the subject, ar- 
rests attention pretty much^ as a, smack of the brogue or dialect" 
doesdn living speech. 

F^om the Western ^Christian Advoca/tei 

The author of the work— Mr. Edmund Farrenc— informs ns 
that he was led to the writing of it by a conviction of the silent, 

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yet greatly-increasing" power of Jestiitistil througliout the world 
at the present time. He has furnished the public with a volume 
of unflagging interest, and none can get up from its perusal with- 
out the conviction of the deep, dark, and ^verlastinglyrhypocritK 
cal character of these intriguers against human freedom and 

Prom the Portland Transcript. 

Cathiolicisni and Desfjotism ! Protestatism aiid Liberty! Tlie^fe 
are the themes of this Wbrfc It exposes the 'Wbi^ings of the 
Clraitjh of Rome, and especially of the Jesuits^ It comprises^ 
mmj facts in regard to the policy of the church, and the condi- 
tion of the Roman people/ As a tale; although th^ author pro* 
fesses ta have drawn '■ his characters from nature, We ' think they 
i^njetimes^ overstep the limits ; the plot is involved; the incidents- 
numerous and exciting, and the whole work is one that- will at- 
tract much attention. Geo, Lord, Exchange St. has it for sale. 

From the Southern Christian Advocate, 

It is designed to exhibit Popery in its moral and political enof^ 
mities, as the enemy of all righteousness, and a veritable child of 
the devil. The scene is in Pontifical Rome ; the time, the revo- 
luticmary outbreak of 1848 *, and the characters, priests and wo- 
men, republicans and aristocrats, and a general grouping of the 
corrupt masses that seem to settle down in the ironically called 
holy city, as the grand reservoir of all the villainous compounds 
of creation supplied by sewers from the corrupt sources of all 
civilized and heathen lands. It seems impossible to transcend 
the limits of truth in depicting the monstrosities of Popery. Im- 
probable as some of the scenes appear, the fathomless abyss of 
Popish deeeivableness of unrighteousness will yet vindicate their 
correctness, and justify the sad memorials of the man of sin. 

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From the Christian Mirror — Portland. 

This is a book wMcli will be read. The scene of the transac- 
tions which it narrates, is Rome and its neighborhood j the tvme 
that of revolution, which caused the Pope to flee. The Sanfedesti 
were a secret society of Jesuits, who plotted every conceivable 
method but honest and upright ones to repress the spirit of liber- 
ty and defeat all efforts to secure it. They even planned and at- 
tempted to execute a St. Bartholomew tragedy. Carlotina is a 
lovely girl, whom a female Jesuit was employed to draw from 
her lover all the plans and secrets of the patriots, even at the cost 
of her own honor— a sacrifice which, happily, the girl was not re- 
quired to make ; her unsophisticated mind yielded to the argu- 
ments of her lover, and she herself became a Protestant. Here 
are many affecting developments of the iniquitous, oppressive, 
and wily character and tendency of the papal system of religion — 
the demorahzing and tragical results, which, in its wo^rking, it 
brings about. 

From the Evening Mirror — New York. 


Such is the title of a work written by Edmund Farrenc, a 
French exile now in this city, and issued from the press of John 
S. Taylor. It is the most thorough and pungent expose of Jes- 
uits and Jesuitism, as the enemies of human freedom, that has 
ever attracted our notice. We shall not attempt an analysis of 
the plot, nor a description of the characters introduced— not 
wishing to subtract from the interest of those who will get and 
read the volume — further than to say the scenes are laid in Italy, 
at the period of the late revolutions, and that the Jesuits, who 
figure everywhere prominently, are convicted of producing; 
through their religious, political, and ruffian organizations, the 
reaction which, beginning with the strangling of the Roman Re- 
public by France, ended in the subversion of every attempt to 
give the masses sovereignty in Europe. 

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English and Austrian diplomacy are exhibited as laboring With 
this Jesuit brood to overthrow liberty and the people. The ori- 
gin, creed, and character -of the Jesuits, sustained by copious ex- 
tracts from their own records, are traced in all their blood-thirsti- 
ness and infamy. The priest-Jesuit ^nd the woman-Jesuit— -the 
latter. Signora Savina, a polished she-devil— are forcibly limned, 
also the -confiding girl-Chorister Carlotina, who, taught to rever- 
ence the church above her consciencCj is beset by the priest to 
worm from her lover, a republican soldier at R<>me, the secrets 
of the republicans, even at the sacrifice of her virtue, is splen- 
didly drawn. 

Ciceroacchia, {Brunetti,,) the great friend of the republicans j 
the noble boy Geronimo, who counter-plots against the she- Jes- 
uit Savina, and the soldier lover of Carlotina, are rare pictures, 
and said to be taken — ^as we may believe — with the general inci- 
dents cof the book, from life and fact The volume abounds with 
descriptive beauties, and is vigorously written throughout. It 
i^ows'that liberty has no enemy so dangerous as the Jesuits of 
the Roman Catholic Church. The volume appears fit a time best 
calculated for it to strike an effective blow ^t the subtle enemy 
of our institutions, at work everywhere around and among us. 
It harmonizes with the eloquent writings of Gavazzi. That it 
will be widely sought and read, we believe, for it is as candi4 
and manful, as it is earnest and pungent. 

FVom the Daily Times — Cincinnati. 

This work is one of the best that has issued from the press of 
the United States. It is well remarked, that Catholicism and Re- 
publicanism are now the two great antagonistic powers of the 
earth. All other powers, either civil or religious, are but secon- 
dary, moving as satelites around these two great centres. Ca- 
tholicism, representing the past, with its ignorance, crimes and 
miseries ; Republicanism, contending for the present, and fore- 
shadowing the future, ^nd having inscribed on its banner^ Liber- 

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^, Equality, and F-ratenaity. This work is deeply interesting', 
and is trnthftil in i*ts delineations of character, scenes and events. 
Read it, and learn to discover the secret schemes and open asK 
sattltsof the agents ctf Despotism. 

FVom the National Democrat — New Yor'k 

If bold "writmg, vigoronB descriptions, an exciting plot, and 
vividly drawn characters will command attention, iit will do it. 
The book has many fascinations of plot and description. The 
sketches of character persuade us that the writer is an acute ob- 
server, a genial thinker, and a man of much humor as well as 
sentiment. The characters are drawn with a masterly hand; 
and the dialogue in general is managed with good effect and dra- 
matic powei:. 

From the Puritan and Recorder — Boston. 

This work regards Catholicism, and Republicanism as the two* 
^eat powers now existing in the world; and of cowse^ it connects 
the ffeed'om and happiness of the world with the dpwnfall of the 
one, and the triumph of the othcB; The characters are for the 
most part admirably sustained ; and the lessons inculcated are so< 
palpable, that no one can mistake them. It is a work of no in- 
considerable talent, and cannot fail to make itself felt in the most 
important controversy of the age. 

From the New York Star, 

This work -is written to illustrate the powerful antagonism of 
CTatholicism to Bepublicanism^, is well written, and in the delinea- 
tion of character, nature has been scrupulously portrayed. Each 
character is complete in itself, and are coincident with the his- 
tory of the Roman Church, and the late events of the Italian 
revolution. The book shouM be in every library, illustrating as 
it does the struggle now waging between the two great ruling 
power? of the earths— religious despotism and liberty^ 

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i^om the Atlas— New York. 

l?he scenes so "nvidly portrayed in this book were enacted in 
Rotiie during the late short an<i sanguinary struggle Sfor liberty 
and rCpubliCanistn in that "Eternal Ci:y/' In our opinion it 
gives a teiy accurate idea of the state of society, and the condi- 
tion of both the coirimon people and the priesthood in that part 
cfif the world. The author takes the ground that the Catholio 
religion is the natural enemy of liberty and the destroyer of ro- 

>ub)ikaitiism, and of course his book is written in that spirit. It if 

i very interesting work. 

Prom the Daily Advertiser — Brooklyn, 

This book is evidently intended as the embodiment of great 
principles, and is one of those very few works where some fiction 
is well used to portray important truths. The author very well 
says in his introductaon, that at the present pefriod there are really 
imt two powers in the world, the one is Popery ^iid despotism, 
representing the past, with its attendant burden of ignorance, 
crimes, and miseries; the other is Protestantism and liberty, civil 
and sacred, contending for the present, and fore«hMowing the 
future. Th<)se powers he <jonsiders as two grand centres, aroiind 
which all other powers revolve, according to the amount of lib- 
erty or despotism which they contain. These romarks, which, 
for substance, are those of the author, give us a " bird's eye 
view " of the book. The scene is laid in Kome in the year 1849, 
during the struggle for liberty which then took place, and which 
describe, in a most graphic manner, the unholy manoeuvering of the 
Jesuits, male and female, to accomplish their wicked schemes. 
Many of the incidents are truly startling, all are interesting, and 
on the whole, it is one of those books which the man who takes 
it up will be unwilling to lay down until he has finished it 

From Parker^s Journnal—New York. 

This is a noble work, and one well calculated to arouse the at^ 
tention of the community to that great struggle which is being 

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